• Title, Summary, Keyword: Beam Pattern

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A Study on the Measurement of the Beam Pattern of Array Antenna for VHF Radar using Active Beam Pattern Measuring Device and Drone (능동 빔패턴 측정장치 및 드론을 활용한 초단파레이다용 배열안테나의 빔패턴 측정에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Ki-Jung;Lee, Sung-Je;Jang, Youn-Hui
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.1031-1036
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    • 2019
  • This study describes the technique of the beam pattern measurement of array antenna for VHF band radar using drone and active beam pattern measuring device. There is no anechoic chamber for measuring the beam pattern of a large size antenna in the country. In this study, to test the antenna beam pattern characteristics of the developed VHF band radar, the antenna beam pattern characteristics were tested by Drone mounting an Active Beam Pattern Measuring Device. By comparing the results of the pre-simulation analysis with the measured results for the antenna, we could confirm that the beamwidth and side-lobe characteristics are satisfactory. Through the antenna beam pattern measurement technology using Drone and Active Beam Pattern Measuring Device, the beam pattern measurement technology of array antenna of low frequency band and large antenna for low band radar will be used.

A Study of Broad-band Conformal Beam Forming using Moving Least Squares Method (Moving Least Squares 기법을 이용한 광대역 컨포멀 빔 형성 연구)

  • Jung, Sang-Hoon;Lee, Kang-In;Jung, Hyun-Kyo;Chung, Young-Seek
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.68 no.1
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2019
  • In this paper, beam forming using moving least squares method (MLSM) is studied. In the previous research, the least squares method (LSM), one of the data interpolation methods, was used to determine the desired beam pattern and obtain a beam pattern that minimizes the square of the error with the desired beam pattern. However, LSM has a disadvantage in that the beam pattern can not be formed to satisfy the exact steering angle of the desired beam pattern and the peak sidelobe level (PSLL) condition. To overcome this drawback, MLSM is used for beam forming. In order to verify, the proposed method is applied in beam forming of Bezier platform array antenna which is one of conformal array antenna platform.

Fabrication of a Nano Pattern Using Focused Ion Beam (집속이온빔을 이용한 나노 패턴 형성)

  • Han J.;Min B.K.;Lee S.J.;Park C.W.;Lee J.H.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.1531-1534
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    • 2005
  • Nano pattern is being utilized to produce micro optical components, sensors, and information storage devices. In this study, a study on nano pattern fabrication using raster-scan type Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling is introduced. Because the intensity of ion beam has Gaussian distribution, the overlapping of the Gaussian beam results in a 3D pattern, and the shape of the pattern can be adjusted by variation of FIB milling parameters, such as overlap, ion dose, and dwell time. The Gaussian shape of single beam intensity has been investigated by experiment, and 3D nano patterns with pitch of 200nm generated by FIB is demonstrated.

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Fabrication of Master for a Spiral Pattern in the Order of 50nm (50nm급 불연속 나선형 패턴의 마스터 제작)

  • Oh, Seung-Hun;Choi, Doo-Sun;Je, Tae-Jin;Jeong, Myung-Yung;Yoo, Yeong-Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.134-139
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    • 2008
  • A spirally arrayed nano-pattern is designed as a model pattern for the next generation optical storage media. The pattern consists off types of embossed rectangular dot, which are 50nm, 100nm, 150nm and 200nm in length and 50nm in width. The height of the dot is designed to be 50nm. The pitch of the spiral track of the pattern is 100nm. A ER(Electron resist) master for this pattern is fabricated by e-beam lithography process. The ER is first spin-coated to be 50nm thick on a Si wafer and then the model pattern is written on the coated ER layer by e-beam. After developing this pattern written wafer in the solution, a ER pattern master is fabricated. The most conventional e-beam machine can write patterns in orthogonal way, so we made our own pattern generator which can write the pattern in circular or spiral way. This program generates the patterns to be compatible with the e-beam machine from Raith(Raith 150). To fabricate 50nm pattern master precisely, a series of experiments were done including the design compensation for the pattern size, optimization of the dose, acceleration voltage, aperture size and developing. Through these experiments, we conclude that the higher accelerating voltages and smaller aperture size are better for mastering the nano pattern which is in order of 50nm. With the optimized e-beam lithography process, a spiral arrayed 50nm pattern master adopting PMMA resist was fabricated to have dimensional accuracy over 95% compared to the designed. Using this pattern master, a metal pattern stamp will be fabricated by Ni electro plating for injection molding of the patterned plastic substrate.

Study on the Beam Pattern Compensation with Planar Active Phased Array Antenna (평면형 능동위상 배열안테나 빔 패턴 보상에 관한 연구)

  • Chon, Sang-Mi;Na, Hyung-Ki;Ahn, Chang-Soo;Kim, Seon-Joo
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.217-222
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    • 2014
  • This paper discusses about the beam pattern distortion caused by the failures of some antenna modules in the active array antenna and analyses the possibility of improvement through applying the beam pattern compensation method previously studied. The beam pattern distortion which is mostly represented as an increase of the sidelobe level, can be suppressed through re-synthesizing each module's magnitude and phase. This method was applied to the prototype of active array antenna system, and the results of antenna pattern distortion and compensation were analyzed and measured in the Near Field Chamber. Array failures are generally divided into random TR module failures and TRU(TR Unit: combination of TR modules, Beam Computation module, Power supply module) failures. The results of beam pattern compensation were analyzed in each failure and compared to the results of the simulation. The beam pattern compensation results applied to the real active antenna array system showed the similar to the simulation results. Consequently, it was verified the beam pattern could be compensated with the magnitude and phase adjustment of other normal antenna modules.

A Method for Evaluation of Mechanical Accuracy of a Teletherapy Machine Using Beam Directions (방사선 진행방향을 이용한 원격치료장치의 기계적 정확성 평가방법)

  • 강위생
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.53-64
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    • 1996
  • Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to develop a theoretical basis that the beam directions should be considered when the mechanical accuracy of teletherapy machine is evaluated by the star pattern test, to develop methods using asymmetric field in length to simulate beam direction for the case that beam direction does not appear on film. Method: In evaluating mechanical rotational accuracy of the gantry of teletherapy unit by the star pattern test, the direction of radiation beams was considered. A star pattern using some narrow beams was made. Density profiles at 10cm far from estimated gantry axis on the star pattern were measured using an optical densitometer. On each profile, one coordimate of a beam axis was determined. A pair of coordinates on a beam axis form an equation of the axis. Assume that a unit vector equation omitted is with same direction as radiation beam and a vector equation omitted is a vector directing to the beam axis from the estimated gantry axis. Then, a vector product equation omitted ${\times}$ equation omitted is an area vector of which the absolute value is equal to the distance from the estimated gantry axis to the beam axis. The coordinate of gantry axis was obtained by using least-square method for the area vectors relative to the average of whole area vectors. For the axis, the maximum of absolute value of area vectors would be an accuracy of the gantry rotation axis. For the evaluation of mechanical accuracies of collimator and couch axes for which beam direction could not be depicted on a star pattern test film, narrow beams asymmetric in field length was used to simulate beam direction. Result: For a star test pattern to evaluate the mechanical accuracy of rotational axes of a telectherapy machine, the result considering beam direction was different from that ignoring beam direction. For the evaluation of mechanical accuracies of collimator and couch axes by means of a star pattern test, narrow asymmetric beams could simulate beam direction. Conclusion: When a star pattern test is used to evaluate the mechanical accuracy of a teletherapy unit, beam direction must be considered or simulated, and quantitatively evaluated.

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Performance Experiment of Electron Beam Convergence Instrument (Finishing 용 전자빔 집속 장치의 성능 실험)

  • Lim, Sun Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Laser Processing
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.6-8
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    • 2015
  • Finishing process includes deburring, polishing and edge radiusing. It improves the surface profile of specimen and eliminates the alien substance on surface. Deburring is the elimination process for debris of edges. Polishing lubricates surfaces by rubbing or chemical treatment. There are two types for electron finishing. The one is using pulse beam. The other is using the convergent and scanning electron beam. Pulse type device appropriates the large area process. But it does not control the beam dosage. Scanning type device has advantages for dosage control and edge deburring. We design the convergence and scan type. It has magnetic lenses for convergence and scan device for scanning beam. Magnetic lenses consist of convergent and objective lens. The lenses are designed by the specification(beam size and working distance). In this paper, we evaluate the convergence performance by pattern process. Also, we analysis the results and important factors for process. The important factors for process are beam size, pressure, stage speed and vacuum. These results will be utilized into systematizing pattern shape and the factors.

Fluorescent Pattern Generation on the Fluorescent Photopolymer with 2-beam Coupling Method (2-beam Coupling 방법을 이용한 광 고분자 형광 패턴 형성)

  • Kim, Yoon-Jung;Kim, Jeong-Hun;Sim, Bo-Yeon;Lee, Myeong-Kyu;Kim, Eun-Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.6-11
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    • 2010
  • Fluorescent photopolymer film was prepared with composition containing acrylate monomer, binder, a visible light sensitive photo initiator, and fluorescent anthracene polymer. A fluorescent grating pattern was inscribed on the photopolymer film using a 2-beam coupling method. A 514 nm laser was coupled to generate a beam-interference pattern. A highly fluorescent diffractive line pattern was formed on the fluorescent photopolymer within 30 sec. of exposure. The fluorescence intensity was highly enhanced in the patterned area, possibly due to the change in the environment of the fluorescent polymers by the photo-polymerization of monomers. Under a photo-mask, a gap electrode pattern was formed of fluorescent gratings with a sub-micron scale, which was matched well to the calculated value ($2.5\;{\mu}m$ and $0.6\;{\mu}m$) based on the refractive index of the photopolymer and beam incident angle ($3.4^{\circ}$, $15^{\circ}$) to the photopolymer surface.

Pattern Shape Modulation by Scanning Methods in E-Beam Lithography (전자빔 리소그래피를 이용한 주사기법에 따른 패턴형상 조정)

  • Oh, Se-Kyu;Kim, Seoung-Jae;Kim, Dong-Hwan;Park, Keun;Jang, Dong-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.558-564
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    • 2009
  • To aim at obtaining a correct and fine small pattern by an electron beam lithography several conditions and methods affecting a real pattern shape needs to be investigated. A micro/nano sized pattern shape is sometimes dependent on the scanning method. In this work, four types of scanning methods are implemented and their characteristics are investigated. For a $11\times11um$ pattern, a Zigzag scanning method proves a precise pattern generation. The other ways such as SEM scanning and swirl in-out scanning method result in some distorted pattern shape. It is proved that abrupt change in the pattern generation limits to obtaining a fine and small pattern.

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Direct Patterning of Self Assembled Nano-Structures of Block Copolymers via Electron Beam Lithography

  • Yoon Bo Kyung;Hwang Wonseok;Park Youn Jung;Hwang Jiyoung;Park Cheolmin;Chang Joonyeon
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.435-440
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    • 2005
  • This study describes a method where the match of two different length scales, i.e., the patterns from self-assembled block copolymer (<50 nm) and electron beam writing (>50 nm), allow the nanometer scale pattern mask. The method is based on using block copolymers containing a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) block, which is subject to be decomposed under an electron beam, as a pattern resist for electron beam lithography. Electron beam on self assembled block copolymer thin film selectively etches PMMA microdomains, giving rise to a polymeric nano-pattern mask on which subsequent evaporation of chromium produces the arrays of Cr nanoparticles followed by lifting off the mask. Furthermore, electron beam lithography was performed on the micropatterned block copolymer film fabricated by micro-imprinting, leading to a hierarchical self assembled pattern where a broad range of length scales was effectively assembled, ranging from several tens of nanometers, through submicrons, to a few microns.