• Title, Summary, Keyword: Before and After Study

Search Result 14,376, Processing Time 0.076 seconds

A study on the consumers' attitude toward before and after technique in cosmetic surgery advertisement by kind of surgery (시술 부위에 따른 성형외과의 비포 앤 애프터 광고에 대한 소비자 태도 연구)

  • Lee, Hyun Seon
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
    • /
    • v.23 no.3
    • /
    • pp.529-544
    • /
    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect and potential problem of before and after technique in cosmetic surgery advertisements. This study would draw the positive and negative aspects in executing before and after technique by segmenting the surgical part(eyes, nose, and breast). And this study compared before and after technique with after technique and doctor(expert) endorser. Independent variables of this study are advertisement technique(before and after/after/doctor) and the kind of surgery(double eyelid surgery/ rhinoplasty/mastoplasty). Dependent variables of this study are general attitude toward advertising, hospital believability, ethical judgement toward advertising, intention to cosmetic surgery. This study is run as $3{\times}3$factorial design with 30 subjects per cell, resulting in a total sample size of 270. The result of this study shows that advertising technique in cosmetic surgery advertisement important variable to mediate the effect. This study found that before and after technique was more effective than any other techniques. Also, this study found that the kind of surgery variable should be considered in the execution of cosmetic surgery advertisement. Therefore, the result suggests that the kind of surgery and advertisement technique should be spontaneously considered by cosmetic surgery clinic and advertising regulation organizations for the effective communication way and consumer protection.

The study on the factors which improve skin barrier recovery (피부장벽회복에 영향을 미치는 인자에 관한 연구)

  • Cha, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Yoon-Bum
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.39-45
    • /
    • 2008
  • Objective : Skin barrier protects skin against harmful environment. Its function includes antimicrobial barrier as well as physical barrier. But there are few studies about the factors which improve skin barrier recovery after injury. The aim of this study is to investigate the factors which improve skin barrier recovery. Method : Nine hairless mice was anesthetized by inhalation and we tape stripped them. We used thermometer to know temperature one day ago, before anesthesia, before tape stripping, and after tape stripping. Vapometer was used to know transepidermal water loss before tape stripping, after tape stripping. And we used doppler flowmeter to measure blood flow before tape stripping, after tape stripping. Result : After analyzed data, we concluded that temperature was lower after anesthesia than before anesthesia and after tape stripping than before tape stripping. We could know that transepidermal water loss was lower after tape stripping than before tape stripping and more blood flowed after tape stripping. Conclusion : In our study, it was observed that temperature, transepidermal water loss, blood flow changed after tape stripping. But we thought lowered temperature was pathologic situation, more blood flow was to recover after injury. In traditional korean medicine, cold(寒) and imbalance of blood flow(血行) don't only make many skin diseases, but cold(寒) also obstructs blood flow. So we need to study how to warm cold(寒) and improve blood flow.

  • PDF

The Effect of a Taping on Muscle Strength, and Proprioception in Ankle (테이핑에 따른 발목 근력, 고유수용성감각에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
    • /
    • v.3 no.4
    • /
    • pp.225-233
    • /
    • 2008
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of muscle strength, ROM and proprioceptive function as before & after ankle taping in soccer players. For this study fifteen sports club whose had no ankle injuries were volunteered. Methode : Fifteen healthy male in soccer players participated in this study. Biodex pro system3 was used to measure isokinetic muscle strengths at $60^{\circ}$/sec angular velocity. Performances of ankle joint were measured peak torque, total work, average power, total work. To measure proprioceptive function used goniometer. Results : 1. proprioceptive sensation error were significantly differences by before & after taping(p<.05). 2. Compare of total work of dorsi flexion plantar flexion weren't significantly differences by before & after taping(p>.05). 3. Compare of average power of dorsi flexion weren't significantly differences by before & after taping(p>.05). 4. Compare average power of plantar flexion were significantly differences by before & after taping(p<.05). 5. Compare average peak torque of dorsi flexion weren't significantly differences by before & after taping(p>.05). 6. Compare average peak torque of plantar flexion were significantly differences by before & after taping(p<.05). Conclusion : Taping can have propriocetive aberrative angular measure, power & peak torque of plantar flexion were significantly differences. But, total work of dorsi flexion plantar flexion and power & peak torque of dorsi flexion weren't significantly differences.

  • PDF

A Study on the Prevention of Healthcare Associated Infection in Chest PA Projection of Contact Infected Patients (접촉성 감염환자 흉부검사 시 의료관련감염 예방에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Won;Kim, Dong-Jin;Lee, Bae-Won
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
    • /
    • v.41 no.4
    • /
    • pp.297-304
    • /
    • 2018
  • This study proposes measures and methods to reduce healthcare associated infections by comparing and analyzing the bacterial contamination level before and after putting on personal protective equipment (PPE) on the test equipment and the contact infected patients getting chest PA projections. Among the 50 inpatients who were diagnosed with C. difficile, MRSA, and VRE, 28 patients who were instructed to undergo chest PA projection and follow-up were chosen, The 3 parts that come in contact with the detector, chin, chest, and hands, were designated for all, and the bacterial contamination level before and after disinfection and before and after putting PPE was determined. Statistical analysis was performed using Medcalc version 14, and quantitative analysis was performed using paired student t-test, with statistical significance being noted at p<0.05. Results for the comparison of the mean values before and after disinfection of the detector, chin (3.000), chest (2.000), and hands (3.430), showed that the number of bacteria after disinfection was lower than it was before disinfection. Analyzing for each part before and after disinfection, there were statistically significant differences for the chin, chest, and hands (p<0.01). Results for the comparison of the mean values before and after putting on PPE, chin (2.202), chest (2.140), and hands (4.213), showed that the number of bacteria after putting on PPE was lower than it was before putting on PPE. Analyzing for each part before and after putting on PPE, there were statistically significant differences for the chin, chest, and hands (p<0.03). As a result, it was confirmed that the number of bacteria after putting on PPE was lower than it was before putting it on. In the future, expanding the research scope for contact infected patients will establish standards for quarantine guidelines depending on the way it spreads, and contribute to the prevention of healthcare associated infections.

A comparative study on the bite force after modified Widman's flap (변형 Widman 판막 술식 치료 전후의 최대 교합력 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Paek, Sang-Jin;Lim, Sung-Bin;Chung, Chin-Hyung;Hong, Ki-Seok
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
    • /
    • v.35 no.2
    • /
    • pp.371-381
    • /
    • 2005
  • The masticatory function of tooth is maintained by the periodontal health, and periodontal health is also maintained by the masticatory function. Bite forces are withstanded by the PDL, and this thought to be through the viscoelastic theory. Mobility test and Bite force test are used to evaluate the viscoelastic theory of the PDL. In this study, the bite force test was used. In the same conditions of quantity of the supporting tissue, the maximum bite force according to the quality of the supporting tissue was evaluated. The study was conducted on 40 patients with moderate adult periodontitis, who were indications to the modified widman flap treatment. The maximum bite force in the premolar and molar regions were tested before treatment, 3weeks and 4 weeks after treatment. and the results were as follows. 1. In the premolar region, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment showed higher maximum bite force than before treatment. And in the molar region the maximum bite force decreased 3 weeks after treatment, but increased after 4 weeks, compared to before treatment. 2. In the 1st premolar, there were only significant difference between before and 3 weeks after treatment, and between and 4 weeks after treatment. 3. In the 2nd premolar, there were only significant difference between before and 3 weeks after treatment, and between and 4 weeks after treatment. 4. In the 1st molar, there were no significant difference between before, 3 weeks after treatment, 4 weeks after treatment. 5. In the 2nd molar, there were no significant difference between before, 3 weeks after treatment, 4 weeks after treatment. From the results above, it shows that there were improvements in the maximum bite force through specific periodontal treatments, and thus it can be considered in clinical situations, that selection of the prosthodontic material, decisions of extraction, evaluation of the prognosis after periodontal treatment is a helpful method.

A Study on the Effects of VMD (VMD 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, So-Eun;Lim, Sook-Ja
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
    • /
    • v.16 no.5
    • /
    • pp.795-811
    • /
    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is the structural relations will be examined among the VMD image of clothe stores, emotional reactions of brand awareness, brand image, brand attitude, and purchase intention. An empirical study in experimental design was conducted to female college students in their twenties, who made a huge influential group in the fashion industry, by considering the VMD characteristics of clothing shops. It measured the effects of VMD based on the changes to the consumer attitude before and after the VMD renewals, the correlations between brand recognition and VMD, and the influences of VMD on brand recognition and image, which were considered as important factors in creating brand assets. The research findings were as follows: 1. There were differences in emotional reactions according to the VMD image changes before and after renewal. Considering that the consumers recognized the VMD changes before and after renewal and showed different emotional reactions, the VMD image seems to be a major variable affecting their emotions. 2. As for the changes to the VMD image and brand image before and after renewal, the consumers recognized the VMD changes before and after renewal and consequently recognized the brad images differently, which implies that brand image can vary according to the effects of VMD renewal and changes to the VMD image.

  • PDF

A Study on the Changing in Self-esteem and Depression of Nursing College Students after Voluntary Program (사회봉사 교과목 수강전후 간호학생들의 자아존중감 및 우울에 관한 연구)

  • Park Hoo Nam
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.304-317
    • /
    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of the voluntary program experience with curriculum on self-esteem and depression in nursing college students. The research design utilized in this study was one group pre test-post test design. The data were gathered two times with questionnaire. First data were gathered before voluntary activity. And second data were gathered after instruction and five times voluntary activity. The data were analized by frequency, paired t-test. t-test. and ANOVA using the SAS program. The results were as follows 1. After the activity the scores of self-esteem were significantly higher than before the activity. 2. After the activity the scores of depression were significantly lower than before the activity. 3. The relationship between self-esteem and depression were negatives in both before and after the activity. 4. Before voluntary activity the scores of self-esteem in the class choosing the Culture Exploration were significantly high. but after the activity the scores of self-esteem were not significantly different. 5. As opinion on attendance of lecture class of voluntary activity program. before voluntary activity the scores of depression were not significantly different. but after the activity the scores of depression were significantly different.

  • PDF

A Comparison of Death Orientation in Student Nurses before and after Studying a Major (일 간호대학생들의 전공학습 전과 후 죽음에 대한 성향비교)

  • Choi Soon-Hee;Lee Eun-Ju;Park Min-Jung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
    • /
    • v.9 no.3
    • /
    • pp.424-433
    • /
    • 2002
  • This study was done to compare death orientation scores for student nurses before and after studying a major. The participants were 130 student nurses before the major and 123 student nurses after the major at C university in Kwang Ju city. The data were gathered from March, 1998 to September, 2001 using a questionnaire. The data were analysed by Chi square test, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficients. The results of this study are summarized as follows ; 1 The mean scores for death orientation before and after the major were 57.8 and 60.2 respectively. The mean score of death orientation after the major tended to be higher than before but they were not significantly different. 2. There were significant differences in death orientation scores between the two groups before the major for 'physical function (F=3.83, p=.023)' and 'attending a lecture on spiritual nursing (F=2.58, p=.010)'. After the major there were significant difference for 'feeling of health (F=4.76, p= .001)'. 3. The death orientation scores before the major showed an inverse correlation with religiosity score (r=-.239, p=.006). After the major there was no correlation with religion.

  • PDF

Change of Static and Dynamic Foot Pressure after Trunk Stabilization Exercises in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy (체간 안정화 운동 후 경직형 양하지 뇌성마비 아동의 정적, 동적 족저압의 변화)

  • Yeom, Ju-No;Lim, Chae-Gil
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.274-279
    • /
    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the change of static and dynamic foot pressure on trunk stabilization exercise in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Methods: This study examined five male children participants ages 10~14 years old with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. All subjects participated in a 6-week sling exercise program for trunk stabilization; the exercise was performed three times per week and each session lasted 50 minutes. The subjects were measured for static and dynamic foot pressure and bilateral symmetry of both feet before and after the trunk stabilization exercise. Results: The static foot pressure increased significantly before and after the trunk stabilization exercise (left foot: before $0.41{\pm}0.02%BW/cm^2$ after $0.79{\pm}0.02%BW/cm^2$, right foot: before $0.14{\pm}0.03%BW/cm^2$, after $0.43{\pm}0.44%BW/cm^2$) (p<0.05) and bilateral symmetry of both feet increased (before $0.27{\pm}0.18%BW/cm^2$, after $0.37{\pm}0.05%BW/cm^2$) with more weight shift on left foot than right foot, but was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The dynamic foot pressure increased (left foot: before $2.58{\pm}0.44%BW/cm^2$, after $3.40{\pm}0.31%BW/cm^2$, right foot: before $2.75{\pm}0.19%BW/cm^2$, after $3.26{\pm}0.18%BW/cm^2$) with more weight shift on right foot than left foot, but was not statistically significant (p>0.05), and bilateral symmetry of both feet decreased (before $0.31{\pm}0.36%BW/cm^2$, after $0.13{\pm}0.20%BW/cm^2$) (p<0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the trunk stabilization exercise has a positive impact on static and dynamic foot pressure in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

A Study on the Change of Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging and Skin Resistance Variability before and after Treatment of Dysmenorrhea (월경통 치료 전과 후의 적외선체열영상 및 피부저항변이도 변화에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyeon-Ju;Lee, Yong-Hyun;Sohn, Young-Joo
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.88-103
    • /
    • 2013
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of oriental diagnosis and treatment for dysmenorrhea patients on lower abdominal temperature and Skin Resistance Variability(SRV). Methods: We studied twenty-five dysmenorrhea patients, who visited Oriental Medicine Hospital of ${\bigcirc}{\bigcirc}$ University for 10 months(Sep. 2011~Jun. 2012). Patients with organic disease such as endometriosis, uterine myoma and pelvic inflammatory disease were excluded from this study. We prescribed 3 types of treatments, herbal medicine, acupuncture, and moxibustion, for one menstrual cycle. Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging(DITI), 7-Zone-Diagnostic System(CP-6000A), VAS(Visual analog scale) and MVRS(Multidimensional verbal rating scale) were conducted before and after the treatment. The result of DITI, 7-Zone-Diagnostic System, VAS and MVRS before and after treatment were compared in order to objectively assess the therapeutic effect. Results: When we compared the results of DITI, CV4 temperature after treatment was increased compared with that of before, and temperature difference between CV12 and CV4 after treatment was decreased compared with that of before. But there was no significant difference. When we compared the results of 7-Zone-Diagnostic System at 1st and 2nd trial, the height of 1~5 area was lower than that of before. And at 1st and 2nd trial, the height of 6, 7 area was higher than that of before, but there were no significant difference in most. When we compared the results of VAS and MVRS, VAS and MVRS after treatment was significantly decreased compared with that of before(p<0.01). Conclusions: This study shows that oriental diagnosis and treatment for dysmenorrhea patients affects the results of DITI. Further study will be needed.