• Title, Summary, Keyword: Belief Bias

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The Effect of task-irrelevant affective priming on belief-bias (과제 무관련 정서 점화가 신념편향에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Youngji;Woo, Hyunjung;Lee, Yoonhyoung
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.43-64
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of the current study is to investigate how task-irrelevant affective priming affects higher cognitive function. In the study, we selected prime stimuli from International Affective Picture System(IAPS) and examined if they influence participants' performance of syllogistic reasoning task when they are task-irrelevant. In Experiment 1, arousal of IAPS stimuli was controlled while valence of the stimuli was manipulated. In Experiment 2, valence of IAPS stimuli was controlled while arousal of stimuli was manipulated. In both experiments, task-irrelevant affective primes were followed by syllogistic reasoning tasks consisting of three sentences and measured accuracies of task performance. The results showed that valence of affective prime affected logical validity of reasoning and belief-bias whereas arousal of affective primes did not yield any difference. That is, positive valence facilitated logical and analytic processing by reducing belief-bias while arousal did not affect reasoning task performance. These results suggest that dimensions of valence and arousal independently influence higher cognitive function.

The Effects of the Consumers' Beliefs of Seafood Certifications on The Behavioral Intention Biases in Making Certified Product purchases : Focused on Seasoned Laver (수산식품인증제도에 대한 소비자 신념이 구매의도 편향성에 미치는 영향:조미김을 사례로)

  • Park, Jeong-A;Jang, Young-Soo
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.71-92
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    • 2016
  • This study examines the effects of consumer beliefs for food certifications on the behavioral intentions and the behavioral intention biases to purchase the certified seafoods by a subjective probability model which is on the basis of the mathematical probability model and the covariance model. The food certifications used on this study are 'Organic foods', 'Traceability system of food products' and. 'HACCP'. The representative foods of fishery products on this study is seasoned laver. The current study showed the following results. First, consumers have more than two different beliefs each for all certifications which are the subjects of this study. The beliefs of the certifications have an impact on the consumers when they consider to buy the certified seafood products. Second, consumers try to persuade by themselves to ensure that their particular belief about the certification could lead to a purchase the seafood products. Consumer beliefs of the "environmentally friendly production" on the organic foods certification is an important factor as much as the "guarantee of food safety" belief making a positive purchasing behavior intentions(PBI) bias for the organic seafood products. Consumers also have a positive PBI bias for certified seafood products in all certifications as long as a certification is considered to "guarantee the transparency of the food distribution process" as its belief. 'Traceability system' was the only one which didn't generate a positive PBI bias from the belief of "guarantee of food safety" out of three certifications.

The Effects of Consumer Beliefs for Food Certifications on Purchasing Intention Biases for the Certified Agricultural Products - A Case Analysis based on Tofu - (인증농산물의 구매편향성에 관한 연구 - 두부를 사례로 -)

  • Park, Jeong-A;Jang, Young-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.952-961
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study is to examine the effects of consumer beliefs regarding three food certifications on their behavioral intention and the behavioral intention biases to purchase (purchasing intention biases) certified agricultural products as predicted by a subjective probability model. The food certifications used for this study are 'Organic food', 'Traceability system of food products,' and 'Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)'. Tofu (bean curd) was selected as being representative of agricultural food products, for the purposes of this study. In 2016, we surveyed 243 consumers regarding the strength of their belief regarding their prior beliefs relative to each certification, as well as the strength of their intention to purchase certified tofu based on their belief strengths for this study. The study resulted in the following findings: Firstly, consumers hold more than two different prior beliefs for each of the three certifications included in this study. Consumers' prior beliefs regarding these certifications have an impact on their consideration as to whether they plan to buy those certified agricultural products. Secondly, consumers try to persuade themselves to ensure that their particular belief about the product's certification could lead to a purchasing decision regarding that agricultural product.

Escape Theory Approach to Consumers' Belief Biases (소비자의 신념편향에 대한 도피이론적 접근)

  • Han, Woong-Hee
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.411-421
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the effect of cognitive narrowing on the consumers' belief biases in the light of the escape theory. Current study researched the relationship between the cognitive narrowing and the consumers' belief biases. The result of this study is as below. The degree of the consumers' belief biases is higher when the degree of the cognitive narrowing is higher than lower. On the basis of this result, theoretical and practical implications were suggested and the limitations and future research were discussed.

Enhancement program of social information processing based on metacognitive training for Schizophrenia patients

  • Park, Sungwon
    • International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.96-102
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of applying a program to enhance social information processing ability in schizophrenic patients. We confirmed the positive effects of the program on the theories of mind and attribution style, which are the social information elements of patients, and confirmed the effect of decreasing paranoid ideation. We used the theory of mind(hinting task, the false belief task), the attributional style questionnaire(external bias, personal bias), and the paranoia scale to test the effectiveness of the program. Specifically, in theory of mind, hinting task performance was improved(t=4.14, p=.000),. The scores of personal bias(t=-7.9, p=.000) and paranoid ideation(t=-2.98, p=.004) decreased. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of meta - cognitive training to enhance social information processing.

Exploring Cognitive Biases Limiting Rational Problem Solving and Debiasing Methods Using Science Education (합리적 문제해결을 저해하는 인지편향과 과학교육을 통한 탈인지편향 방법 탐색)

  • Ha, Minsu
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.935-946
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    • 2016
  • This study aims to explore cognitive biases relating the core competences of science and instructional strategy in reducing the level of cognitive biases. The literature review method was used to explore cognitive biases and science education experts discussed the relevance of cognitive biases to science education. Twenty nine cognitive biases were categorized into five groups (limiting rational causal inference, limiting diverse information search, limiting self-regulated learning, limiting self-directed decision making, and category-limited thinking). The cognitive biases in limiting rational causal inference group are teleological thinking, availability heuristic, illusory correlation, and clustering illusion. The cognitive biases in limiting diverse information search group are selective perception, experimenter bias, confirmation bias, mere thought effect, attentional bias, belief bias, pragmatic fallacy, functional fixedness, and framing effect. The cognitive biases in limiting self-regulated learning group are overconfidence bias, better-than-average bias, planning fallacy, fundamental attribution error, Dunning-Kruger effect, hindsight bias, and blind-spot bias. The cognitive biases in limiting self-directed decision-making group are acquiescence effect, bandwagon effect, group-think, appeal to authority bias, and information bias. Lastly, the cognitive biases in category-limited thinking group are psychological essentialism, stereotyping, anthropomorphism, and outgroup homogeneity bias. The instructional strategy to reduce the level of cognitive biases is disused based on the psychological characters of cognitive biases reviewed in this study and related science education methods.

Forecasting the Precipitation of the Next Day Using Deep Learning (딥러닝 기법을 이용한 내일강수 예측)

  • Ha, Ji-Hun;Lee, Yong Hee;Kim, Yong-Hyuk
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 2016
  • For accurate precipitation forecasts the choice of weather factors and prediction method is very important. Recently, machine learning has been widely used for forecasting precipitation, and artificial neural network, one of machine learning techniques, showed good performance. In this paper, we suggest a new method for forecasting precipitation using DBN, one of deep learning techniques. DBN has an advantage that initial weights are set by unsupervised learning, so this compensates for the defects of artificial neural networks. We used past precipitation, temperature, and the parameters of the sun and moon's motion as features for forecasting precipitation. The dataset consists of observation data which had been measured for 40 years from AWS in Seoul. Experiments were based on 8-fold cross validation. As a result of estimation, we got probabilities of test dataset, so threshold was used for the decision of precipitation. CSI and Bias were used for indicating the precision of precipitation. Our experimental results showed that DBN performed better than MLP.

Meditating effect of Planned Happenstance Skills between the Belief in Good luck and Entrepreneurial Opportunity (행운에 대한 신념과 창업 기회 역량과의 관계에서 우연기술의 매개효과에 관한 연구)

  • Hwangbo, Yun;Kim, YoungJun;Kim, Hong-Tae
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.79-92
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    • 2019
  • When asked about the success factors of successful entrepreneurs and celebrities, he says he was lucky. The remarkable fact is that the attitude about luck is different. However, despite the fact that the belief that we believe is lucky is actually a dominant concept, there has not been much scientific verification of luck. In this study, we saw good luck not being determined randomly by the external environment, but by being able to control luck through the internal attributes of individuals. This study is significant that we have empirically elucidated what kind of efforts have gained good luck, whereas previous research has largely ended in vague logic where luck ends up with an internal locus of control among internal entrepreneurial qualities and efforts can make a successful entrepreneur. We introduced the concept of good luck belief to avoid confirmation bias, which is, to interpret my experience in a direction that matches what I want to believe, and used a good luck belief questionnaire in previous studies and tried to verify that those who have a good belief can increase entrepreneurial opportunity capability through planned happenstance skills. The reason for choosing the entrepreneurial opportunity capacity as a dependent variable was based on the conventional research, that is, the process of recognizing and exploiting the entrepreneurial opportunity is an important part of the entrepreneurship research For empirical research, we conducted a questionnaire survey of a total of 332 people, and the results of the analysis turned out that the belief of good luck has all the positive impacts of planned happenstance skills' sub-factors: curiosity, patience, flexibility, optimism and risk tolerance. Second, we have shown that only the perseverance, optimism, and risk tolerance of planned happenstance skills' sub-factors have a positive impact on this opportunity capability. Thirdly, it was possible to judge that the sub-factors of planned happenstance skills, patience, optimism, and risk tolerance, had a meditating effect between belief in luck and entrepreneurial opportunity capability. This study is highly significant in logically elucidating that people in charge of business incubation and education can get the specific direction when planning a training program for successful entrepreneur to further enhance the entrepreneurial opportunity ability, which is an important ability for the entrepreneur's success.

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Effects of Non-pharmacological Interventions on Primary Insomnia in Adults Aged 55 and Above: A Meta-analysis (수면장애가 있는 중장년 환자에게 적용한 비약물적 중재의 효과: 메타분석)

  • Kim, Ji Hyun;Oh, Pok Ja
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.13-29
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of non-pharmacological interventions on sleep disturbance amongst adults aged 55 and above. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL and several Korean databases were searched. The main search strategy combined terms including non-pharmacological interventions and presence of insomnia. Non-pharmacological interventions included cognitive behavioral therapy, auricular acupuncture, aromatherapy, and emotional freedom techniques. Methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane's Risk of Bias for randomized studies and Risk of Bias Assessment tool for non randomized studies. Data were analyzed by the RevMan 5.3 program of Cochrane Library. Results: Sixteen clinical trials met the inclusion criteria with a total of 962 participants. Non-pharmacological interventions was conducted for a mean of 5.5 weeks, 7.7 sessions, and an average of 70 minutes per session. The effects of non-pharmacological interventions on sleep quality (ES=-1.18), sleep efficiency (ES=-1.14), sleep onset latency (ES=-0.88), awakening time after sleep onset (ES=-0.87), and sleep belief (ES=-0.71) were significant, and their effect sizes were ranged from moderate to large. However, the effects on total sleep time and insomnia severity were not significant. Conclusion: The findings of the current study suggest that non-pharmacological interventions have a positive impact on attitudes and beliefs about sleep, sleep quality, sleep duration, and sleep efficiency. Therefore, the findings of the study provide an evidence to incorporate various non-pharmacological interventions into nursing practice to improve both sleep quality and quantity in patients with insomnia.

The analysis of structural relationships among authentic leadership, trust for leaders, psychological well-being, and knowledge sharing (진성 리더십, 상사 신뢰, 심리적 웰빙, 지식공유 간의 구조적 관계 분석)

  • Kwon, Sang-Jib;Chung, Jee Yong
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 2016
  • The main purpose of this study is to examine relations among authentic leadership, trust for leaders, psychological well-being, and knowledge sharing. Authentic leadership proposes positive and interactional approach between leaders and subordinates. Authentic leaders are aware of their values and belief, and they keep their personal goals and support their followers. Such behaviors boost psychological well-being, knowledge sharing, and trust for leaders. To analyze the framework proposed, survey data was collected from 164 employees of three companies. In particular, this study designed a robust research method by assessing model fit and avoiding common method bias issues. The empirical results of this study are as follows. Authentic leadership positively influences trust for leaders and psychological well-being. Trust for leaders is shown to have positive impacts on psychological well-being and knowledge sharing. In addition, followers' psychological well-being positively influences knowledge sharing activities. This study contributes to the comprehension of the structural relationships among authentic leadership, trust for leaders, psychological well-being, and knowledge sharing. The results suggest that authentic leadership and trust for leaders were key success factors of building positive mindset and capability of employees in the forms of psychological well-being and knowledge sharing activities.