Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
Modern wooden structures usually are connected with steel fastener type connectors. And joints using multiple connectors in wooden structures will form semi-rigid connection. If connection in wooden structure would be designed to be pinned joint, the underestimate for loads transmitted through connection, would result in the deficient capacity of resistance in connection. And if joints in wooden structures would be assumed to be fully-rigid joint, amount of fasteners needed at the connection could be excessively increased. It will give a bad effect in the view of beauty, constructability and economy. Estimate for the reasonable stiffness of connection might be essential in design of reasonable connection in wooden structure. This paper will suggest analysis modelling technique that can represent approximate stiffness of connections using a common analysis program for double shear connection in order to give help in performing easily the design of wooden structure. It is verified that the suggested approximate analysis modelling technique could represent the behavior in connection by comparing the analysis results with test results for tensile, bending moment.
In this study, the physical, mechanical, structural, and environmental performances based on field measured data were evaluated to check the suitability of concrete for ecological preservation and cultivation of a hydrophilic environment. More specifically, the study is focused on developing an environmentally friendly functional concrete with river ecology restoration and natural river early formation capabilities. The mechanical performance evaluation results showed that the increase in mix rate of the PVA (Poly Vinyl Alcohol) reinforcement fibers and silica fume caused an increase in the strength. The optimal mix rate was found to be 0.05 volume % PVA fiber and approximately 10% silica fume. The frost resistance evaluation showed that superior performance was gained when 0.05 volume % PVA fiber and 15% silica fume was mixed simultaneously. In the structural performance evaluation, the bending strength was improved by 47.7% compared to plain concrete when mixed with 0.05 volume % PVA fiber. The flexural toughness also saw significant improvement. The environmental monitoring of field performance showed that grasses germinated most rapidly, but the growth of red poppies, a plant that germinates in the spring, was most active with passing of time. Coverage measurements in all of the monitoring locations found favorable coverage of over 95% after 12 weeks. The study results showed that the environmentally friendly functional concrete had outstanding environmental performance.
Park, Yonggun;Park, Jun-Ho;Yang, Sang-Yun;Chung, Hyunwoo;Kim, Hyunbin;Han, Yeonjung;Chang, Yoon-Seong;Kim, Kyoungjung;Yeo, Hwanmyeong
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
In this study, green Larix kaempferi lumber was heat-treated by using superheated steam (SHS) at a pilot scale and then various physico-mechanical properties of the heat-treated wood were evaluated and compared with the properties of conventional hot air (HA) heat-treated wood. Decay resistance of brown rot fungi and compressive strength parallel to the grain of the SHS heat-treated wood without occurrence of drying check from green lumber were increased. On the other hand, density, equilibrium moisture content, shrinkage, and bending strength of the SHS heat-treated wood were lower than those of the conventional HA heat-treated wood. Because heat transfer and thermal hydrolysis of SHS heat treatment was accelerated by a large amount of water, the effect of SHS heat treatment on the physico-mechanical properties was higher than that of HA heat treatment at the similar conditions of temperature and time. From the results of this study, because green lumber can be heat-treated without occurrence of cracks or checks by using SHS and similar heat treatment effect on the physico-mechanical properties of wood can be produced despite a low temperature or short time of heat treatment, it is expected that heat time and energy consumption could be reduced by using SHS.
Prakash, Amar;Anandavalli, N.;Madheswaran, C.K.;Lakshmanan, N.
Steel and Composite Structures
In this paper, experimental investigations on high strength steel (HSS) stud connected steel-concrete composite (SCC) girders to understand the effect of shear connector density on their flexural behaviour is presented. SCC girder specimens were designed for three different shear capacities (100%, 85%, and 70%), by varying the number of stud connectors in the shear span. Three SCC girder specimens were tested under monotonic/quasi-static loading, while three similar girder specimens were subjected to non-reversal cyclic loading under simply supported end conditions. Details of casting the specimens, experimental set-up, and method of testing, instrumentation for the measurement of deflection, interface-slip and strain are discussed. It is found that SCC girder specimen designed for full shear capacity exhibits interface slip for loads beyond 25% of the ultimate load capacity. Specimens with lesser degree of shear connection show lower values of load at initiation of slip. Very good ductility is exhibited by all the HSS stud connected SCC girder specimens. It is observed that the ultimate moment of resistance as well as ductility gets reduced for HSS stud connected SCC girder with reduction in stud shear connector density. Efficiency factor indicating the effectiveness of high strength stud connectors in resisting interface forces is estimated to be 0.8 from the analysis. Failure mode is primarily flexure with fracturing of stud connectors and characterised by flexural cracking and crushing of concrete at top in the pure bending region. Local buckling in the top flange of steel beam was also observed at the loads near to failure, which is influenced by spacing of studs and top flange thickness of rolled steel section. One of the recommendations is that the ultimate load capacity can be limited to 1.5 times the plastic moment capacity of the section such that the post peak load reduction is kept within limits. Load-deflection behaviour for monotonic tests compared well with the envelope of load-deflection curves for cyclic tests. It is concluded from the experimental investigations that use of HSS studs will reduce their numbers for given loading, which is advantageous in case of long spans. Buckling of top flange of rolled section is observed at failure stage. Provision of lips in the top flange is suggested to avoid this buckling. This is possible in case of longer spans, where normally built-up sections are used.
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
In this study, the effects of surface oxide film formation on the fatigue behavior of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were analyzed in terms of the corrosion time of the alloy. The aluminum material used is known to have high corrosion resistance due to the passivation phenomenon that prevents corrosion. Aluminum alloys have been widely used in various industrial applications such as aircraft component manufacturing because of their lighter weight and higher strength than other materials. Therefore, studies on the fatigue behavior of materials and passivation properties that prevent corrosion are required. The fatigue behavior in terms of the corrosion time was analyzed by using a four-pointing bending machine, and the surface corrosion level of the aluminum material in terms of the corrosion time was estimated by measuring the surface roughness. In addition, fractographic analysis was performed and the oxide films formed on the material surface were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that corrosion actively progressed for four weeks during the initial corrosion phase, the fatigue life significantly decreased, and the surface roughness increased. However, after four weeks, the corrosion reaction tended to slow down due to the passivation phenomenon of the material. Therefore, on the basis of SEM analysis results, it was concluded that the growth of the surface oxide film was reduced after four weeks and then the oxide film on the material surface served as a protection layer and prevented further corrosion.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the stress thresholds in crack development and the corrected fracture toughness of KURT granite under dry and saturated conditions. The stress thresholds were identified by calculation of inelastic volumetric strain from an uniaxial compression test. The corrected fracture toughness was estimated by using the Level II method (Chevron Bend specimen), suggested by ISRM (1988), in which non-linear behaviors of rock was taken into account. Average crack initiation stress(σci) and crack damage stress(σcd) under a dry condition were 91.1 MPa and 128.7 MPa. While, average crack initiation stress(σci) and crack damage stress(σcd) under a saturated condition were 58.2 MPa and 68.2 MPa. The crack initiation stress and crack damage stress of saturated ones decreased 36% and 47% respectively compared to those of dry specimens. A decrease in crack damage stress is relatively larger than that of crack initiation stress under a saturated condition. This indicates that the unstable crack growth can be more easily generated because of the saturation effect of water compared to the dry condition. The average corrected fracture toughness of KURT granite was 0.811 MPa·m0.5. While, the fracture toughness of saturated KURT granite(KCB) was 0.620 MPa·m0.5. The corrected fracture toughness of rock in saturated condition decreases by 23.5% compared to that in dry condition. It is found that the resistance to crack propagation decreases under the saturated geological condition.
This paper is the forth and fifth one of the study on balanced type oscillating mole drainer. In the light of the results from previous reports about the model tests, some design criteria were established and a prototype machine was set up for experimental purpose. Motion characteristics and functionof the each parts of the machine were checked and analyzed. After that, performance tests of the prototype machine were carried out in thefield. Obtained results are summarized as follows ; 1. Ten centimeter of the bullet diameter was determined so as to be able to attach it to the tractors with capacity of 30 PS to 40 PS. 2. To maintain the balance between the moments of the front shank and rear shank, the oscillating amplitude of the rear bullet was determined to be larger than that of the front bullet. At the same time , the oscillating direction of the rear bullet was designed with the inclines of ten to thirty degrees. 3. An octagonal dynamo transduced was developed for measuring the compressive force of the upper link is measuring the draft force of the machine. Acceptable linear relationship between forces and strain responses from O.D.T. was obtained. 4. Analysing the balancing mechanism of the acting part of the machine , it was found that the total draft force of the machine was equal to the difference between the sum of the draft force produced from the right and left side bending moments of the lower drawber and the compressive force on the upper link. 5. There are acceptable linear relationship between the strain and twisting moment by driving shaft, and between strain and shank moment. Above results enable us to carry out the field experiment with prototype machine. 6. When the test machine was used in the field, it was possible to reduce the oscillating acceleration by forty percent in average as compared it with the single bullet mole drainer. 7. When the test machine was used under the oscillating condition, the dratt torce was reduced by 27 percent to 59 percent as compared it with the test machine under non-oscillating condition, while the draft force was increased by 7 percent to 20 percent as compared it with the mole drainer having oscillating single bullet. The reasoning behind this fact was considered as the resistance force due to the rear shank and bullet. 8. As the amplitude and frequency of the bullet were increased, the torque was increased accordingly. This tendency could be varied with the various characteristics of the given soils. And the larger frequency and amplitute, the more increasing oscil\ulcornerlating power but decreasing draft brce were needed, and draft force was increased as the velocity was increased.9. When the amplitude of the rear bullet was designed to be larger than that of the front bullet, the minimum value of the moment was lowered and oscillating acceleration was reduced. And when the oscillating direction of the rear bullet was declined back\ulcornerwards, oscillating acceleration was increased along with the increasing angle of decli\ulcornernation. When the test machine was operated in high speed, the difference between maximum moments and minimum ones became narrow. This varying magnitude of moments appeared on the moment oscillogram seems to be correlated to the oscillating acceleration and draft force. 10. From the analysis of variance, it was found that those factors such as frequency, amplitude, and operating velocity significantly affected in the oscillating acceleration, the draft resistance, the torque, the moment, and the total power required. And interaction between frequency and amplitude affected in the oscillating acceleration. 11. Within the given situation of this study, the most preferable operating conditions of the test machine were 7 Hz in oscillating frequency, 0.54 m/sec in operating velocity, and 39.1 mm in oscillating amplitude of front and rear bullets. However, it is necessary to select the proper frequency and magnitude of oscillation depending on the soil properties of the field in which the mole drainer is practiced by use of a bal1nced type oscillating mole drainer. 12. It is recommended that a comparative study of the mole drainers would be performed in the near future using two separate balanced oscillating bullet with the one which is operated by oscillating the movable bullet in a single cylinder or other balanced type which may be single oscillating bullet with spring, damper or balancing weight, and that of thing. To expand the applicability of the balanced type oscillating mole drainer in practical use, it is suggested to develop a new mechanism which perform mole drain with vinyl pipe or filling material such as rice hull.
As well known, dowel bars are used to transfer traffic load acting on one edge to another edge of concrete slab in concrete pavement system. The dowel bars widely used in South Korea are round shape steel bar and they shows satisfactory performance under bending stress which is developed by repetitive traffic loading and environment loading. However, they are not invulnerable to erosion that may be caused by moisture from masonry joint or bottom of the pavement system. Especially, the erosion could rapidly progress with saline to prevent frost of snow in winter time. The problem under this circumstance is that the erosion not only drops strength of the steel dower bar but also comes with volume expansion of the steel dowel bar which can reduce load transferring efficiency of the steel dowel bar. To avoid this erosion problem in reasonable expenses, dowers bars with various materials are being developed. Fiber reinforced plastic(FRP) dower that is presented in this paper is suggested as an alternative of the steel dowel bar and it shows competitive resistance against erosion and tensile stress. The FRP dowel bar is developed in tube shape and is filled with high strength no shrinkage. Several slab thickness designs with the FRP dowel bars are performed by evaluating bearing stress between the dowel bar and concrete slab. To calculated the bearing stresses, theoretical formulation and finite element method(FEM) are utilized with material properties measured from laboratory tests. The results show that both FRP tube dowel bars with diameters of 32mm and 40mm satisfy bearing stress requirement for dowel bars. Also, with consideration that lean concrete is typical material to support concrete slab in South Korea, which means low load transfer efficiency and, therefore, low bearing stress, the FRP tube dowel bar can be used as a replacement of round shape steel bar.
The lateral strength test of bending type was done to investigate the lateral capacity of the double bolt connection of domestic larix glulam according to bolt spacing. In the shear specimen, which is bolted connection in the inserted plate type, the hole of bolt was made, changing the diameter of bolt (12 mm and 16 mm), the number of bolt (single bolt : control and double bolt), the direction of bolt row (in parallel to grain : Type-A and in perpendicular to grain : Type-B) and the bolt spacing (Type-A : 4 d and 7 d and Type-B : 3 d and 5 d). Lateral capacity and failure mode of bolt connection were compared according to conditions. In prototype design (KBCS, 2000), the reduction factor of the allowable shear resistance that the bolt spacing is reduced was calculated. The results were as follows. 1) Bearing stress per bolt in the single and double bolt connection of Type-A was directly proportional to bolt diameter and bolt spacing. Bearing stress of Type-B decreased as bolt diameter was increased, and decreased by 2~10% when bolt diameter was increased. 2) In the single bolt connection and the double bolt connection of Type-A, the splitted failure was formed in the edge direction. When the bolt spacing was 3 d in Type-B, bolt was yielded more in the part of tension than in the part of compression, and the splitted failure started at the bolt in the part of tension. In the 5 d spacing specimen, the bolt in the part of tension was yielded similarly to bolt in the part of compression, and the splitted failure started in the part of compression. 3) In the prototype design, the reduction factor was calculated by non-dimensionizing the yielding load in the standard of bolt spacing (Type A : 7 d and Type B : 5 d). In 12 mm bolt connection, the reduction factor of bolt spacing 4 d (type-A) and single bolt connection was 0.87 and 0.55, respectively, and the reduction factor of bolt spacing 3 d (Type-B) and single bolt connection was 0.91 and 0.55, respectively. In 16 mm bolt connection, the reduction factor of bolt spacing 4 d (type-A) and single bolt connection was 0.96 and 0.76, respectively, and the reduction factor of bolt spacing 3 d (Type-B) and single bolt connection was 0.91 and 0.77, respectively.
Jo, Jae-Myeong;Kang, Sun-Goo;Kim, Ki-Hyeon;Chung, Byeong-Jae
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
1. Various gluing qualities applying Resorcinol Plyophen #6000 were studied on aiming the strength relationships of laminated woods resulted by single species [poplar (Populus deltoides), larch(Larix leptolepis)], mixed species of (poplar and larch), preservatives, treated poplar the scarf joint with mixed species of poplar and larch and the scarf joint treated with preservatives. 1. 1 On the block shear and on the DVL tension test, the mean wood failure ratio showed an excellent value i.e., above 65% and the tangential strength for larch was higher than that of radial, but it was reversed for poplar as shown in Tables 1 and 2. 1. 2 The lamina treated with Na-PCP reduced slightly the strength but the limited strength allowed for manufacturing laminated wood was not influenced by treating Na-PCP as shown in Tables 3 and 4. 1. 3 The safe scarf ratio in the plane scarf joint was above 1/12 for larch and 1/6 for poplar regard less of the chemical treatment or untreatment as shown in Tables. 5, 6, 7 and 8. 2. In the normal and boiled state, the gluing quality of the laminated wood composed of single[poplar (Populus deltoides), larch (Larix leptolepis)] and double species (poplar and larch) glued with Resorcinol Plyophen #6000 were measured as follow, and also represented the delamination of the same laminated wood. 2.1 The normal block shear strength of the straight and curved laminated wood (in life size) were more than three times of the standards adhesion strength. And, the value of the boiled stock was decreased to one half of the standard shear adhesion strength, but it was more than twice the standard strength for the boiled stock. Thus, it was recognized that the water resistance of the Resorcinol Plyophen #6000 was very high as shown in Tables 9 and 10. 2. 2 The delamination ratio of the straight and curved laminated woods in respect of their composition were decraesed, in turn, in the following order i. e., larch, mixed stock (larch+poplar) and poplar. The maximum value represented by the larch was 3.5% but it was below the limited value as shown in Table 11. 3. The various strengthes i.e., compressive, bending and adhesion obtainted by the straight laminaced wood which were constructed by five plies of single and double species of lamina i. e., larch (Larix leptolepis) and poplar (Populus euramericana), glued with urea resin were shown as follows: 3. 1 If desired a higher strength of architectural laminated wood composed of poplar (P) and larch (L), the combination of the laminas should be arranged as follows, L+P+L+P+L as shown in Table 12. 3.2 The strength of laminated wood composed of laminas which included pith and knots was conside rably decreased than that of clear lamina as shown Table 13. 3.3 The shear strength of the FPL block of the straight laminated wood constructed by the same species which were glued with urea adhesives was more than twice the limited adhesion strength, thus it makes possible to use it for interior constructional stock.
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