• Title, Summary, Keyword: Benefit Assessment

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Association between Cognitive function, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia and Temporal Lobe Atrophy in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment (알츠하이머형 치매 및 경도인지장애 환자에서 인지기능 및 행동심리증상과 내측두엽 위축의 연관성)

  • Jeong, Jae Yoon;Lee, Kang Joon;Kim, Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to compare severity, neurocognitive functions, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) according to the degree of temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in Korean patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease. Methods : Participants were 114 elderly subjects diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment in this cross-sectional study. MTA in brain MRI was rated with standardized visual rating scales (Scheltens scale) and the subjects were divided into two groups according to Scheltens scale. Severity was evaluated with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). Neurocognitive functions was evaluated with the Korean version of Short Blessed Test (SBT-K) and the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease assessment packet (CERAD-K). BPSD was evaluated with the Korean version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (K-NPI). Independent t-test was performed to compare severity, neurocognitive functions, and BPSD between two groups. Results : The group with high severity of MTA showed significantly lower scores in CDR, SBT-K, MMSE-KC, modified Boston naming test, word list recognition, and word list memory (p<0.05). There were no differences in K-NPI scores between two groups. Conclusions : Severity and neurocognitive functions of dementia had significant positive association with MTA, but BPSD had no association with MTA. Evaluating MTA seems to have potential benefit in diagnosing and treating neurocognitive impairments in the elderly. Further evaluation is needed to confirm the association between certain brain structures and BPSD.

The Changes of Physiologic Parameters with Time in Steroid treated-Late Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients (스테로이드를 투여한 후기 급성호흡곤란증후군 환자에서 시간경과에 따른 생리학적 지표의 변화)

  • Jeon, Ik Soo;Suh, Gee Young;Koh, Won-Jung;Pyun, Yu Jang;Kang, Eun Hae;Ham, Hyoung Suk;Oui, Misook;Chung, Man Pyo;Kim, Hojoong;Kwon, O Jung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.429-438
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    • 2003
  • Background : The mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) is >40-50%. Although some prospective trials have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit of steroids in the early stages of ARDS, there are some reports showing some success with steroids in the later stages. This study observed the changes in the physiologic parameters with time in late ARDS patients who were treated with steroids. Methods : The medical charts of 28 intensive care unit patients(male:female=24:4; mean age 64 years), who had been diagnosed with refractory late ARDS ($PaO_2/FIO_2$ <200) and were treated with corticosteroids from December 1999 to July 2002, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: the weaned group(n=14), which included the patients who had been successfully weaned from a ventilator after corticosteroid therapy, and the failed group(n=14), which included the patients who had failed weaning. The physiologic parameters included the $PaO_2/FIO_2$ ratio, the positive end-expiratory pressure(PEEP) level, the $PaCO_2$, compliance, the sequential organ failure assessment(SOFA) score, the acute physiologic and the chronic health evaluation(APACHE) II score, and the Murray Lung Injury Score(LIS) in the two groups were compared from the day of mechanical ventilation(Dmv) to 7 days after the corticosteroid therapy. Results : There was no significant difference in the clinical characteristics and the physiologic parameters between the two groups prior to the corticosteroid therapy except for the SOFA score at Dmv(weaned group : $6.6{\pm}2.5$ vs failed group : $8.8{\pm}2.9$, p=0.047). However, within 7 days after corticosteroid therapy, there was significant improvement in the $PaO_2/FIO_2$ ratio, the PEEP level, the $PaCO_2$, the SOFA score, the APACHE II score, and the LIS of the weaned group compared to the failed group. Conclusions : During corticosteroid therapy in late ARDS, the continuation of corticosteroid therapy should be determined carefully in patients who do not show improvement in their physiologic parameters by day 7.

The Factors Affecting on the Franchisor's Performance and Its Intention of Recontracting with Franchisees : Focused on the Chinese Franchise Market (프랜차이즈 본부의 성과 및 재계약의도에 영향을 미치는 요인들에 관한 연구 : 중국프랜차이즈 시장을 중심으로)

  • Shuai, Su;Seo, Sang-Yun;Lee, Hoon-Yong
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 2012
  • Franchises have recently emerged as the most rapidly expanding industry positioned to create a large impact in the domestic economic. The Chinese franchise industry developed rapidly in the period prior and subsequent to WTO accession with more than 50% of new franchises brands emerging since 2000. M&A transactions in the Chinese franchise industry have progressed actively. In the period from 2005-2007, due to the wholesale and retail market opening in accordance with the guidelines laid forth within the MOU by the WTO the Chinese franchise market is now the largest market in the world all despite a short history of only 20 years. The amount of franchise market research on China is disproportional to its current size and development potential. Beginning in the 1990s, market research conducted by the International Franchise Association focused on emerging markets in Eastern Europe and China. While the research dealt with the Chinese investment environment, it insufficiently explained the market region and cultural environment. The purpose of this research is (i) to investigate the determinants of the performance of franchise systems in China and (ii) new contract renewals based on performance factors. This study will complement existing research in terms of the franchisee perspective. This study may also prove of the benefit to the franchise companies entering the Chinese franchise market enabling them to develop an effective strategy. This study shows that support, incentives, and system standardization by franchisor yielded a positive effect on management performance. This is consistent with previous studies by Shin (2000) and Kim (2008) targeting Korean franchises. Therefore, in the Chinese market, the franchisor must focus on support, incentives, and system standardization rather than concentrate only on the recruitment of franchisees in order to improve revenue. Hypotheses regarding franchisor control have been dismissed in existing research, in the opinion of this study, due to their complexity and inability to control the merchant as a one-kind-assessment-standard. Our findings show that the franchisees' financial condition, management ability and entrepreneurial spirit, among franchisee's characteristics, have a positive effect on franchisor's business performance and satisfaction for the franchisee. This is consistent with previous studies on headquarters' management performance of Lussier (1996), Heo and Jang (2008), and franchisees' financial condition, management ability and entrepreneurial spirit effect on franchisor's satisfaction of Weaven and Franzer (2007), Kim (2009), Han (2009), and Yoon etc. (2008). Therefore, when permitting a franchisee, financial condition, management ability, entrepreneurship of the franchisee should be carefully considered. Among relational factors between franchisor and franchisee, trust has the positive influence on the management performance of the franchisor while conflict has a negative effect. However, trust, commitment and conflict factors have been shown not to have any impact on the satisfaction of the franchise headquarters. This result is consistent with the previous studies of Pavlou and Ba (2000), Morrison (1999), Weaven and Frazer (2007), Kim and Park (1994), Sohn (2007) which show that trust between franchisor and the franchisees have a positive effect and that conflict has a negative impact on franchisor's management performance. Other factors causing a negative effective on the franchisor's management performance are a rapid environmental changes and uncertainty in the business. This is consistent with Campbell et al (2007), Kim and Kim (2009), Han and Baek (2008). Finally, the high management performance and satisfaction of the franchise headquarters has a positive effect on the intention of franchise renewal. In the case of large markets such as China, the franchisor's strategy and the role is very important. In this study, we also investigated the characteristics of franchisor and franchisee, relationship, and environmental uncertainty affecting on the management performance and satisfaction of franchisor. Recently, Korean franchises are attempting to enter foreign markets through the rise in popularity of Korean culture and entertainment commonly referred to as the Korean wave. This study provides recommendations for Korean franchises intending on entering the Chinese market. First, in order to achieve stable profits, the franchise corporation needs to support the operation of the individual franchisee through incentives and standardization of services. Second, because trust between the franchisor and franchisee has a positive effect on management performance, on-going discussion and cooperation is necessary to reduce the level of conflict.

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