• Title, Summary, Keyword: Benzimidazole Fungicides

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Fungicide Resistance and Genetic Diversity of Botrytis cinerea of Citrus (감귤 잿빛곰팡이병균의 살균제에 대한 저항성 및 유전적 다양성)

  • 고영진;이재군;서정규;문두길;한해룡
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.682-688
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    • 1998
  • Fungicide resistance of 48 isolates of Botrytis cinerea collected from citrus in Cheju was investigated and genetic diversity was analyzed with random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD). High levels of resistance to benzimidazole fungicides benomyl and thiophanate-methyl and N-phenylcarbamate fungicide diethofencarb were observed. Negative cross resistance was clear between benzimidazole and N-phenylcarbamate fungicides, and multiple resistance to the fungicides was also observed. There was cross resistance among the dicarboximide fungicides procymidione, vinclozolin and iprodione as it was observed between the benzimidazole fungicides benomyl and thiophanate-methyl. The lowest levels of resistance were to the dicarboximide fungicides, but no sensitive isolate to polyoxin B was observed. The isolates showed genetically diverse RAPD profiles according to the geographic origin collected, but there was no significant correaltion between RAPD profiles of genomic DNA and the levels of fungicide resistance of the isolates. The isolates showed genetically diverse RAPD profiles, indicating that genetic differentiation had already occurred in the populations of B. cinerea distributed in Cheju.

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Characterization and Genetic Diversity of Benzimidazole-resistant and -sensitive Monilinia fructicola Isolates in Korea

  • Lim, Tae-Heon;Johnson, Iruthayasamy;Cha, Byeong-Jin
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.369-374
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    • 2006
  • To characterize benzimidazole-resistant and -sensitive Monilinia fructicola populations, the fungal isolates were obtained from peach plants showing brown rot and bloosom blight. Benzimidazole-sensitive isolates did not grow on potato dextrose agar(PDA) amended with $\geq1.0{\mu}g$ active ingredient(a.i.)/ml of the fungicides. However, benzimidazole-resistant isolates grew on PDA regardless of the tested concentrations of fungicides. Benzimidazole-resistant isolates did not grow on diethofencarb-PDA, but sensitive isolates grew on the same PDA. In the nucleotide sequences of $\beta$-tubulin gene, only codon 198(GAG: glutamic acid), a target site for benzimidazole, was replaced with GCG(alanine) in all of the resistant isolates, and this substitution seems to play an important role in the development of resistance. Other interesting codons such as 165(GCT), 200(TTC), and 241(GCT) were not changed among the isolates. Benzimidazole-resistant and -sensitive isolates were clustered clearly in random amplified polymerphic DNA analyses and the results revealed that low levels of genetic diversity between benzimidazole-sensitive and -resistant isolates of M. fructicola in the investigated regions.

Risk assessment on cytotoxicity for benzimidazole fungicides (Benzimidazole계 살균제의 세포독성 평가)

  • Lee, Je-Bong;Sung, Pil-Nam;Jeong, Mi-Hye;Shin, Jin-Sup;Kang, Kyu-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.198-206
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    • 2003
  • To assess potential risk of the benzimidazole fungicides, their cytotoxicities were evaluated. Activities of LDH(Lactic dehydrogenase) in the culture fluid of CHL(chinese hamster lung) fiberoblast cell treated with 4.0, 16.0 or $32.0{\mu}g/mL$ of carbendazim for 24 hours were elevated 2.16, 2.94 and 2.64 folds compared to the control, respectively. DNA synthesis was inhibited by 45% at $2.0{\mu}g/mL$ of carbendazim. Benzimidazole fungicides showed high toxicity to cell and mitochondria of CHL cell by Giemsa and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. $IC_{50}$ by the Giemsa assay of thiophanate-methyl, benomyl, carbendazim and captafol were over 125, 1.2, 30.0 and $0.3{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. $IC_{50}$ by the MTT assay of thiophanate-methyl, benomyl, carbendazim and captafol were over 125, 18.7, 20.4 and $2.6{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Inhibitory concentration of cell median proliferation by SRB (sulforhodamin B) assay for thiophanate-methyl, carbendazim, benomyl, and captafol were 17.4, 5.3, 1.5 and $0.5{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Accordingly, benzimidazole fungicides inhibited DNA synthesis, mitochondrial function, cell proliferation and induced cell necrosis.

Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Benzimidazolic Fungicides: Benzimidazole and Thiabendazole

  • Kim, Mak-Soon;Kim, Min-Kyung;Lee, Chul-Jae;Jung, Young-Mee;Lee, Mu-Sang
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.2930-2934
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    • 2009
  • Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is applied to the study of the adsorption of benzoimidazolic fungicides benzimidazole (BIZ) and thiabendazole (TBZ) on silver mirrors. The influence of pH on the adsorption mechanism was investigated. In case of BIZ, two different adsorption mechanisms are deduced depending on the experimental conditions: via the $\pi$ electrons of the ring in neutral conditions and through an ionic pairing of protonated nitrogen atom with the chloride adsorbed on the metal surface. The SERS spectra of TBZ revealed that most molecules were adsorbed on silver surface by the ${\pi}$ electrons in neutral and acidic conditions but in acid conditions, some molecules were adsorbed via the sulfur and nitrogen atoms tilted slightly to the surface.

Incidence of Benzimidazole- and Dicarboximide Resistant Isolates of Monilinia fructicola from Overwintering Mummies and Peduncles on Peach trees (월동 복숭아 미이라 과일과 과병으로부터 분리한 Monilinia fructicola의 Benzimidazole과 Dicarboximide계 살균제에 대한 저항성 밀도)

  • 임태헌;장태현;차병진
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.367-370
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    • 1998
  • Monilina fructicola, the brown rot fungus of stone fruits, was isolated from overwintering mummies and peduncles on peach trees from February to March, 1998. The resistant population of these isolates to benzimidazole (benomyl, carbendazim and thiophanate-methyl) and dicarboximide (iprodione, vinclozolin and procymidone) was examined. Among 417 isolates, the incidence of isolates resistant to benomyl, carbendazim, and thiophanate-methyl were 45 (10.8%), 47 (11.3%), and 46 (11.0%), respectively. Forty two (10.0%) isolates showed cross-resistance to benzimidazole fungicides. On the other hand, the resistant isolates against iprodione, vinclozolin and procymidone were 186 (44.6%), 1 (0.2%) and 150 (36.0%), respectively. Among the isolates, 116 (27.8%) showed cross-resistance to iprodione and procymidone. Moreover, 27 (6.5%) of 417 isolates showed double-resistance to both benzimidazole (benomyl) and dicarboximide (iprodione).

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Changes in Sensitivity Levels of Botrytis cinerea Populations to Benzimidazole, Dicarboximide, and N-Phenylcarbamate Fungicides (잿빛곰팡이병균(Botrytis cinerea)의 Benzimidazole계, Dicarboximide계 및 N-phenylcarbamate계 살균제에 대한 감수성 변화)

  • 김병섭;박은우;조광연
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.693-699
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    • 1998
  • Three three hundred and ninety seven isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from infected plants of strawberry, tomato and cucumber from several areas in Korea during 1994∼1996 and the resistance of these isolates against some fungicides were examined. The isolation frequency of phenotypes resistant to carbendazim, procymidone, and diethofencarb were found to be 69.9 43.7, and 31.8%, respectively. The isolates were divided into six phenotypic groups; SSR, SRR, RSS, RRS, RSR and RRR, representing sensitive (S) or resistant (R) to benzimidazole, dicarboximide, and N-phenylcarbamate fungicides in order. The percentage of six phenotypes were 28.2, 2.0, 27.2, 41.0, 0.9 and 0.8%, respectively. On the basis of the mycelial growth inhibition (%) B. cinerea isolates were divided into three classes (class 1; 0∼50%, class 2; 51-99%, class 3; 100% inhibition) on carbendazim and three classes (class 1; 0∼75%, class 2; 76∼99%, class 3; 100% inhibition) on procymidone and the mixture of carbendazim+diethofencarb, respectively. Changes in sensitivity levles to carbendazim and carbendazim+diethofencarb were affected by introduction and increasing ratio of the use of diethofencarb.

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Responses of Peach Blossom Blight and Brown Rot Fungus Monilinia fructicola to Benzimidazole and Diethofencarb in Korea

  • Lim, Tae-Heon;Kim, Jin-Ho;Cha, Byeong-Jin
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2006
  • The population shifts of Monilinia fructicola isolates which were resistant to the fungicide benzimidazoles were investigated in four regions of Korea from 1998 to 2000. The isolation frequency of benzimidazole-resistant isolates ranged from 18.8% to 29.6% in Chongdo and from $22.0\%$ to $26.8\%$ in Gyeongsan during the same period. However, the frequency of benzimidazoleresistant isolates was less than $4.0\%$ in Chochiwon and Youngduk during the same period. Benzimidazoleresistant isolates showed cross-resistance among benzimidazoles. On the other hand, none of the isolates showed cross-resistance to diethofencarb and carbendazim. Regardless of the year, the benzimidazole-resistant isolates of $EC_{50}$ higher than 500 $\mug%$ a.i./ml were isolated more frequently in mid and late season than in early season. In an orchard of Gyeongsan that had not been exposed to any fungicides for several years, the population of benzimidazole-resistant isolate had persisted without much fluctuation for three years. These results suggest that benzimidazole resistance of M. fructicola is becoming a problem in controlling brown rot and blossom blight of peach in regions like Chongdo and Gyeongsan.

Occurrence of Multiple Resistant Isolates of Botrytis cinerea to Benzimidazole and N-phenylcarbamate Fungicides (Benzimidazole계 및 N-phenylcarbamate계 살균제에 다중 저항성인 잿빛곰팡이병균의 발생)

  • 김병섭;임태현;박은우;조광연
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.146-150
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    • 1995
  • 1994년, 1995년에 주요 채소 작물에서 분리한 잿빛곰팡이병균(Botrytis cinerea)의 방제 살균제에 대한 저항성을 조사한 결과, 1994년 분리된 713균주 중 610균주(85.6%)가 benzimidazole계에 저항성(Ben\ulcorner)이었고, 249균주(34.9%)는 dicarboximide계 살균제에 저항성(Pro\ulcorner)이었으며, benzimidazole계 및 N-phenyl carbamate계 두약제 모두에 저항성인 균주는 분리되지 않았다. 1995년에는 현재까지 520균주를 분리하였는데, 그중 Ben\ulcorner이 317균주(61%)이며 Pro\ulcorner은 214균주(41.2%)이었고, Ben\ulcorner이며 NPC\ulcorner인 균주(Ben\ulcorner+NPC\ulcorner)는 15균주(2.9%)로 나타났다. 이러한 저항성 균주의 최소 억제 농도는 carbendazim 1,000 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml 이상, diethofencarb 1,000 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml 이상이었다. 또 Ben\ulcorner+NPC\ulcorner인 15균주 중 3균주는 dicarboximide계 살균제인 procymidone에도 저항성이었으며, 한 균주를 제외한 모든 Pro\ulcorner 균주는 Ben\ulcorner로 나타났다.

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Analyses of the Less Benzimidazole-sensitivity of the Isolates of Colletotrichum spp. Causing the Anthracnose in Pepper and Strawberry

  • Kim, Yun-Sik;Min, Ji-Young;Kang, Beum-Kwan;Bach, Ngyeun-Van;Choi, Woo-Bong;Park, Eun-Woo;Kim, Heung-Tae
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.187-192
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    • 2007
  • The anthracnose disease on pepper fruits in Korea was caused by Colletotrichum acutatum as well as C. gloeosporioides. Since C. acutatum showed less sensitivity to benomyl, it was analyzed whether the less sensitivity was given by the same mechanism for the fungicide resistance of C. gloeosporioides. The isolates of C. acutatum were less sensitive to the three benzimidazole fungicides tested, benomyl, carbendazim, and thiophanate-methyl. However, the of C. acutatum isolates were different from the resistant isolates of C. gloeosporioides in their response to diethofencarb, one of N-phenyl-carbamates; the former was still less sensitive to diethofencarb than the latter. The differences in the resistance mechanisms in two species were conspicuous in sequence analysis of the tub2 genes. The genes from C. acutatum did not show any non-synonymous base substitutions at the regions known to be correlated with the benzimidazole-resistance. All of these data may indicate that the less sensitivity of C. acutatum to benomyl is based on different mechanism(s) from that of C. gloeosporioides.

Occurrence and Changes of Botrytis elliptica resistant to fungicides (살균제 저항성 백합 잎마름병균(Botrytis elliptica)의 발생과 변화)

  • Kim, Byung-Sup;Chun, Hwan-Hong;Hwang, Young-A
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 2001
  • Five hundred sixteen isolates of Botrytis elliptica were isolated from infected leaves of Lilium longiflorum from Kangwon alpine areas in Korea during tile seasons from 1998 to 2000 and resistance of these isolates against some fungicides were examined. The isolation frequency of phenotypes resistant to benomyl, procymidone, and diethofencarb were 90.1, 32.4, and 40.9%, respectively. The isolates were divided into six phenotypic groups; RSS, RRS, SSR, SRR, RSR and RRR, representing sensitive (S) or resistant (R) to benzimidazole, dicarboximide, and N-phenylcarbamate fungicides in order. The percentage of six phenotypes were 40.7, 8.5, 7.2, 2.7, 19.8, and 21.1%, respectively. The RSS phenotype was the most frequently isolated, and tile SRR consisted of the extremely minor populations. In comparison studies on tile overwintering ability of each phenotype in relation to the others, the most frequently isolated RSS and SSR had the higher fitness ability than the less frequently isolated RSR, SRR, and RRR. Recently, population increase of tile RSR and RRR phenotypes may have resulted from the increased applications of the mixture of carbendazim and diethofencarb to control benzimidazole-resistant B. elliptica since 1998. The results of this study indicate that careful application of the fungicides is necessary to achieve effective control of leaf blight on lily in Korea.

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