The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the experience of married immigrant women who lost their spouse, and it is meaningful in that it examined the empirical perception on the recently newly-focused issue, bereavement of marriage immigrant women, from their perspective for the first time. For this, in-depth interviews were conducted on seven immigrant women who have experienced the death of their spouse and analyzed in Colaizzi's phenomenological method. The results showed that the experience can be classified into 20 topics and 5 categories: 'happy marriage life', 'marriage life they had put up with', 'death of spouse', 'life to be lived alone', and 'bearable life with hope'. The experience of bereavement was found to be a transition from the life in which they depended on their spouse in every aspect to the one where they make efforts to live an independent life adjusting to changes in their life after the loss. Based on this, the study will be a fundamental source of practical measures and social welfare support for them to live a better life in Korean society after their bereavement.
The purpose of this research is to study how an elderly male lives after the experience of bereavement, and to understand the experience's essence. The researcher picked 3 elderly men living alone after separation by death as test subjects and gathered information through in-depth interviews. The analysis of the information was done based on the three-dimensional space of narrative presented by Clandinin and Connely(2000), and it restructures the common experience under five meanings. The mutual themes of 'It's the life of a sinner, but not wanting to be seen as a widower to others', 'The fear for death, and the preparation for after death', 'Trying to stay alive for the children', 'Entering the world to find meaning in a gloomy life', and 'A lone goose lost in search of social warmth' came from the research results. The essence of the experience studied with the mutual themes as basis came out to be 'A struggle to take flight again after one broken wing'. This research has a major significance in that elderly males' experience of bereavement was studied in the dimension of time continuity, and that individual social interactions that are made by elderly males to continue their lives after the experience of bereavement were studied.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of bereavement for main family members who had made and followed DNR decision for their family members. Method: This qualitative study was based on a grounded theory, and used in-depth interview techniques with the bereaved 10 main family members who had been treated and died under DNR order. Results: The causal condition of the family member was 'Releasing', and the main consequent phenomenon were 'Blaming self and ruminating'. The contextual condition was 'The memory of the deceased'. The action/reaction strategy was 'Purifying'. The intervening condition was 'Supporting system', and the consequence was 'Acceptance'. The experience after bereavement of the family member on DNR decision were rational processes that purified themselves and healed the guilt feeling about the decision from reflective assessment and response about DNR decision. Based on this results, the substantive theory 'Reflective self healing' was derived. Conclusion: The main family members in following DNR decision are more likely to have unhealthy emotional condition than others in normal bereavement process. But they overcame the grief of bereavement through reflective self healing process.
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to identify the types of widow's bereavement experience and understand the nature of it's bereavement by using Q-methodological approach. Methods: Contents Q sample included 46 statements obtained from literatures and interviews with 5 widows. P sample consisted of 13 widows who bereaved within 2 years. The data were collected from October 2004 to December 2006 and analyzed using Quanal program. Results: Two types of widow's experience were found. Type 1 was characterized by loss suffering, and type 2 was characterized by acceptance and adaptation Conclusion: Widows were found to experience different types of bereavement. Therefore, bereavement care team should assess the types of suffering pain and provide appropriate care to the widows. Also, need to be developed programs to relieve or prevent suffering of bereavement.
Seo, Chonghee;Park, Jiyoung;Baek, Minjeong;Kim, Misook
Objectives: This study is to understand the experiences of overcoming pain of loss of family survivors in Suicide Bereavement Support Group(SBSG). Method: Experiential data was collected by in-depth interview(FGI, individual) to 10 family survivors(over 19) who having an experience participating in SBSG over 5months and analyzed using qualitative methodology. Results: We drew the result that 'SPACE model' which structuralize by 5 stages of suicide survivors' experience of SBSG of time path. SPACE model configured as follow: Stage1, Space in vacuum, the time to feel a sense of overwhelming feeling like pain, fear, alienation after loss of suicide, Stage2, Probing, when to find informations and resources to help survivors themselves, Stage3, Acclimation, having experiences empathy and healing as in SBSG, Stage4, Composure, accepting SBSG meaning as a part of their lives, loss of my family by suicide, and the beginning of bereavement, Stage5, Endurance, overcoming suffering through SBSG and try to help other survivors. Conclusions: SBSG is the opportunity for family survivors to overcome the pains from loss of suicide, shock, anger, grief, etc., and to empower them to help other suicide survivors.
This research is intended to examine adult children's experiences with parental bereavement and the effect of the experiences on family relationships and their lives. In order to describe the subjects' experiences as they are and understand their meaning and essence, data was analyzed using the Colaizzi method, an approach to phenomenology as a qualitative research methods. The findings showed that subjects suffered from the loss of parents; however, they recovered from their conditions after an ancestor worshiping service. In addition, they took heavy responsibility for a survived parent after bereavement and experienced changes in the roles of family members. In conclusion, experience with parental bereavement caused adult children to reflect on themselves, to discuss the essence of life, and to change the attitudes of their life from a future-oriented perspective to a here-and-now perspective.
The purpose of this study was to identify the level of grief experience, family hardiness and family resource for management after bereavement of a family member. The subjects of this study were 100 family members who had lost a family member from cancer within the past two years. The data was analyzed using the SPSS program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan test, and Pearson correlation. The results were as follows. 1. The mean score for the level of grief was 2.84 $\pm$ 0.66. The mean score for the a family hardiness was 3.08 $\pm$ 0.39. The mean score for the level of family resource management was 2.70 $\pm$ 0.35. 2. The level of grief experience differed respondent's age was F=2.95, p=.02, and type of bereavement was t=2.01, p=.04. 3. The level of family hardiness was not significantly different according to respondent's and familial characteristics. 4. The level of family resource management differed according to monthly income of the family (F=3.98, p=.01). 5. There were negative correlations between grief experience and family hardiness (r= -.551, p<.001), grief experience and family resource for management (r=-.351, p<.001). Family hardiness was positively related with family resource for management (r=.709, p<.001). In conclusion, family hardiness and family resource management were identified as important variables that contributed to reduce the grief experience. Therefore, it is important to develop nursing intervention that enhances family hardiness and family resource for management for bereaved family.
Grief that is not acknowledged and worked through may manifest itself in some emotional, mental or physical problem. In recent years much has been learned about coping with grief which the hospice program can utilize to help family members cope with their grief. This study was carried out to determine the helpfulness of the bereavement care of Severance Hospice and to learm more about the grief response of the bereaved. The tools used to collect data were an assessment form used in the bereavement program and the Grief Experience Inventory developed by Sanders and revised and translated 'by the researcher. Data was obtained from bereaved family members(54 for the final grief assessment and 39 for the grief response assessment) receiving bereavement follow-up, from July 1989 to March 1991. Results of the study were as follows: 1. Final Grief Assessment Regarding the resolution of their grief the majority of the bereaved accepted the reality of the death of their family member, while slightly more than three-quarters were able to express their feelings toward their loss. A large majority had returned to activities of daily living well or fairly well and had reinvested their energy in a person other than the deceased. In addition, the physical condition of the majority was good or fairly good. A majority of the bereaved considered the bereavement care to be helpful and almost three-quarters were not considered to be in need of more follow-up. 2. Grief Response Assessment Age was found to have a modoerately positive correlation to appetite disturbance(r=.41, P<.Ol) and loss of vigor(r=.37, P<.Ol) A moderately positive correlation was found between the number of contacts and sleep disturbance(r=2.38, P<.01) Significant differences were found between men and women in regard to guilt(t=2.38, P<.05), social isolation(t=2.44, P<.05) and depersonalization(t=2.07, P<.05) with men having the more intense grief. Significant differences were found in the grief responses of somatization(F=5.82, P<.001), physical symptoms(F=5.87, P<.OOl), appetite disturbance(F=4.40, P<.Ol), despair(3.79, P<,Ol), anger(Fp2.83, P<.05), social isolation(F=3.61, P<.05), guilt(F=3.62, P<.05) and depersonalization (F = 2.58, P <.05). In the first six of these grief responses mothers scored highest, followed by husbands and then wives, In the grief response of guilt, daughters scored highest and on the grief response of depersonalization sons scored highest. Only one grief response, that of sleep disturbance(t= -2.19, P<.05) was found to be statistically significant, with those family members who died at home having the higher scores. Based on the results of this study several suggestions are presented as follows: 1. Since unresolived grief can have a detrimental effect on the bereaved person's mental and phys. ical health it would be good for the nurse, to include questions related to death of family members and the bereaved person's response to the grief, in her nursing assessment. And in the case of unresolved grief the nurse should encourage the person to talk with a trusted friend or counselor and express their fellings of grief. 2. A study to determine the degree of resolution of the grief of those in the bereavement program could be carried out by use of the Grief Experience Inventory early in their bereavement and again 13 months after the death of their family member. 3. A comparison of the grief response of the bereaved in the bereavement program and bereaved not in the program could be carried out using the Grief Experience Inventory. 4. After bereavement programs have been started in other hospice programs it would be good to carry out a joint study of bereavement outcomes of those in the bereavement programs.
In the point of view, this study aims to examine the life of remarriaged old people after divorce and bereavement. therefore, the purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of married couple's relationship and remarriage in old age and help old people who want to be abused about their remarriage as a coping response of lire for widowhood in old aged. the subject were 14 old people who married over 53 years old bereavement and divorce residing in Chonju, Chonbuk and they had indepth interviews. 1. Most of subject would married with help of matchmaker under the consent a children and relative 2. The main motivation of remarriage was lone lies, however, for men being taken care and for women economic security were also important. 3. Premarriage experience seemed to help spouse adjustment between couples. 4. They matintained close relationship with there biological children. 5. There show a tendency to the bereavement woman remarriage life was happier than divorce woman. 6. When one of the couple had regular income, little economic conflict was there. In most case, wifes were younger than husband and economic stability after husband's death was their main concern and when the husband didn't show definite will to inherit asset to his wife, conflict got bigger.
Death of spouse is the most heartbreaking stressful and inevitable tragic life event. In middle aged men who belong to the social middle class and accomplished their occupational success, experiences of spousal bereavement are great shock. The aim of this study was to find out how they overcome their mental and physical pain and to obtain the basic materials to develop suitable nursing care programs for them. The methodological approach of this study is Giorgi's phenomenological analysis meaning unit. This method also makes theme focal meaning, situated structural description and create general structural description grasped by participator's experience through situated structure description. This study performed from November 2002 to May 2004, and participators were four men. Data collected through in-depth personal interviews. which had been tapped and analysed the Giorgi's method. Finally, the five focal meaning below have been abstracted. Theme 1. Physical symptom loss of appetite, fatigue, insomnia. outbreak of illness, weight loss. Theme 2. life of spiritless lack of desire, sense of emptiness, unstableness, prosaic life. wandering. indifference of appearances, avoidance of meeting people. Theme 3. life of retrospction reflection for his wife, yearning, grief, muttering to himself, never-to-be forgotten wife, leading a lonely life. Theme 4. negative emotion reproaching, feeling hurt, marriage of daughter, feeling heavy, getting angry, sexual desire, awareness of his sinfulness. loneliness Theme 5. social support and adjustment getting his wife off his mind, curring favor with children, support and consolation by his daughter-in-law, appreciation for hospice nurse, considering remarriage, taking care of himself, good relation with his children. The result of this study showed that middle aged men bereaved of their wife by cancer need other's concern. And we have to study further to understand their experience. Until now hospice nursing is concentrated on cancer patients But from now we have to provide their families suitable nursing care programs to adjust themselves to social life before and after death of patients.
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