• Title, Summary, Keyword: Beta-asarone

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A Study on the Content Changes of ${\beta}$-asarone and ${\alpha}$-asarone in Acorus gramineus According to its Parts, Extraction Solvent, and Fermentation (석창포의 부위, 추출용매 및 발효에 따른 주요 성분 변화 연구)

  • Pang, Tae-Sun;Lee, Kyung-Jin;Ham, In-Hye;Bu, Young-Min;Kim, Ho-Cheol;Rhee, Jae-Seong;Choi, Ho-Young
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 2008
  • Objectives: This study was to analyze the content changes of ${\beta}$-asarone and ${\alpha}$-asarone in A. gramineus according to its parts, extraction method, and fermentation. Methods: The change of ${\beta}$-asarone and ${\alpha}$-asarone was analysed with GC/MS, IR, and NMR. Results: In A. gramineus, ${\beta}$-asarone and ${\alpha}$-asarone in rhizome are 7 times and 4 times more than those in leaves respectively. And, in water extract of Acori Graminei Rhizoma, ${\beta}$-asarone was reduced to 77.8%-83.5%, and ${\alpha}$-asarone was reduced to 69.4%-72.2% compared with 50% MeOH extract. The amounts of ${\beta}$-asarone and ${\alpha}$-asarone were decreased apparently by 1 and 3 weeks fermantation with yeast activated solution. Conclusions: There was a change in the content of asarone pursuant to the medicinal part, extraction solvent, and fermentation. This result can be used as the basic data contributing to the stability of A. gramineus according to an appropriate clinical application.

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Classification and Comparative Analysis of the Contents of Acorus species and Anemone altaica by UPLC-PDA Analysis (UPLC-PDA를 이용한 창포류의 분류 및 함량 분석)

  • Jo, Ji Eun;Lee, A Yeong;Kim, Hyo Seon;Moon, Byeong Cheol;Ji, Yunui;Chun, Jin Mi;Kim, Ho Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.279-284
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    • 2013
  • A quantitative method using ultra performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (UPLCPDA) was established for the analysis of 2 major plant metabolites: ${\beta}$-asarone and ${\alpha}$-asarone from Acorus gramineus, A. tatarinowii, A. calamus and Anemone altaica, and their contents are compared with other herbs of Acorus species. The method was validated according to the International Conference on harmonization (ICH) guideline for validation of analytical procedures with respect to precision, accuracy, and linearity. The average content of ${\beta}$-asarone in Acorus gramineus was significantly higher than that in others, with the second highest concentration observed in A. tatarinowii, and only a trace amounts found in A. calamus and Anemone altaica. In contrast, the average content of ${\alpha}$-asarone in A. calamus was the highest, followed by that in Acorus gramineus and A. tatarinowii. principle component analysis (PCA) confirmed that ${\beta}$-asarone and ${\alpha}$-asarone content differed among the species. These results suggest that this UPLC-PDA method can be considered as good quality control criteria for Acorus gramineus.

Inhibition of $A{\beta}42$ Fibrillation and Toxicity with ${\beta}$-Asarone ($A{\beta}42$의 섬유화 및 독성에 대한 ${\beta}$-Asarone의 저해 효과)

  • Kim, Jia;Lee, Chul Won;Lee, Boo Kyun;Lee, Jang Cheon;An, Won Gun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.317-321
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    • 2014
  • Amyloid-${\beta}$ protein ($A{\beta}$) is a pathological component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by participating in the senile plaque formation in the patient's brain. Although the exact mechanism of $A{\beta}$ toxicity is not fully elucidated, it is considered to be closely related to its fibrillation process. For prevention of AD, recent studies have suggested various small molecules which inhibit $A{\beta}$ fibrillation. In this report, ${\beta}$-asarone found in acorus plant has been investigated as an anti-amyloid molecule. ${\beta}$-Asarone was demonstrated to prevent in vitro fibrillation of $A{\beta}$ by inducing the oligomer formation that obviously decreased cytotoxicity. Therefore, ${\beta}$-asarone could be suggested as an inhibitory agent of $A{\beta}$ fibrillation and toxicity, which would help us not only to understand underlying principle of amyloidogenesis mechanism but also to develop a controlling strategy toward AD.

Beta-asarone Induces LoVo Colon Cancer Cell Apoptosis by Up-regulation of Caspases through a Mitochondrial Pathway in vitro and in vivo

  • Zou, Xi;Liu, Shen-Lin;Zhou, Jin-Yong;Wu, Jian;Ling, Bo-Fan;Wang, Rui-Ping
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5291-5298
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    • 2012
  • Beta-asarone is one of the main bioactive constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Acorus calamu. Previous studies have shown that it has antifungal and anthelmintic activities. However, little is known about its anticancer effects. This study aimed to determine inhibitory effects on LoVo colon cancer cell proliferation and to clarify the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Dose-response and time-course anti-proliferation effects were examined by MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that LoVo cell viability showed dose- and time-dependence on ${\beta}$-asarone. We further assessed anti-proliferation effects as ${\beta}$-asarone-induced apoptosis by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay usinga flow cytometer and observed characteristic nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation of apoptosis by microscopy. Moreover, we found the apoptosis to be induced through the mitochondrial/caspase pathway by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reducing the Bcl-2-to-Bax ratio, in addition to activating the caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascades. Additionally, the apoptosis could be inhibited by a pan-caspase inhibitor, carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK). When nude mice bearing LoVo tumor xenografts were treated with ${\beta}$-asarone, tumor volumes were reduced and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays of excised tissue also demonstrated apoptotic changes. Taken together, these findings for the first time provide evidence that ${\beta}$-asarone can suppress the growth of colon cancer and the induced apoptosis is possibly mediated through mitochondria/caspase pathways.

In Silico Analysis and Molecular Docking Comparison of Mosquito Oviposition Pheromone and Beta-asarone on the Mosquito Odorant Binding Protein-1 (In Silico 분자결합 분석방법을 활용한 MOP와 베타아사론의 열대집모기 후각단백질 활성 부위에 대한 결합 친화도 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Dong-Chan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2018
  • Beta-asarone is the well-known active ingredient of Rhizoma acori graminei. In this study, we investigated and compared the binding affinity of mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP; (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide) and beta-asarone on the A domain of the mosquito odorant binding protein 1 (CquiOBP1) by in silico computational docking studies. The three-dimensional crystallographic structure of CquiOBP1 was obtained from the PDB database (PDB ID: 3OGN). In silico computational auto-docking analysis was performed using PyRx, Autodock Vina, Discovery Studio Version 4.5, and the NX-QuickPharm option based on scoring functions. The beta-asarone showed optimum binding affinity (docking energy) with CquiOBP1 as -6.40 kcal/mol as compared to the MOP (-6.00 kcal/mol). Among the interacting amino acids (LEU76, LEU80, ALA88, MET89, HIS111, TRP114, and TYR122), tryptophan 114 in the CquiOBP1 active site significantly interacted with both MOP and beta-asarone. Amino acids substitution (mutation) from non-polar groups to the polar (or charged) groups of the CquiOBP1 dramatically changed the X, Y, Z grid position and binding affinity of both ligands. These results significantly indicated that beta-asarone could be a more potent ligand to the CquiOBP1 than MOP. Therefore, the extract of Rhizoma acori graminei or beta-asarone can be applied to the fields of insecticidal and repellant biomaterial development.

Repellent Activity of the Extracts of Acorus Gramineus against Mosquito (Culex pipinens pallens) (석창포 추출물의 모기에 대한 기피활성)

  • Lee, Seung-Ho;Jung, Jin-Kwan;Park, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Mun-Sik;Han, Yeon-Soo;Seo, Jung-Mi;Kim, In-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.76-81
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: Acorus gramineus is of medicinal plants that exhibit variable biological activities for human health and against insect pests. The extracts of A. gramineus was examined in an attempt to develop a natural repellent against human disease-mediating Culex pipiens. METHODS AND RESULTS: The roots of A. gramineus dried under dark conditions were homogenized and extracted with ethanol. The extracts were subjected to repellent activity assays against C. pipiens in a hand-made acrylamide box with three accessible rooms. Significantly low number of mosquitos was found in the room previously fumigated with the extracts at 50 mg/L on the filter paper, exhibiting less than 20% of mosquitos tested. More than 50% of mosquitos tested was found in the room without the extracts, but less than 30% was found in the room that released mosquitos. GC/MS analysis detected ${\beta}$-asarone as a main component of the extracts. The commercial asarones (${\alpha}$ and ${\beta}$) showed a repellent activity at 50 mg/L on the filter paper similar to the extracts. CONCLUSION(S): A. gramineus has potential for use as a mosquito repellent since ${\beta}$-asarone, a main component of the plant, exhibited a strong repellent activity against C. pipiens.

α-Asarone Ameliorates Memory Deficit in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice via Suppression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Microglial Activation

  • Shin, Jung-Won;Cheong, Young-Jin;Koo, Yong-Mo;Kim, Sooyong;Noh, Chung-Ku;Son, Young-Ha;Kang, Chulhun;Sohn, Nak-Won
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2014
  • ${\alpha}$-Asarone exhibits a number of pharmacological actions including neuroprotective, anti-oxidative, anticonvulsive, and cognitive enhancing action. The present study investigated the effects of ${\alpha}$-asarone on pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA, microglial activation, and neuronal damage in the hippocampus and on learning and memory deficits in systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated C57BL/6 mice. Varying doses of ${\alpha}$-asarone was orally administered (7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg) once a day for 3 days before the LPS (3 mg/kg) injection. ${\alpha}$-Asarone significantly reduced TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$ mRNA at 4 and 24 hours after the LPS injection at dose of 30 mg/kg. At 24 hours after the LPS injection, the loss of CA1 neurons, the increase of TUNEL-labeled cells, and the up-regulation of BACE1 expression in the hippocampus were attenuated by 30 mg/kg of ${\alpha}$-asarone treatment. ${\alpha}$-Asarone significantly reduced Iba1 protein expression in the hippocampal tissue at a dose of 30 mg/kg. ${\alpha}$-Asarone did not reduce the number of Iba1-expressing microglia on immunohistochemistry but the average cell size and percentage areas of Iba1-expressing microglia in the hippocampus were significantly decreased by 30 mg/kg of ${\alpha}$-asarone treatment. In the Morris water maze test, ${\alpha}$-asarone significantly prolonged the swimming time spent in the target and peri-target zones. ${\alpha}$-Asarone also significantly increased the number of target heading and memory score in the Morris water maze. The results suggest that inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation in the hippocampus by ${\alpha}$-asarone may be one of the mechanisms for the ${\alpha}$-asarone-mediated ameliorating effect on memory deficits.

The Rhizomes of Acorus gramineus and the Constituents Inhibit Allergic Response In vitro and In vivo

  • Lim, Hyun;Lee, Seung-Young;Lee, Kang-Ro;Kim, Yeong-Shik;Kim, Hyun-Pyo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.477-481
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    • 2012
  • The rhizomes of Acorus gramineus have frequently been used in traditional medicine mainly for sedation as well as enhancing brain function. In this study, the anti-allergic activity of A. gramineus was investigated. The 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of A. gramineus was found to inhibit the allergic response against 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-catalyzed leukotriene (LT) production from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells and ${\beta}$-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells with $IC_{50}$'s of 48.9 and > $200{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. Among the 9 major constituents isolated, ${\beta}$-asarone, (2R,3R,4S,5S)-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-bis (2',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran (AF) and 2,3-dihydro-4,5,7-trimethoxy-1-ethyl-2-methyl-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)indene (AI) strongly inhibited 5-LOX-catalyzed LT production in A23187-treated RBL-1 cells, AI being the most potent ($IC_{50}=6.7{\mu}M$). Against ${\beta}$-hexosaminidase release by antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, only AI exhibited strong inhibition ($IC_{50}=7.3{\mu}M$) while ${\beta}$-asarone and AF showed 26.0% and 39.9% inhibition at $50{\mu}M$, respectively. In addition, the ethanol extract of A. gramineus showed significant inhibitory action against the hapten-induced delayed hypersensitivity reaction in mice by oral administration at 200 mg/kg. Therefore, it is suggested that A. gramineus possesses anti-allergic activity and the constituents including ${\beta}$-asarone and AI certainly contribute to the anti-allergic activity of the rhizomes of A. gramineus.

Development of Fingerprints for Quality Control of Acorus species by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

  • Yu, Se-Mi;Kim, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Je-Hyun;Lee, Kang-Ro;Hong, Jong-Ki
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.1547-1553
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    • 2011
  • An effective analytical method of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the rapid determination of essential oils in the crude extract of Acorus species (Acorus gramineus, Acorus tatarinowii, and Acorus calamus). Major phenypropanoids (${\beta}$,${\alpha}$-asarone isomers, euasarone, and methyleugenol) and ${\beta}$-caryophyllene in Acorus species were used as marker compounds and determined for the quality control of herbal medicines. To extract marker compounds, various extraction techniques such as solvent immersion, mechanical shaking, and sonication were compared, and the greatest efficiency was observed with sonication extraction using petroleum ether. The dynamic range of the GC/MS method depended on the specific analyte; acceptable quantification was obtained between 10 and 2000 ${\mu}g/mL$ for ${\beta}$-asarone, 10 and 500 ${\mu}g/mL$ for ${\alpha}$-asarone, 10 and 200 ${\mu}g/mL$ for methyleugenol, and between 5 and 100 ${\mu}g/mL$ for ${\beta}$-caryophyllene. The method was deemed satisfactory by inter- and intra-day validation and exhibited both high accuracy and precision, with a relative standard deviation < 10%. Overall limits of detection were approximately 0.34-0.83 ${\mu}g/mL$, with a standard deviation (${\sigma}$)-to-calibration slope (s) ratio (${\sigma}$/s) of 3. The limit of quantitation in our experiments was approximately 1.13-3.20 ${\mu}g/mL$ at a ${\sigma}$/s of 10. On the basement of method validation, 20 samples of Acorus species collected from markets in Korea were monitored for the quality control. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were performed on the analytical data of 20 different Acorus species samples in order to classify samples that were collected from different regions.

Effect of Beta-Asarone on Impairment of Spatial Working Memory and Apoptosis in the Hippocampus of Rats Exposed to Chronic Corticosterone Administration

  • Lee, Bombi;Sur, Bongjun;Cho, Seong-Guk;Yeom, Mijung;Shim, Insop;Lee, Hyejung;Hahm, Dae-Hyun
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.571-581
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    • 2015
  • ${\beta}$-asarone (BAS) is an active component of Acori graminei rhizoma, a traditional medicine used clinically in treating dementia and chronic stress in Korea. However, the cognitive effects of BAS and its mechanism of action have remained elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine whether BAS improved spatial cognitive impairment induced in rats following chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration. CORT administration (40 mg/kg, i.p., 21 days) resulted in cognitive impairment in the avoidance conditioning test (AAT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) test that was reversed by BAS (200 mg/kg, i.p). Additionally, as assessed by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis, the administration of BAS significantly alleviated memory-associated decreases in the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) proteins and mRNAs in the hippocampus. Also, BAS administration significantly restored the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 mRNAs in the hippocampus. Thus, BAS may be an effective therapeutic for learning and memory disturbances, and its neuroprotective effect was mediated, in part, by normalizing the CORT response, resulting in regulation of BDNF and CREB functions and anti-apoptosis in rats.