• Title, Summary, Keyword: Blood Plasma Metabolites

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Milk Production, Blood Metabolites and Circulatory Levels of Hormones in Crossbred Goats

  • Singh, Mahendra;Ludri, R.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.963-967
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    • 2002
  • Eighteen crossbred goats were selected from the Institute's goat herd to determine the changes in hormones, blood metabolites and yield and composition of milk during lactation. The blood and milk samples were collected from each goat in a heparinized vacutainer tubes at fortnightly interval for a period of 150 days. In milk samples, fat, protein and lactose contents were estimated while in blood plasma hormones viz., prolactin, GH, cortisol, insulin, $T_4$ and $T_3$ were measured using radioimmunoassay methods. The plasma concentration of prolactin, GH and cortisol were high during early lactation when the goats acquired peak milk yield. During remainder of lactation their concentration varied. The high NEFA concentration during early lactation indicated mobilization of body reserves as the body weights also decrease during early lactation. However, with the advancement of lactation, the body weights of the goats and the concentration of NEFA declined which indicated utilization of NEFA for energy yielding purposes in addition to fatty acid synthesis. The ambient temperatures did not influence plasma concentration of prolactin, GH, insulin, $T_3$ and $T_4$ during the lactation cycle. The fat content of milk varied significantly (p<0.01) but protein and lactose content of milk remains unchanged during different stages of lactation. Growth hormone was positively correlated with insulin (p<0.05) during lactation while prolactin had a positive correlation with lactose and plasma NEFA (p<0.01) and negative correlation with $T_3$ (p<0.05).

Plasma Hormones, Blood Metabolites, Milk Yield and Composition in Early Lactation of Buffaloes Treated with Bromocryptine

  • Saha, A.;Singh, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.368-374
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    • 1998
  • The study was conducted on six multiparous Murrah buffaloes which were earlier artificially induced into lactation. During the experimental period of 15 days, buffaloes were managed in a loose housing system. All the buffaloes were administered a single injection of bromocryptine (@ $100{\mu}g/kg$ body weight) subcutaneously in the neck region at 08:30 A.M., 50 days postpartum (early lactation). Blood samples were collected from four buffaloes for a period of 5 days before the administration of bromocryptine i.e. on days -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, on day of treatment (day 0) and thereafter daily for a period of 9 days i.e 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 to determine the hormones and blood metabolites. Homogeneous milk samples from all the buffaloes were collected at morning and evening milkings on days coinciding with the days of blood sampling for analysis of milk constituents. Administration of bromocryptine resulted in a significant inhibition of plasma prolactin within 24 hrs of treatment, but the response in all the buffaloes was not uniform. The effect of bromocryptine on plasma prolactin hormone lasted for 1-4 days but Cortisol concentration were not altered. Administration of bromocryptine neither affected blood glucose nor plasma non-esterified fatty acids concentration. Irrespective of level of milk production from different buffaloes, there was no effect of bromocryptine on milk yield which indicated that prolactin is not required for milk secretion during early lactation in buffaloes. Milk constituents like fat, protein and lactose were not affected by bromocryptine may be due to no effect of bromocryptine of milk yield.

The Effects of Three Herbs as Feed Supplements on Blood Metabolites, Hormones, Antioxidant Activity, IgG Concentration, and Ruminal Fermentation in Holstein Steers

  • Hosoda, K.;Kuramoto, K.;Eruden, B.;Nishida, T.;Shioya, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three herb supplementations on blood metabolites, hormones, antioxidant activity, immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentration, and ruminal fermentation in steers. Four Holstein steers in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design received four herb treatments. The treatments consisted of the steers' regular diets with addition of: 1) nothing (control), 2) peppermint, 3) clove, and 4) lemongrass at 5% of the diet (DM basis). Clove supplementation increased the plasma concentration of cholesterol by about 10% (from 79 to 87 mg/dl). Peppermint and lemongrass feeding resulted in an increase in the concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (from 5.9 to 6.9 and 6.4 mg/dl, respectively). The three herb treatments had no effect on other metabolites and hormones. Steers receiving clove supplementation showed a higher plasma antioxidant activity. The three herb treatments caused lower concentrations of IgG in the blood. Peppermint and lemongrass feedings increased, and clove feeding decreased ruminal concentrations of ammonia. There were no significant differences in VFA concentrations among herbal treatments, except for the decrease in propionate concentration in steers receiving clove treatment. This study suggested that clove feeding changed cholesterol metabolism and increased antioxidant activity in plasma, and feeding of three herbs affected immunity system and ruminal fermentation in steers.

Changes in in vivo ruminal fermentation patterns and blood metabolites by different protein fraction-enriched feeds in Holstein steers

  • Choi, Chang Weon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.392-399
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    • 2017
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different dietary proteins as fraction-enriched protein, defined by Cornell net carbohydrates and protein system (CNCPS), on in vivo ruminal fermentation pattern and blood metabolites in Holstein steers fed total mixed ration (TMR) containing 17.2% crude protein. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design consumed TMR only (control) and TMR with rapeseed meal (AB1), soybean meal (B2), and perilla meal (B3C). Each protein was substituted for 23.0% of crude protein in TMR. Rumen digesta were taken through ruminal cannula at 1 h interval during the feeding cycle in order to analyze ruminal pH, ammonia-N, and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Plasma metabolites in blood taken via the jugular vein after the rumen digesta sampling were analyzed. Feeding perilla meal significantly (p < 0.05) decreased mean ruminal pH compared with control and the other protein feeding groups. Compared with control, feeding protein significantly (p < 0.05) increased ruminal ammonia-N concentration except for AB1. Statistically (p > 0.05) similar total VFA appeared among control and the supplemented groups. However, control, AB1, and B2 showed higher (p < 0.05) acetate concentrations than B3C, and propionate was vice versa. CNCPS fractionated protein significantly (p < 0.05) affected concentrations of albumin and total protein in blood; i.e. plasma albumin was lower for control and B2 groups than AB1 and B3C groups. Despite lack of significances (p > 0.05) in creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, AB1 and B2 groups were numerically higher than the others.

The Effect of Dioscorea japonica Thunb Subfractions on Blood Glucose Levels and Energy Metabolite Composition in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats (참마 재분획물이 당뇨유발 흰쥐의 혈당 및 에너지원 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김명화
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.115-123
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    • 2000
  • This study evaluates the effect of Dioscorea japonica Thunb subfractions on hyperglycemia and the composition of energy metabolites in diabetic rats. Diabetes emllitus was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by an injection of streptozotocin(STZ) dissolved in a citrate buffer into the tail vein at a dose of 45㎎/㎏ of body weight. Diabetic rats were assigned to 6 groups; STZ-control, subfraction A, B , C, D and E groups. All groups were fed an AIN-76 diet. The second butanol fraction of Dioscorea administered orally with carboxymethyl cellucose for 10 days after the STZ injection Body weight gain, diet intake and organ weights were monitored Levels of hematocrit, blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen were measured. Levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were also assayed. Body weight losses were observed by subfraction A group. Liver and kidney weights were not affected in any of the subgractioned groups. The decrease of blood glucose in daibetic rats which were fed Dioscorea japonica Thunb was significantly greater than the dicrease of blood glucose in the STZ-control group. cholesterol plasma level was not influenced in any subfraction of Dioscorea japonica Thunb. Liver triglyceride levels were significantly lowered in subfraction A compared with the STZ-control group. This study's results suggest that oral administration of subfraction C of Dioscorea japonica Thunb frction is capabl of reducing blood glucose, plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, and therefore Dioscorea japonica Thunb may contain antihyperglycemic compounds.

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Effects of Salicornia herbacea L. Supplementation on Blood Glucose and Lipid Metabolites in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (함초 첨가식이가 당뇨 유발 흰쥐의 혈당 및 지질대사물에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Myung-Wha
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2007
  • This study was designed to examine the effects of Salicornia herbacea L. (glasswort: GW) on the plasma blood glucose and lipid metabolites in diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-220g by an injection of streptozotocin (STZ) dissolved in a citrate buffer into the tail vein at a dose of 45 mg/kg of body weight. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an AIN-93 recommended diet and the experimental groups were fed a modified diet containing 10% and 20% of glasswort powder for 4 weeks. The experimental groups were divided into 6 groups which consisted of normal (N)-control group, N-GW 10% and N-GW 20% treated groups, STZ-control, STZ-GW 10% and STZ-GW 20% treated groups. The rats' body weights, aminotransferase activities and hematocrit (Hct) values were measured, along with plasma levels of glucose, protein, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA). The non-diabetic rats gained weight, while the diabetic rats lost weight. There were significant differences between the control group and the diabetic groups in the weight of the kidney, liver and pancreas. Asparate aminotransferase activity was lower in the non-diabetic control group compared to diabetic experimental groups, even though the difference was not significant. The plasma protein of N-GW 20% group was lower among all experimental groups but it was not significantly different. The blood glucose levels of the STZ-GW 10% group and STZ-GW 20% group were significantly lower than for the diabetic-control group. There were no significant difference of cholesterol levels among diabetic groups. The normal rats of 20% glasswort group in FFA and TG levels showed significant changes among all groups. These results exhibited dose related effect of glasswort and it may contain antihypoglycemic compounds.

Changes of Plasma Metabolites, Hormones, and mRNA Expression of Liver PEPCK-C in Spontaneously Ketotic Dairy Cows

  • Xia, C.;Wang, Z.;Liu, G.W.;Zhang, H.Y.;Zhang, C.;Xu, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to understand changes of plasma metabolites, hormones, and mRNA level of cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) in liver in spontaneous clinical ketosis; 10 clinically ketotic cows and 10 healthy cows were chosen from the same dairy farm. Eleven blood parameters and liver fat content were measured in all cows, and mRNA levels of PEPCK-C in liver were measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In ketotic cows, concentration of plasma glucose decreased (p<0.01), concentration of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and $\beta$-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) increased (p<0.01), liver fat content (18.8% wet weight) and activity of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased (p<0.01), but concentration of plasma total bilirubin (TBIL), $\gamma$-glutamyl transpeptidase ($\gamma$-GT), and cholinesterase (CHE) increased (p>0.05). In addition, concentration of plasma insulin decreased (p<0.05), concentration of plasma glucagons decreased (p>0.05), and mRNA level of PEPCK-C in liver increased (p<0.05). It is concluded that the adaptative changes of metabolites, hormones, and mRNA level of PEPCK-C in ketotic cows were in favor of the enhancement of gluconeogenesis, the decrease of fat mobilization and the relief of ketosis, but these were still inadequate to relieve ketosis.

Pharmacokinetic Study of Aceclofenac and its Metabolites, and Application to Bioequivalence Study (아세클로페낙과 그 대사체의 약물동태 연구 및 생물학적 동등성)

  • Ihm, Chun-Hwa;Hwang, In-Taek;Kim, Eun-Young;Kang, Won-Ku
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.52-56
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    • 2006
  • Aceclofenac, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent of a phenylacetic acid type, has been used for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthrits. Although the metabolic pathway of aceclofenc is relatively well-known in vitro, pharmacokinetic profiles of its three major or metabolites are still unclear in human. The present study was designed to investigate pharmacokinetic profiles of the metabolites of aceclofenac, and to evaluate the bioequivalence of the generic preparation of aceclofenac 100 mg tablet. Blood samples were serially collected for a period of 12 hours following a single oral administration of 100 mg aceclofenac in 20 healthy human volunteers. A simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile was employed to purify those substances from plasma. Aceclofenac, diclofenac, 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac and 4'-hydroxy-diclofenac in heparinized plasma were simultaneously measured with flufenamic acid, an internal standard, using HPLC coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer. Time courses of 4'-hydroxydiclofenac, diclofenac and aceclofenac plasma concentrations were clearly revealed, and the pharmacokinetic properties were analyzed. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of test/reference for log-transformed AUC and $C_{max}$ lie within 0.80-1.25.

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Effect of Feeding High Forage Diets with Supplemental Fat on Blood Metabolites, Rumen Fermentation and Dry Matter Digestibility in Dairy Cows

  • Abdullah, M.;Young, J.W.;Tyler, H.D.;Mohiuddin, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.451-456
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    • 2000
  • Fifty mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a six-week feeding trial to study effects of high-forage, and high-fat diets on blood constituents, rumen fermentation and dry matter digestibility. Cows were divided into 10 replicates, each consisting of five cows. Each cow was assigned to a control (diet 1) or one of the four experimental diets (high-forage (75%), high-fat (7.5%) (diet 2); high-forage. medium-fat (5.0%) (diet 3); medium forage (65%), high-fat (diet 4); medium-forage, medium-fat (diet 5)), or a control diet containing about 50% forage and 2% fat. All diets were isonitrogenous (17.7% crude protein). The forage mixture consisted of 20% alfalfa hay, 40% alfalfa haylage, and 40% corn silage. Supplemental fat included 80% rumen-protected fat and 20% yellow grease. A non-significant difference was observed in concentrations of blood glucose for cows on different experimental and control diets. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher in cows consuming experimental diets than those consuming the control diet. However, differences in NEFA concentrations in the plasma of cows consuming diets with different forage and fat levels were not significant. Rumen pH, concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in rumen contents, and dry matter digestibility of control and experimental diets, and diets with different levels of forage and supplemental fat did not differ significantly.

In Vitro Determination of Intracellular Phosphorylated Metabolites of Antiviral Pyrimidine Analogs (Zidovudine의 In Vitro 세포내 대사물의 측정을 통한 약효 검색법 개발)

  • Han, Kyu-Won;Kim, Kil-Soo
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.285-290
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    • 2002
  • In order to assay the efficacy of newly synthesized antiviral compounds, in vitro studies of their active intracellular phosphorylated metabolites were established as compared with Zidovudine (ZDV). Antiviral base analogs require intracellular phosphorylation prior to the inhibition of HIV replication. Therefore, antiviral drugs concentrations in plasma have not reflected any direct relationship with activity or toxicity. A method has been developed to measure the concentration of total phosphorylated metabolites inside peripheral blood mononuclear cells using modified commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA). ZDV 5'-monophosphate was synthesized and used as a procedural control for RIA modification. PBMCs were isolated from whole blood and incubated with ZDV for 20 h to allow metabolic phosphorylation. Viable cells were extracted overnight with 60% methanol. After evaporation, the extract was reconstituted in Tris buffer. Samples were split into two fractions, one of which was treated with alkaline phosphatase (AP) to liberate phosphate groups. Concentrations of phosphorylated metabolites were determined by subtracting thε concentration of non-AP-treated fraction from that of the treated fraction. Recovery of phosphorylated ZDV from cell extracts was approximately 90%, and reproducibility was acceptable (coefficients of variation <15% for concentrations${\geq}$0.25 ng/mL). Intracellular concentrations $(0.135{\sim}5.019\;nmole/10^6\;cells)$ followed a nonlinear dose-response relationship over the range $0.015{\sim}2.996mM$ extracellular ZDV, with concentration-dependant saturation.