• Title, Summary, Keyword: Bloom

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IP Address Lookup Algorithm Using a Vectored Bloom Filter (벡터 블룸 필터를 사용한 IP 주소 검색 알고리즘)

  • Byun, Hayoung;Lim, Hyesook
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.65 no.12
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    • pp.2061-2068
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    • 2016
  • A Bloom filter is a space-efficient data structure popularly applied in many network algorithms. This paper proposes a vectored Bloom filter to provide a high-speed Internet protocol (IP) address lookup. While each hash index for a Bloom filter indicates one bit, which is used to identify the membership of the input, each index of the proposed vectored Bloom filter indicates a vector which is used to represent the membership and the output port for the input. Hence the proposed Bloom filter can complete the IP address lookup without accessing an off-chip hash table for most cases. Simulation results show that with a reasonable sized Bloom filter that can be stored using an on-chip memory, an IP address lookup can be performed with less than 0.0003 off-chip accesses on average in our proposed architecture.

On Reducing False Positives of a Bloom Filter in Trie-Based Algorithms

  • Mun, Ju Hyoung;Lim, Hyesook
    • IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.163-168
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    • 2015
  • Many IP address lookup approaches employ Bloom filters to obtain a high-speed search performance. Especially, it has been recently studied that the search performance of trie-based algorithms can be significantly improved by adding Bloom filters. In such algorithms, the number of trie accesses can be greatly reduced because Bloom filters can determine whether a node exists in a trie without actually accessing the trie. Bloom filters do not have false negatives but have false positives. False positives can lead to unnecessary trie accesses. The false positive rate must thus be reduced to enhance the performance of lookup algorithms applying Bloom filters. One important characteristic of trie-based algorithms is that all the ancestors of a node are also stored. The proposed algorithm utilizes this characteristic in reducing the false positive rate of a Bloom filter without increasing the size of the memory for the Bloom filter. When a Bloom filter produces a positive result for a node of a trie, we propose to check whether the ancestors of the node are also positives. Because Bloom filters have no false negatives, the negatives of any of the ancestors mean that the positive of the node is false. In other words, we propose to use more Bloom filter queries to reduce the false positive rate of a Bloom filter in trie-based algorithms. Simulation results show that querying one ancestor of a node can reduce the false positive rate by up to 67% with exactly the same architecture and the same memory requirement. The proposed approach can be applied to other trie-based algorithms employing Bloom filters.

Study of Euglenophytes Bloom and it's Impact on Fish Growth in Bangladesh

  • Rahman, M.M.;Jewel, M.A.S.;Khan, S.;Haque, M.M.
    • ALGAE
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 2007
  • A study was carried out in nine fertilized fish ponds under three treatments (T-I, T-II and T-III) at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to see the bloom of euglenophytes with the intention of observing its impact on the growth of fish in culture condition. Some water quality parameters viz., temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, PO4-P and NO3-N concentration and some biological parameters viz., phytoplankton population and growth of fish were monitored at fixed intervals. Euglenophytes showed a heavy bloom in late August in the ponds of T-II. The bloom was occurred by the genera, Euglena, Phacus and Trachelomonas of which Euglena was the most dominant genus. In relation of water quality parameters with euglenophytes bloom, it was hypothesized that euglenophytes prefers higher temperature and acidic environment with higher nutrient concentrations. Acidic environment and nutrient enrichment enhanced the bloom of euglenophytes which hampered the growth of other beneficial algal groups (chlorophytes and bacillariophytes) and fish. Due to heavy bloom, the fishes breathed with difficulty at the surface. The fishes in the heavy bloom ponds presented the weight values were lower than verified for those in the ponds where the bloom did not occur. Total production (calculated) of fish in different treatments ranged from 1355.89 to1760.63 kg ha–1 with significantly (p < 0.05) lowest in the ponds of T-II.

Approaches for Improving Bloom Filter-Based Set Membership Query

  • Lee, HyunYong;Lee, Byung-Tak
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.550-569
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    • 2019
  • We propose approaches for improving Bloom filter in terms of false positive probability and membership query speed. To reduce the false positive probability, we propose special type of additional Bloom filters that are used to handle false positives caused by the original Bloom filter. Implementing the proposed approach for a routing table lookup, we show that our approach reduces the routing table lookup time by up to 28% compared to the original Bloom filter by handling most false positives within the fast memory. We also introduce an approach for improving the membership query speed. Taking the hash table-like approach while storing only values, the proposed approach shows much faster membership query speed than the original Bloom filter (e.g., 34 times faster with 10 subsets). Even compared to a hash table, our approach reduces the routing table lookup time by up to 58%.

Characteristics of Photosynthetic Pigments during the Outbreak of Harmful Algal Bloom at the South Coastal Area in the Korean Sea Waters

  • Kim, Sook-Yang;Lim, Woel-Ae;Kang, Young-Sil
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2010
  • Cochlodinium polykrikoides has occurs regularly during the summer in the South Sea of Korea. To investigate photosynthetic pigments concerned with phytoplankton community structure as bloom of Cochlodinium polykrikoides, the experiment was sampled at 20 stations three times between July and September 2002 in the Southern Sea of Korea. The distribution of peridinin, the biomarker of dinoflagellate, was higher at the blooming time than it was before and it disappeared after bloom. The correlative coefficients between Chl. a and peridinin at the blooming time and out of bloom were 0.9253 and 0.1613, respectively. This result indicated that the bloom was caused by dinoflagellate. The correlative coefficients between Chl. a and fucoxanthin were 0.3282 and 0.9759, respectively, and the correlative coefficients showed the succession from dinoflagellate to diatom. This result means that the bloom of Cochlodinium polykrikoides can be detected by Chl. a information from satellite remote sensing. Therefore, if the algorithm to detect peridinin in addition to Chl. a were to be developed, dinoflagellate red tide could be monitored more effectively.

Filtering of Malicious Codes using Bloom Filter (Bloom Filter를 이용한 악성 코드 탐지 방안)

  • Lee, Sang-Hoon;Heo, Hwan-Jo;Kim, Hyo-Gong;Choi, Lynn
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.796-798
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    • 2003
  • 바이러스로 시작된 악성 코드는 웜이라는 형태로 발전하였다. 인터넷 망의 고속화와 확장에 의해 웜의 전파 속도와 감염 범위는 증가하였지만, 아직까지 웜을 차단할 수 있는 획기적인 방법은 개발되지 않았고, 웜에 의한 피해는 갈수록 치명적인 결과를 낳고 있다. 본고에서는 Bloom Filter[1]를 이용한 content filtering 방법을 제안한다. 실험을 통해, 이미 알려진 웜에 대한 Bloom Filter의 성능을 검증하였으며, 알려지지 않은 웜에 대한 Bloom Filter의 적용 방법도 제안한다.

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Analysis of Microcystis Bloom in Daecheong Reservoir using ELCOM-CAEDYM (ELCOM-CAEDYM을 이용한 대청호 Microcystis Bloom 해석)

  • Chung, Se Woong;Lee, Heung Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.73-87
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    • 2011
  • An abnormal mono-specific bloom of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa had developed at a specific location (transitional zone, monitoring station of Hoenam) in Daecheong Reservoir from middle of July to early August, 2001. The maximum cell counts during the peak bloom reached 1,477,500 cells/mL, which was more than 6~10 times greater than those at other monitoring sites. The hypothesis of this study is that the timing and location of the algal bloom was highly correlated with the local environmental niche that was controled by physical processes such as hydrodynamic mixing and pollutant transport in the reservoir. A three-dimensional, coupled hydrodynamic and ecological model, ELCOM-CAEDYM, was applied to the period of development and subsequent decline of the bloom. The model was calibrated against observed water temperature profiles and water quality variables for different locations, and applied to reproduce the algal bloom event and justify the limiting factor that controled the Microcystis bloom at R3. The simulation results supported the hypothesis that the phosphorus loading induced from a contaminated tributary during several runoff events are closely related to the rapid growth of Microcystis during the period of bloom. Also the physical environments of the reservoir such as a strong thermal stratification and weak wind velocity conditions provided competitive advantage to Microcystis given its light adaptation capability. The results show how the ELCOM-CAEDYM captures the complex interactions between the hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes, and the local environmental niche that is preferable for cyanobacterial species growth.

Numerical Simulation of Steel Mixing during Sequential Casting of Dissimilar Grades in the Continuous Caster (연속주조시 강종 혼합에 관한 수치해석적 연구)

  • Cho, M.J.;Kim, I.C.;Kim, S.J.;Park, H.;Lee, S.S.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.436-443
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    • 2001
  • In order to investigate the mixing of dissimilar grades during the arbitrary grade transition in bloom caster, a computational model has been developed. The model is fully transient and consists of two sub models, which account for mixing in the bloom tundish, mixing in the strand. The developed model was verified using concentration histories measured on 1 : 1 scale bloom tundish water model. The result of numerical model showed good agreement with the experimental results of water model. By using this numerical model, the mixing of dissimilar grades in bloom caster has been simulated. As that result, the characteristics of the steel mixing in the bloom tundish and strand was showed and the amount of the intermixed grade bloom was predicted.

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Solidification Analysis for Evaluation of Cooling Pattern in Bloom Type Continuous Caster (Bloom type 연주기의 냉각패턴 평가를 위한 응고해석)

  • 정영진;김영모;조기현;강충길
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.51-54
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    • 2003
  • The continuous casting is primarily a heat-extraction process in which the heat transfer at various cooling zones profoundly influences quality of products. So development of numerical model is necessarily needed for more specific and clear investigations upon heat transfer mechanism at mold and secondary cooling zones. In this study, heat transfer coefficients which shows the characteristic of heat transfer mechanism in mold are calculated for more exact analysis with temperatures measured in bloom mold using optimal algorithm, and finally the validity of cooling conditions at secondary cooling zone which is actually used at field for 30 Ton bloom type continuous casting of 0.187%C is investigated. From the results of solidification analysis, the characteristic of bloom mold shows good agreements with that of previously studies by other authors and optimized cooling conditions for 0.187%C are presented.

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Interannual variability of spring bloom in the Gulf of Maine observed by SeaWiFS

  • Son, Seung-Hyun;Thomas, Andrew
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • v.1
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    • pp.328-331
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    • 2006
  • Eight years of SeaWiFS data quantify variability in the time/space patterns of spring bloom development in the Gulf of Maine (GOM). Maximum and earliest spring bloom are usually observed over Georges Bank, later on the deep basins from the west to the east GOM, and latest development along the eastern Maine coast in cold, tidally mixed water. Pronounced interannual variability of spring bloom timing, spatial position, and magnitude are shown in the GOM. Strongest negative anomalies are present in April 1998 and 2001 over Georges Bank and the eastern GOM, and in January to April of 2005 over the most of GOM. Positive anomalies are strong in April 2001, 2003 and 2004 in varying locations as well as in February and March 1999. It is suggested that interannaul variability in spring phytoplankton bloom concentrations is strongly associated with changes in water mass and stratification which might be influenced by basin-scale forcing due to large climate change.

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