• Title, Summary, Keyword: Body Condition Score

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The Influence of Dam Weight, Body Condition and Udder Scores on Calf Birth Weight and Preweaning Growth Rates in Beef Cattle

  • Paputungan, U.;Makarechian, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.435-439
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    • 2000
  • Records of weight, age, body condition at calving and udder characteristics scores of 425 beef cows and birth weights and periodical weights of their offspring from birth to weaning were analyzed to study the effect of body weight, condition and udder characteristic scores of dams on birth weight and Preweaning growth of their offspring. Dam's body condition (fat reserve) at calving were scored on a scale of 1 to 5 (1=extremely thin and 5=extremely fat) and dam's udder characteristics were scored on a scale of 1 to 7 (l=udder well attached with small teats and 7=at least one quarters not functional). Dams were from three distinct breed groups and were mated in single sire mating groups within each breed group for 45 days. Within each breed group and year, the dams were classified into high, medium and low based on their weights at the time of parturition. The data were analysed using covariance analysis. In general, calves born to heavier dams were heavier at birth and had higher rate of Preweaning growth. The effect of dam's body condition score on the calf birth weight was not significant. However, cows with average body condition score of 2.5 or 3.0 gave birth to calves that had higher pre weaning growth rates up to weaning than those born to calves with higher body condition score. The udder characteristics score did not affect calf birth weight as expected; however, cows with udder score of 3 (udder well attached with large teats) produced calves with higher preweaning growth rate than those with smaller teats. Based on the results, it can be concluded that maintaining animals with average body condition and weight would result in more efficient calf production. In addition, cows with well attached udder and large teats would provide a better maternal environment for Preweaning growth rates of their calves.

Body weight, graph of body condition score, distribution of milk production, and use or metabolic profiles test for dairy herd health management (우군 건강관리를 위한 체중측정, 체형 그래프 산유량 분포도, 대사프로필 검색의 활용)

  • 김홍집;은길수;강병선;이재규;김정한;송희종
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.279-285
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    • 2001
  • The change of the body condition score(BCS) and milk production graph as days in milk by lactation number show that the productivity of cow is on the increase as increase the lactation number, but the health condition is much worse because of the inappropriate nutrition intake. Metabolic profiles test(MPT) results indicate that the early-lactation for directly after the parturition to the peak production of milk during the total lactation period is the time of the more likely to be exposed to lack of energy, protein, minerals. To solve this problem, the early-lactation cows should be sufficiently supplied the required nutrients and should maximum intake the supplied nutrients not to be suddenly decline body weight and BCS from postparturition to the peak production of milk. To maximize the dry matter intake of a cow, there is have got to improve the management of body weight for heifer's skeletal development and in the dry period which is carelessly deal by mostly farms. This study presents that the use of measurement of body weight, graph of body condition score, distribution of milk production, metabolic profiles test in the monitoring for dairy herd health management is very valuable.

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A Body Condition Scoring System for Bali Cattle

  • Soares, F.S.;Dryden, G. McL.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.1587-1594
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    • 2011
  • Live weight, body length, hip and shoulder heights, heart girth, and metatarsal length were measured on 100 one to two years old Bali (Bos javanicus) bulls. Multiple regression of these measurements on live weight gave a prediction equation involving heart girth and body length (prediction $R^2$ = 0.845). These measurements were also used to derive several frame scores (FS). Live weight (Lwt) divided by FS was used as an index of body condition. Lwt/(length+hip height) was normally distributed and highly correlated with other normally-distributed condition indexes. This index was used to define five body condition scores. These were used to develop a five-point body condition scoring system in which the amount of fleshing over the vertebral processes, ribs, hindquarters, tail head, hooks, at the top of the neck, and the shoulders, the development of wrinkles in the skin above the hock and the neck, and the size of the dewlap, were used to describe the different body condition scores. Animals of score 1 had prominent hooks, shoulders, vertebrae and ribs, and hollow hindquarters and flat tailhead. Score 5 animals had rounded hindquarters, well-filled upper hind legs, small mounds of soft tissue were apparent on the tailhead, their hooks, necks, shoulders, vertebrae and ribs were well covered, and the dewlap was prominent.

A simple method to evaluate body condition score to maintain the optimal body weight in dogs

  • Chun, Ju Lan;Bang, Han Tae;Ji, Sang Yun;Jeong, Jin Young;Kim, Minji;Kim, Byeonghyeon;Lee, Sung Dae;Lee, Yoo Kyung;Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar;Kim, Ki Hyun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.6
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    • pp.366-370
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    • 2019
  • Overweight and obesity induce serious health problems that exert negative effects on dog's welfare. Body condition score (BCS) is a common method to evaluate the body fat mass in animals. By palpating and observing fats under the skin it is possible to predict animal's body fat accumulation condition. BCS is also a useful tool to estimate body fat composition in dogs. However, BCS can be subjective when it was performed by non-professionals like pet's owners. To develop a method to avoid the misevaluation of BCS twenty-four Beagles were enrolled and performed BCS evaluation. In addition, the length of chest and abdominal girths were measured. In correlation analysis, the sizes of chest and abdominal girth were significantly correlated with BCS. Especially, the difference and ratio of the chest and abdominal length were highly correlated with the BCS. With that, we suggested that this simple measurement of chest and abdominal girths by a measuring tape would be an effective method to estimate BCS scores in dogs that helps non-professionals to manage their own dog's nutritional condition by monitoring body fat accumulation condition.

Relationships of Body Composition and Fat Partition with Body Condition Score in Serra da Estrela Ewes

  • Caldeira, R.M.;Portugal, A.V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1108-1114
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    • 2007
  • Twenty eight non-lactating and non-pregnant adult Serra da Estrela ewes, ranging in body condition score (BCS) from 1 to 4 were used to study the relationships between BCS, live weight (LW), body composition and fat partition. Ewes were slaughtered and their kidney knob and channel fat (KKCF), sternal fat (STF) and omental plus mesenteric fat (OMF) were separated and weighed. Left sides of carcasses as well as the respective lumbar joints were then dissected into muscle, bone and subcutaneous (SCF) and intermuscular fat (IMF). The relationship between LW and BCS was studied using data from 1,396 observations on 63 ewes from the same flock and it was found to be linear. Regression analysis was also used to describe the relationships among BCS and/or LW and weights (kg) and percentages in empty body weight (EBW) of dissected tissues. The prediction of weights and percentages in EBW of total fat (TF) and of all fat depots afforded by BCS was better than that provided by LW. Only the weight of muscle and the percentage of bone in the EBW were more efficiently predicted by LW than by BCS. IMF represented the largest fat depot with a BCS of 1 and 2, whereas SCF was the most important site of fat deposition with a BCS of 3 and 4. Allometric coefficients for each fat depot in TF suggest that the fat deposition order in ewes from this breed is: IMF, OMF, SCF and KKCF. Results demonstrate that BCS is a better predictor than LW of body reserves in this breed and that LJ is a suitable anatomical region to evaluate BCS.

Phenotypic Relationship between Lactation Persistency and Change in Body Condition Score in First-lactation Holstein Cows

  • Yamazaki, Takeshi;Takeda, Hisato;Nishiura, Akiko;Sasai, Youji;Sugawara, Naoko;Togashi, Kenji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.610-615
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    • 2011
  • We examined the correlations between lactation curve shape, including persistency and changes in body condition score (BCS) during early-stage (0 to 30 days in milk (DIM)), nadir-stage (31 to 90 DIM), and late-stage (91 to 240 DIM) lactation in 191 first-lactation cows. Data used were first-parity BCS records, scored twice every month after calving, and daily milk yields. Individual lactation curves were depicted by the Wilmink function. Lactation persistency was defined as the difference in estimated milk yields between 240 DIM and 60 DIM. Changes in BCSs in the early and late stages were defined as linear regression coefficients. There were no significant correlations between traits for lactation curve shape and change in BCS in early-stage lactation. Peak yield and total milk yield were negatively correlated with BCSs in nadir- and late-stage lactation and with BCS change in late-stage lactation, suggesting that cows with high lactation yields had low body reserves and health status in mid- to late lactation and had delayed recovery of body reserves. Lactation persistency was positively correlated with change in BCS in late-stage lactation, suggesting that cows with high lactation persistency tended to be healthy and to recover their body reserves well in late lactation.

Comparative Study of Nutrient Intakes and Health Status with Body Size and Weight Control Experience in Adolescent Females (청년기 여성의 체형과 체중조절 경험에 따른 영양소 섭취량과 건강상태에 대한 비교 연구)

  • 류호경;윤진숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.444-451
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to investigate how body size and weight control experience affect the nutrient intakes and the health status of adolescent females. The survey was carried out by self-questionnaires with 463 female high school and college students in Daegu. Analysis of data was done by using a t-test, and ANOVA with the SAS computer program. The average height, weight and BMI of the subjects were 161.2 cm, 53.4 kg, and 20.51 kg/$m^2$ respectively. However, 25.1% of the subjects belonged to the underweight group when we divided the subjects into 3 groups- underweight, normal-weight, overweight-according to their present body size. The average Fe intake of the subjects was less than 50% of the Korean recommended dietary allowances. The dietary intakes of energy and Vit. A were significantly higher in the underweight group than in other groups. However, no significant differences among body size groups were observed in the dietary habit score and the nutritional knowledge score. It also appeared that the dietary habit score and the nutritional knowledge score of the weight control attemptees were worse than those of the non-attemptees. The physical health status of the subjects significantly differed according to weight control experience, and the psychological health status of the subjects differed with present body size. The physical health condition of the weight control attemptees was worse than the non-attemptees. and the psychological health condition of the overweight group was worse than other groups. The results indicated that unnecessary weight control in adolescent females induces unhealthy food behavior which is linked to undesirable health status.

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SOURCES OF VARIATION IN CALVING DIFFICULTY IN BEEF HEIFERS

  • Paputungan, U.;Makarechian, M.;Liu, M.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 1994
  • Calving records of 107 heifers from two breed groups were used to identify the major factors contributing to calving difficulty (dystocia) and compare the influence of pelvic diameters, weight and height of heifers measured after breeding and before calving on dystocia. The horizontal and vertical pelvic diameters, hip height and weight of heifers were measured two months after breeding and again two months before calving. Snell transformed calving difficulty scores (0 = normal to 100 = surgical intervention) were used in analyzing the data by analysis of covariance. Body condition score of the heifer, sire birth weight of the calf, birth weight of the calf, and ratio of calf birth weight to pelvic area all had significant effects on dystocia. Calf birth weight, ratio of calf birth weight to pelvic area, and heifer's condition score were especially important. However, sex of calf did not have a significant influence on dystocia. Generally, the variables measured before calving accounted for a higher proportion of variation in dystocia than those measured after breeding. Thus, based on the relative importance of the major factors affecting dystocia, it is suggested that selection of bulls with low birth weight for breeding on normal size heifers with optimum body condition score, and well developed pelvic opening, would be effective in reducing the incidence and severity of dystocia in beef heifers.

Effects of Nutrition Knowledge, Dietary Attitude, Dietary Habits and Life Style on the Health of College Students in the Chungnam Area (충남지역 대학생의 영양지식, 식태도, 식습관 및 생활습관이 건강상태에 미치는 영향)

  • 김인숙;유현희;한혜숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.45-57
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this research of this research was to survey the health of 181 male and 130 female students at K University in Chunganm from June 1 to June 23, 2001. It analyzed the students’dietary behaviors, life styles and perceived body shapes and the correlation of these factors to the health condition of the students surveyed. The results of the survey are summarized as follows. The average nutrition knowledge score (out of a possible 20 points), dietary attitudes score (out of a possible 50 points) and dietary habits score (out of a possible 30 points) were 8.66, 33.14 and 19.02 for males, and 9.99, 32.64, and 19.05 for females, respectively. The percentages of those who smoked, drank, smoked and drank and exercised regularly were 55.2, 92.8, 54.1, 82.9% for males, and 6.9, 91.5, 6.9, 63.1 for females, respectively. A significantly higher proportion of males smoked, drank, and exercised as compared to females (p<0.001). The percentages of students who were underweight, normal or overweight by BMI were 5.0, 79.0 and 16.0 for males, and 20.0, 78.5 and 1.5 for females, respectively. Fifty percent of females indicated that they felt they were obese, versus only 31.1% of males. Half of the females thought they were fattish, while only 31.1% of males thought that. Seventy-six point nine percent of females and 61.9% of males, more females than males, were dissatisfied with their weights. The health scores (the higher the point, the better the health condition) of the females (44.17) were significantly lower than those of the males (47.17) (p<0.001). A stepwise multiple regression analysis with health scores as the dependent variable and other scores as independent variables, indicated that the health scores of males were highly correlated with satisfaction with his body weight, smoking and drinking, and perceived body shape, whereas the females’health scores were highly correlated with obesity level, satisfaction with her body weight, and smoking and drinking.