• Title, Summary, Keyword: Brain Injury

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The Usefulness of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Mild Head Injury and the Negative Findings of Brain Computed Tomography

  • Kim, Du Su;Kong, Min Ho;Jang, Se Youn;Kim, Jung Hee;Kang, Dong Soo;Song, Kwan Young
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.100-106
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    • 2013
  • Objective : To investigate the cases of intracranial abnormal brain MRI findings even in the negative brain CT scan after mild head injury. Methods : During a 2-year period (January 2009-December 2010), we prospectively evaluated both brain CT and brain MRI of 180 patients with mild head injury. Patients were classified into two groups according to presence or absence of abnormal brain MRI finding even in the negative brain CT scan after mild head injury. Two neurosurgeons and one neuroradiologist validated the images from both brain CT scan and brain MRI double blindly. Results : Intracranial injury with negative brain CT scan after mild head injury occurred in 18 patients (10.0%). Headache (51.7%) without neurologic signs was the most common symptom. Locations of intracranial lesions showing abnormal brain MRI were as follows; temporal base (n=8), frontal pole (n=5), falx cerebri (n=2), basal ganglia (n=1), tentorium (n=1), and sylvian fissure (n=1). Intracranial injury was common in patients with a loss of consciousness, symptom duration >2 weeks, or in cases of patients with linear skull fracture (p=0.00013), and also more frequent in multiple associated injury than simple one (35.7%>8.6%) (p=0.105). Conclusion : Our investigation showed that patients with mild head injury even in the negative brain CT scan had a few cases of intracranial injury. These findings indicate that even though the brain CT does not show abnormal findings, they should be thoroughly watched in further study including brain MRI in cases of multiple injuries and when their complaints are sustained.

Analysis of Traumatic Brain Injury Using a Finite Element Model

  • Suh Chang-Min;Kim Sung-Ho;Oh Sang-Yeob
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.1424-1431
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    • 2005
  • In this study, head injury by impact force was evaluated by numerical analysis with 3-dimensional finite element (FE) model. Brain deformation by frontal head impact was analyzed to evaluate traumatic brain injury (TBI). The variations of head acceleration and intra-cranial pressure (ICP) during the impact were analyzed. Relative displacement between the skull and the brain due to head impact was investigated from this simulation. In addition, pathological severity was evaluated according to head injury criterion (HIC) from simulation with FE model. The analytic result of brain damage was accorded with that of the cadaver test performed by Nahum et al.(1977) and many medical reports. The main emphasis of this study is that our FE model was valid to simulate the traumatic brain injury by head impact and the variation of the HIC value was evaluated according to various impact conditions using the FE model.

Relationship Between Brain Injury and Head Circumference Growth in Extremely Premature Infants (중증 미숙아의 뇌병변과 머리둘레 성장 간의 관계)

  • Ahn, Young-Mee;Lee, Sang-Mi
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.281-287
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The study was done to explore growth variation in head circumference (HC) in extremely premature infants (EPI) with brain injury. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 79 cohort samples from the archives of the catch-up growth project. Mean age of the infants was 29.2 weeks of gestation and mean HC, 27.1 cm at birth. Their HC measurements were retrieved from the archives up to 6 month of corrected age (CA) and analyzed against history of brain injury during hospitalization. Results: Overall growth retardation in HC was observed in the cohort sample compared to longer gestation premature infants. EPI with brain injury showed decreased HC compared to infants without brain injury, and resulting growth variation across 6 month of CA. Highest retardation in HC growth was observed in male infants with brain injury. Conclusion: Extreme preterm birth itself may function as a major obstacle against HC growth toward term age in EPI. Sustainability of brain injury could be observed with higher HC growth retardation after term. Evolutionary favor to female infants may exist in HC growth of EPI. Intensive education on HC monitoring is highly suggested for parents of EPI, particularly with children with brain injury.

Brain consequences of acute kidney injury: Focusing on the hippocampus

  • Malek, Maryam
    • Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.315-322
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    • 2018
  • The high mortality rates associated with acute kidney injury are mainly due to extra-renal complications that occur following distant-organ involvement. Damage to these organs, which is commonly referred to as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, has more severe and persistent effects. The brain and its sub-structures, such as the hippocampus, are vulnerable organs that can be adversely affected. Acute kidney injury may be associated with numerous brain and hippocampal complications, as it may alter the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Although the pathogenesis of acute uremic encephalopathy is poorly understood, some of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to hippocampal involvement include the release of multiple inflammatory mediators that coincide with hippocampus inflammation and cytotoxicity, neurotransmitter derangement, transcriptional dysregulation, and changes in the expression of apoptotic genes. Impairment of brain function, especially of a structure that has vital activity in learning and memory and is very sensitive to renal ischemic injury, can ultimately lead to cognitive and functional complications in patients with acute kidney injury. The objective of this review was to assess these complications in the brain following acute kidney injury, with a focus on the hippocampus as a critical region for learning and memory.

The use of Amantadine in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients (외상성 뇌손상환자에서 Amantadine의 사용)

  • Jung, Han Yong;Kim, Yang Rae
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2000
  • Avariety of symptoms can occur following traumatic brain injury(TBI) or other types of acquired brain injury. These symptoms can include problems with short-term memory, attention, planning, problem solving, impulsivity, disinhibition, poor motivation, and other behavioral and cognitive deficit. These symptoms may respond to certain drugs, such as dopaminergic agents. Amantadine may protect patients from secondary neuronal damage after brain injury as a effect of NMDA receptor antagonists and may improve functioning of brain-injured patients as a dopaminergic agonist. Clinically, based on current evidence, amantadine may provide a potentially effective, safe, and inexpensive option for treating the cognitive, mood, and behavioral disorders of individuals with brain injury. The rationales for using amantadine are discussed, and pertinent literatures are reviewed.

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Traumatic Brain Injury and Sleep Disorder (외상성 뇌손상과 수면장애)

  • Kim, Young-Chul
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.97-101
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    • 1999
  • Sleep disorders are relatively common occurrence after traumatic brain injury. Sleep disturbances often resulted in difficulties in sleep onset and sleep maintenance, nonrestorative after sleep, poor daytime performances and poor individual sense of wellbeing. Unfortunately, there has been minimal attention paid to this common and disabling sequela of brain injury. Better undertanding about problem, pathophysiology and treatment of sleep disorder after traumatic brain injury will improve the cognitive function, social adjustment and rehabilitation for injured patients. Also it may be helpful to reduce traumatic brain injury in patients with sleep apnea.

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The effect of erythropoietin in neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (Erythropoietin의 투여가 신생백서 저산소허혈뇌손상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Heng-Mi;Choe, Byung-Ho;Kwon, Soon-Hak;Sohn, Yoon-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of neonatal mortality and subsequent lifelong neurodevelopmental handicaps. Although many treatment strategies have been tested, there is currently no clinically effective treatment to prevent or reduce the harmful effects of hypoxia and ischemia in humans. Erythropoietin (Epo) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various brain injury models although the exact mechanisms through which Epo functions are not completely understood. This study investigates the effect of Epo on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and the possibility that its neuroprotective actions may be associated with iron-mediated metabolism. Methods : HI brain injury was produced in 7-day-old rats by unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia with 8% oxygen for 2 h. At the end of HI brain injury, the rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 5,000 units/kg erythropoietin. Random premedication with iron, deferoxamine, iron-deferoxamine, or saline were performed 23 d before HI brain injury. The severity of the brain injury was assessed at 7 d after HI. Results : Single Epo treatment post-HI brain injury reduced the gross and histopathological findings of brain injury. Iron premedication did not increase the incidence or severity of the injury as measured by the damage score. Deferoxamine administration before HI brain injury improved the brain injury as compared to no treatment or Epo treatment. Conclusion : These findings indicate that Epo provides neuroprotective benefits after HI in the developing brain. These findings suggest that Epos neuroprotective actions may involve reducing iron in tissues that mediate the formation of free radicals.

A study of injury mechanism and neural plasticity of traumatic brain injury (외상성 뇌손상의 손상 기전과 신경가소성에 대한 고찰)

  • Song Ju-min;Kim Jin-Sang
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.90-98
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    • 2004
  • Traumatic brain injury is an insult to the brain caused by an external physical force, that may product a diminished or altered state of consciousness, which results in impairment of cognitive abilities or physical function. The purposes of this study were to overview injury mechanism and neural plasticity of traumatic brain injury. Injury mecanism includes exitotoxicity, production free radical, inflammation and apoptosis. Furthermore traumatic brain injury has protective mechanisms includes production of neural growth factor, heat shock protein, anti-inflammatory cytokines.

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Serologic Markers of Excessive Callus formation in Traumatic Brain Injury Patient (다발성 환자에서 뇌 손상이 동반된 장골 골절 시 가골 형성 촉진예측을 위한 혈액검사에 대한 고찰)

  • Park, Hee-Gon;Kim, Yeon-Jun
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Among patients with multiple traumatic fractures, a tendency to form more callus exists in groups with multiple fractures combined with traumatic brain injury. This retrospective study evaluated the hematologic factors that might be useful to predict callus formation by comparing serologic tests and clinical and radiologic results in two groups. Methods: From January 2000 to December 2010, patients with femur shaft fractures were divided in two groups: one without traumatic brain injury (control group: 32 cases), and the other with traumatic brain injury (study group: 44 cases). We evaluated routine serologic exams and the amount of callus formation during the follow-up period. Results: Only the alkaline phosphatase level was statistically different between the two groups, not the White blood cell count, C-reactive protein, total calcium, and lactate dehydrogenase level. The amount of callus formation on the antero-posterior radiograph at the last follow up period was 74.9% in the study group and 42.1% in the control group. Then lateral radiograph showed 73.2% callus formation rate in the study group and 31.8% in the control group. Conclusion: In routine serologic exams, the two groups had no significant differences, except for the alkaline phosphatase level. The group with traumatic brain injury had much more callus formation, but there was no reliable factor to predict callus formation on the routine serologic exam.

Post-Traumatic Cerebral Infarction Following Low-Energy Penetrating Craniocerebral Injury Caused by a Nail

  • Chen, Po-Chuan;Tsai, Shih-Hung;Chen, Yu-Long;Liao, Wen-I
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.293-295
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    • 2014
  • Post-traumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) is a secondary insult which causes global cerebral hypoxia or hypoperfusion after traumatic brain injury, and carries a remarkable high mortality rate. PTCI is usually caused by blunt brain injury with gross hematoma and/or brain herniation. Herein, we present the case of a 91-year-old male who had sustained PTCI following a low-energy penetrating craniocerebral injury due to a nail without evidence of hematoma. The patient survived after a decompressive craniectomy, but permanent neurological damage occurred. This is the first case of profound PTCI following a low-energy penetrating craniocerebral nail injury and reminds clinicians of possibility this rare dreadful complication for care of head-injured patients.