• Title, Summary, Keyword: Brain edema

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Effect of Rhei Rhizoma on Brain Edema Induced by MCAO in Rats (대황(大黃)이 뇌허혈 손상에 의한 뇌부종에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Kyung-Hwa;Sohn, Nak-Won;Kim, Bum-Hoi
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.866-871
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    • 2009
  • Brain edema is a major importance in the pathophysiology of CNS injuries including stroke. Ischemic brain edema results from both cytotoxic edema, which is severe in astrocytes at early stage, and vasogenic edema caused by excessive blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. The present study was performed to determine the effect of Rhei Rhizoma on brain edema induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the rats. The neurological symptom, total infarct volume and edema index caused by MCAO were measured. The changes of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactivities were also observed. We found that Rhei Rhizoma extract improved the neurological symptom and attenuated the total infarct volume and brain edema caused by ischemic insult. Rhei Rhizoma extract also attenuated the expression of MMP-9 and iNOS. This results suggest that Rhei Rhizoma has a protective effect on the brain edema caused by ischemic insult.

Effects of Gastrodiae Rhizoma on Brain Edema and Aquaporin Expressions Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats (천마(天麻)가 뇌조직출혈(腦組織出血) 흰쥐의 뇌부종(腦浮腫)과 Aquaporins 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ju-Yong;Ku, Ja-Seung;Lee, Dong-Eun;Shin, Jung-Won;Kim, Seung-Joon;Sohn, Nak-Won
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : This study aimed at evaluation of the effects of Gastrodiae Rhizoma on brain edema and aquaporin water channel expressions in the brain. Methods : Brain edema following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was induced by the stereotaxic intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase type VII in Sprague-Dawley rats. Then ethanol extract of Gastrodiae rhizoma was treated once a day for 3 days. Brain edema % and water contents, and cell size of neurons in the cerebral cortex were examined. Immuno-histochemistry was processed for AQP4, AQP1, and AQP9 expressions in the brain sections and area % of immuno-labeling was analyzed with image analysis. Results : 1. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma reduced brain edema of ICH induced rats significantly. 2. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma reduced excessive brain tissue water contents of ICH induced rats significantly. 3. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma reduced cellular edema of neurons in cerebral cortex of ICH induced rats significantly. 4. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma reduced AQP4 immuno-positive area % in cerebral cortex and external capsule of ICH induced rat brain significantly. 5. Ethanol extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma reduced AQP9 immuno-positive area % in glia limitans externa of ICH induced rat brain significantly. Conclusions : These results suggest that Gastrodiae Rhizoma reveals protective effects against brain edema and cytotoxic edema of neurons by means of down-regulation of AQP4 expression in the brain.

Effects of Astragali Radix on Brain Edema and Apoptosis in Intracerebral Hemorrhage of Rats (황기(黃芪)가 Intracerebral Hemorrhage 흰쥐의 뇌부종(腦浮腫)에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Hyung-Jin;Park, Wan-Su;Kim, Youn-Sub
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.1027-1033
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    • 2010
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Astragali radix on brain edema of intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH)-induced rats. Brain edema following ICH was induced via the stereotaxic intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase type VII in Sprague-Dawley rats. Ethanol extract of Astragli radix was treated once a day for 3 days. Then brain hematoma volume and edema were examined. Immunohistochemistry was processed for iNOS, c-Fos, Bax, and HSP72 expressions in the brain sections and each immuno-labeling were calculated with image analysis. Ethanol extract of Astragli radix reduced hematoma volume(not significantly) and brain edema(significantly) ICH induced rats. Ethanol extract of Astragli radix reduced iNOS expressions, c-Fos, Bax and HSP72 positive cells significantly and reduced apoptotic bodies and swollen neurons in ICH induced rat brain. These results suggest that Astragli radix plays an inhibitory role in the hemorrhagic, inflammatory and apoptotic events induced by ICH. And it is supposed that neuroprotective effect of Astragli radix reveals by anti-apoptosis mechanism.

Effects of Rhodiola Rosea on Brain Edema and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expressions Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the Rat (홍경천(紅景天)이 뇌조직내출혈(腦組織內出血) 흰쥐의 뇌부종(腦浮腫)과 Matrix Metalloproteinase 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Sa-Hyun;Lee, Joon-Suk;Shin, Jung-Won;Kim, Seong-Joon;Sohn, Nak-Won
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.169-180
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : This study aimed at evaluation of the effects of Rhodiola rosea on brain edema and expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) related to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Methods : Brain edema following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was induced by the stereotaxic intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase type VII in rats (Sprague-Dawley). Then ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea was treated once a day for 3 days. Brain edema % and water contents, and BBB leakage were examined. Immunohistochemistry was processed for MMP-9, MMP-12, and iNOS expressions in the brain sections and each immuno-labeled cells were analyzed with image analysis software. Results : 1. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced brain edema following ICH in rats significantly. 2. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced excessive brain tissue water contents following ICH in rats significantly. 3. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced BBB leakage in the cerebral cortex following ICH in rats. 4. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced cellular edema of neurons in peri-hematoma and the cerebral cortex following ICH in rats significantly. 5. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced MMP-9 positive cells in the cerebral cortex following ICH in rats significantly. 6. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced MMP-12 positive vessels in the cerebral cortex following ICH in rats significantly. 7. Ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea reduced iNOS positive cells in the cerebral cortex and external capsule following ICH in rats significantly. Conclusions : These results suggest that Rhodiola rosea reveals protective effect against brain edema and cytotoxic edema of neurons by means of down-regulation of MMPs and iNOS expressions, and inhibition of BBB leakage.

Differential Expression of the Tight Junction Protein, Occludin, in Brain Tumors

  • Kim, Choong-Hyun;Cheong, Jin-Hwan;Bak, Koang-Hum;Kim, Jae-Min;Ko, Yong;Oh, Suck-Jun
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.12-15
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    • 2005
  • Objective : Cerebral edema develops in the brain tumors by loosening of the endothelial tight junction. Tight junction[TJ] proteins, such as occludin and claudin bind adjacent cells tightly. Authors examine the expression rate of occludin in human brain tumors to evaluate the effect of altered expression of occludin on cerebral edema. Methods : Seventy surgical specimens stored at $-70^{\circ}C$ were used. It included 14 astrocytic tumors, 27 meningiomas, 12 scwannomas, 7 pituitary adenomas, 6 hemangioblastomas. and 4 craniopharyngiomas. After protein extraction, expression of occludin was investigated by Western blot analysis. The tumors were classified according to World Health Organization[WHO] classification. Results : The expression rates of occludin in brain tumors were : glioma [8/14=57.1%]. meningioma [16/27=59.3%], schwannoma [10/12=83.3%], pituitary adenoma [6/7=85.7%], hemangioblastoma [6/6=100%], and craniopharyngioma [3/4=75.0%]. The expression rate in glioma and meningioma was lower than other brain tumors. In gliomas, high grade tumor [1/4=25.0%] exhibited lower expression rate of occludin than low grade one [7/10=70.0%]. Conclusion : These results suggest that the expression of occludin is different among the various kinds of brain tumors. In gliomas, its expression is correlated with the histological grade. It may indicate that occludin plays a role in the development of edema in the brain tumors.

Effects of Hwangnyeonhaedok-tang on Cerebral Hemorrhage and Edema in Collagenase Induced-ICH Rats (황련해독탕(黃連解毒湯)이 Collagenase에 의한 흰쥐의 뇌출혈 및 뇌부종에 미치는 영향)

  • Ku, Ja-Seung;Lee, Joon-Suk;Shin, Jung-Won;Kim, Seong-Joon;Sohn, Nak-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.100-113
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: Brain edema is brain swelling that occurs due to the accumulation of excess water in the brain parenchyma. AQP4 and AQP9 are water-channel proteins expressed strongly in the brain and control water fluxes into and out of the brain parenchyma. This study was conducted to evaluate effect of Hwangnyeonhaedok-tang on brain edema and intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods: Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced by intrastriatal injection of type IV collagenase(0.23 U/${\mu}l$, 0.1 ${\mu}l$/min) into Sprague-Dawley rat brains. Hwangnyeonhaedok-tang water extract(1,000 mg/kg) was administered orally three times every 20 hours from 4 hours after ICH operation. Then hematoma volume, brain edema percentage, and water content of brain tissue were measured. Immuno-histochemistry was performed for AQP4 and AQP9 expressions in the brain sections and area % of immuno-labeling was analyzed with image analyzing system. Results: 1. Water extract of Hwangnyeonhaedok-tang reduced hematoma volume of ICH induced rat. 2. Water extract of Hwangnyeonhaedok-tang reduced MPO positive neutrophils in the perihematoma of the ICH induced rat. 3. Water extract of Hwangnyeonhaedok-tang reduced brain edema percentage and water content of brain tissue of ICH induced rat. 4. Water extract of Hwangnyeonhaedok-tang reduced AQP4 immuno-positive cells in the perihematoma of the ICH induced rat. 5. Water extract of Hwangnyeonhaedok-tang reduced AQP9 immuno-positive cells in the perihematoma of the ICH induced rat. Conclusions: These results suggest that Hwangnyeonhaedok-tang decreases intracerebral hemorrhage and brain edema by means of downregulating AQP4 and AQP9 expressions in the brain.

Extent of Contrast Enhancement on Non-Enhanced Computed Tomography after Intra-Arterial Thrombectomy for Acute Infarction on Anterior Circulation : As a Predictive Value for Malignant Brain Edema

  • Song, Seung Yoon;Ahn, Seong Yeol;Rhee, Jong Ju;Lee, Jong Won;Hur, Jin Woo;Lee, Hyun Koo
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.321-327
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    • 2015
  • Objective : To determine whether the use of contrast enhancement (especially its extent) predicts malignant brain edema after intra-arterial thrombectomy (IAT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods : We reviewed the records of patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent IAT for occlusion of the internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery between January 2012 and March 2015. To estimate the extent of contrast enhancement (CE), we used the contrast enhancement area ratio (CEAR)-i.e., the ratio of the CE to the area of the hemisphere, as noted on immediate non-enhanced brain computed tomography (NECT) post-IAT. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the CEAR values being either greater than or less than 0.2. Results : A total of 39 patients were included. Contrast enhancement was found in 26 patients (66.7%). In this subgroup, the CEAR was greater than 0.2 in 7 patients (18%) and less than 0.2 in the other 19 patients (48.7%). On univariate analysis, both CEAR ${\geq}0.2$ and the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage were significantly associated with progression to malignant brain edema (p<0.001 and p=0.004), but on multivariate analysis, only CEAR ${\geq}0.2$ showed a statistically significant association (p=0.019). In the group with CEAR ${\geq}0.2$, the time to malignant brain edema was shorter (p=0.039) than in the group with CEAR <0.2. Clinical functional outcomes, based on the modified Rankin scale, were also significantly worse in patients with CEAR ${\geq}0.2$ (p=0.003) Conclusion : The extent of contrast enhancement as noted on NECT scans obtained immediately after IAT could be predictive of malignant brain edema and a poor clinical outcome.

Unexpected Severe Cerebral Edema after Cranioplasty : Case Report and Literature Review

  • Lee, Gwang Soo;Park, Sukh Que;Kim, Rasun;Cho, Sung Jin
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.76-78
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    • 2015
  • This report details a case of unexpected, severe post-operative cerebral edema following cranioplasty. We discuss the possible pathological mechanisms of this complication. A 50-year-old female was admitted to our department with sudden onset of stuporous consciousness. A brain computed tomography (CT) revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage with intracranial hemorrhage and subdural hematoma. Emergency decompressive craniectomy and aneurysmal neck clipping were performed. Following recovery, the decision was made to proceed with an autologous cranioplasty. The cranioplasty procedure was free of complications. An epidural drain was placed and connected to a suction system during skin closure to avoid epidural blood accumulation. However, following the procedure, the patient had a seizure in the recovery room. An emergency brain CT scan revealed widespread cerebral edema, and the catheter drain was clamped. The increased intracranial pressure and cerebral edema were controlled with osmotic diuretics, corticosteroids, and antiepileptic drugs. The edema slowly subsided, but new low-density areas were noted in the brain on follow-up CT 1 week later. We speculated that placing the epidural drain on active suction may have caused an acute decrease in intracranial pressure and subsequent rapid expansion of the brain, which impaired autoregulation and led to reperfusion injury.

Effects of Dendrobii herba against Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats (석곡(石斛)이 흰쥐의 뇌조직출혈에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung-Dong;Kim, Youn-Sub
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2012
  • Objects : This study was performed in order to observe the effects of water extract of Dendrobii herba on intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), Method : ICH was induced by the stereotaxic intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase type IV in Sprague-Dawley rats. After the water extracts of Dendrobii herba were administrated orally once a day for 3 days, hematoma volume, percentage of brain edema, expression of iNOS and MPO were observed using immunohistochemistry. Results : Rats fed with water extracts of Dendrobii herba showed reduction of hematoma volume and percentage of brain edema compared with controls. In addition, Infiltration of myeloperoxidase (MPO) expressing neutrophil and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthatase(iNOS) were significantly reduced in rats fed with water extracts of Dendrobii herba. Conclusion : These results demonstrated that water extracts of Dendrobii herba reduced brain damage of intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH) and subsequent ICH-induced cerebral edema, and inhibited neutrophil infiltration.

Peritumoral Brain Edema in Meningiomas: Correlation of Radiologic and Pathologic Features

  • Kim, Byung-Won;Kim, Min-Su;Kim, Sang-Woo;Chang, Chul-Hoon;Kim, Oh-Lyong
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.26-30
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    • 2011
  • Objective: The primary objective of this study was to perform a retrospective evaluation of the radiological and pathological features influencing the formation of peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) in meningiomas. Methods: The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathology data for 86 patients with meningiomas, who underwent surgery at our institution between September 2003 and March 2009, were examined. We evaluated predictive factors related to peritumoral edema including gender, tumor volume, shape of tumor margin, presence of arachnoid plane, the signal intensity (SI) of the tumor in T2-weighted image (T2WI), the WHO histological classification (GI, GII/GIII) and the Ki-67 antigen labeling index (LI). The edema-tumor volume ratio was calculated as the edema index (EI) and was used to evaluate peritumoral edema. Results: Gender (p=0.809) and pathological finding (p=0.084) were not statistically significantly associated with peritumoral edema by univariate analysis. Tumor volume was not correlated with the volume of peritumoral edema. By univariate analysis, three radiological features, and one pathological finding, were associated with PTBE of statistical significance: shape of tumor margin (p=0.001), presence of arachnoid plane (p=0.001), high SI of tumor in T2WI (p=0.001), and Ki-67 antigen LI (p=0.049). These results suggest that irregular tumor margins, hyperintensity in T2WI, absence of arachnoid plane on the MRI, and high Ki-67 LI can be important predictive factors that influence the formation of peritumoral edema in meningiomas. By multivariate analysis, only SI of the tumor in T2WI was statistically significantly associated with peritumoral edema. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that irregular tumor margin, hyperintensity in T2WI, absence of arachnoid plane on the MRI, and high Ki-67 LI may be important predictive factors influencing the formation of peritumoral edema in meningiomas.