• Title/Summary/Keyword: Branched polymer

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A SINGLE FLOCCULANT/DUAL FLOCCULATION SYSTEM FOR DEWATERING USING A BRANCHED SELF INVERSING EMULSION FLOCCULANT

  • Bae, Young-Han;Lee, Sung-Sik
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.208-216
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    • 2006
  • In order to create a single flocculant/dual flocculation system, polyacrylamide-co-trimethyl ammonium ethyl acrylate chloride (TAEAC) polymers with varying molecular weights and structures were prepared for use of flocculants. The higher the cationic density of the polymer is higher, the higher was the conversion rate and the ratio of monomer. An acrylamide as nonionic monomer was less reactive than a TAEAC as cationic monomer. The branched polymer which was polymerized with a cross-linking agent, N, N-methylene bis-acrylamide had a higher stability and higher viscosity than a linear polymer but its dewatering efficiency was poor in a single flocculation system. In the case of single flocculant/dual flocculation, the branched polymer has better flocculation efficiency and the water content of the dewatered cakes was lower than the others, as the result of a re-flocculation effect. The optimum conditions for dual flocculation are a sequence in which the $1^{st}$ and $2^{nd}$ dosage are 75% and 25%/total dosage of a single flocculation system. The dewatering efficiency of a dual flocculation system is improved considerably from 10 to 25% under the experimental conditions used herein.

Constitutive equations for polymer mole and rubbers: Lessons from the $20^{th}$ century

  • Wagner, Manfred H.
    • Korea-Australia Rheology Journal
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.293-304
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    • 1999
  • Refinements of classical theories for entangled or crosslinked polymeric systems have led to incommensurable models for rubber networks and polymer melts, contrary to experimental evidence, which suggests a great deal of similarity. Uniaxial elongation and compression data of linear and branched polymer melts as well as of crosslinked rubbers were analyzed with respect to their nonlinear strain measure. This was found to be the result of two contributions: (1) affine orientation of network strands, and (2) isotropic strand extension. Network strand extension is caused by an increasing restriction of lateral movement of polymer chains due to deformation, and is modelled by a molecular stress function which in the tube concept of Doi and Edwards is the inverse of the relative tube diameter. Up to moderate strains, $f^2$ is found to be linear in the average stretch for melts as well as for rubbers, which corresponds to a constant tube volume. At large strains, rubbers show maximum extensibility, while melts show maximum molecular tension. This maximum value of the molecular stress function governs the ultimate magnitude of the strain-hardening effect of linear and long-chain branched polymer melts in extensional flows.

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Sucrose Derivatives Preparation using Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase and Their Application

  • Ashrafuzzaman, Md.;Pyo, Jung In;Cheong, Chan Seong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.477-482
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    • 2014
  • We immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase to catalyze transesterification reaction in DMF. This lipase was selected after screening among other commercial lipases. We found that prepared immobilized lipase is particularly useful for preparation of 6-O-acylsucrose with higher conversion rate even in 10 g scale. Several solvents were evaluated for selective transesterification reaction. We noticed that the immobilized lipase retained more than 80 % activity after 5 cycles of 96 h reaction. A general method was also developed to purify the products using simple crystallization and precipitation process. Furthermore, 6-O-vinyladipoylsucrose was subjected to synthesis of the corresponding polymer by radical initiator. The sucrose branched polymer can be used further for evaluation of its biodegradability and other biological applications.

Solution Viscosity and Relative Reactivity of Branched and Linear Polycarbonates

  • Kim, Sang-Pil;Lee, Bong-Hee;Kim, Sang-Hern;Kim, Whan-Gi
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.76-82
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    • 2000
  • The relative reactivities of branched and linear polycarbonates were investigated by measuring unreacted chloroformate concentration. It was found that the polymerization for the branched polymer proceeded ca. 10 times faster than that for the linear polymers. The effect of catalyst on a condensation step was studied by changing the amount of TEA (triethylamine) at $t_{0}$ and $t_{60}$ with keeping constant amount of TEA. The viscosity average molecular weight for the obtained branched polycarbonates were measured and compared with those of linear polycarbonates. It was found that the viscosity molecular weights of the obtained polymers decreased nonlinearly as wt % of added oligomer increased. The solution viscosities in methylenechloride for linear and branched polycarbonate increased nonlinearly as the content of polymer increased.

Polymerization of Anisole Derivatives Containing Allyl or Chloromethyl Group Through Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Reaction

  • 장지영;박필정;한만정
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1288-1291
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    • 1997
  • 4-Allylanisole was polymerized with AlCl3 as a catalyst. The polymerization was carried out in nitroethane at various temperatures with changing the ratio of the initiator to the monomer concentration. The weight averge molecular weights measured by gel permeation chromatography in chloroform with polystyrene standards were between 1,500 and 4,700. 1H NMR spectroscopy showed that the polymerization proceeded through a stepwise aromatic electrophilic substitution reaction along with a minor chain-reaction, resulting in a branched polymer. 4-Chloromethylanisole was also polymerized with AlCl3 in nitroethane through an aromatic electrophilic substitution reaction to give a high molecular weight polymer (Mw=88,000).

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New Retention System Using Branched Polymer

  • Son, Dong-Jin;Kim, Bong-Yong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.251-256
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to confirm multiple retention system of C-PAM, A-PAM and Inorganic micro particles vs. traditional micro particle system and dual polymer system by measuring retention, drainage and formation using RDA HSF and Techpap 2D -F Sensor The benefits of dual polymer system were easy to use, low chemical consumption and good retention property but defect was worse drainage property than inorganic microparticle systems. On the other hand, Inorganic microparticle system had benefit of good drainage effect but defects were difficult to use, high chemical consumption. Therefore, we tried to find optimal morphology of polyacrylamide and applied to multiple retention system of C-PAM, A-PAM and inorganic microparticles to compensate defects of both of retention systems. As a result, we found the performance of branched C-PAM, branched A-PAM and inorganic micro particle triple system was more appropriate than traditional inorganic mircoparticle systems or dual polymer systems by comparing retention, drainage and formation.

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Preparation of Branched Polystyrene Using Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Techniques and Protection-Deprotection Chemistry

  • Kwark, Young-Je
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.238-246
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    • 2008
  • A new strategy using protection-deprotection chemistry was used to prepare branched polymers using the ATRP method only. Among the several monomers with different protecting groups, vinyl benzyl t-butyloxy carbonate (VBt-BOC) and 4-methyl styrene (4-MeSt) could be polymerized successfully to form backbones using the ATRP method in a controlled fashion. The protected groups in the backbones were converted to alkyl bromides and used as initiating sites for branch formation. The benzyl t-butyloxy carbonate groups in the backbones containing VBt-BOC units were first deprotected to benzyl alcohol by trifluoroacetic acid, then converted to benzyl bromide by reacting them with triphenylphosphine/carbon tetrabromide. The benzyl bromide groups in the backbones containing 4-MeSt units could be generated by bromination of the methyl groups using N-bromosuccinimide/benzoyl peroxide. The structures of the prepared polymers were well-controlled, as evidenced by the controlled molecular weight as well as the narrow and unimodal molecular weight distribution.

Synthesis and Characterization of Branched Sulfonated Poly(Ether Sulfone-ketone) Copolymer and Organic-inorganic Nano Composite Membranes

  • Lee, Dong-Hoon;Park, Hye-Suk;Seo, Dong-Wan;Hong, Tae-Whan;Ur, Soon-Chul;Kim, Whan-Gi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.489-490
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    • 2006
  • Branched sulfonated poly(ether sulfone-ketone) copolymer was prepared with bisphenol A, 4,4-difluorobenzophenone, sulfonated chlorophenyl sulfone (40mole% of bisphenol A) and THPE (1,1,1-tris-p-hydroxyphenylethane). THPE was used 0.4 mol% of bisphenol A to synthesize branched copolymers. Organic-inorganic nano composite membranes were prepared with copolymer and a series of $SiO_2$ nanoparticles (20 nm, 4, 7 and 10 wt%). The composite membranes were cast from dimethylsulfoxide solutions. The films were converted from the salt to acid forms with dilute hydrochloric acid. The membranes were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymers with water and methanol. Branched copolymer and nano composite membranes exhibit proton conductivities from $1.12{\times}10^{-3}$ to $6.04{\times}10^{-3}\;S/cm^2$, water uptake from 52.9 to 62.4%, IEC from 0.81 to 1.21 meq/g and methanol diffusion coefficients from $1.2{\times}10^{-7}$ to $1.5{\times}10^{-7}\;cm^2/S$.

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Preparation and Characterization of High Molecular Weight Poly(butylene succinate)

  • Han, Yang-Kyoo;Kim, Sung-Rim;Kim, Jinyeol
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.108-114
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    • 2002
  • Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) prepolymers were prepared by the condensation polymerization of 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and succinic atid (SCA) in the presence of titanium (VI) isoproxide(TPI) catalyst. The PBS prepolymers reacted with 1,4-BD or SCA to obtain hydroxyl or carboxylic acid group terminated PBS. High molecular weight linear or branched PBS was synthesized by a coupling reaction between hydroxyl and carboxylic acid group terminated PBS, or by a branching reaction between carboxylic acid group terminated PBS and glycerol as a branching agent. The weight average molecular weight of the prepared linear or branched PBS was in the range of 100,000-220,000. Both melting point and thermal stability of the high molecular weight linear and branched PBSs were somewhat higher than those of general PBS. From a tensile behavior by Instron test, modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break improved with increase in the molecular weight of the prepared PBS through the coupling or the branching reaction. In particular, the high molecular weight linear PBS had about 2.5 times higher value in modulus than the branched one.

Successive Synthesis of Well-Defined Star-Branched Polymers by an Iterative Approach Based on Living Anionic Polymerization

  • Higashihara Tomoya;Inoue Kyoichi;Nagura Masato;Hirao Akira
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.287-299
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    • 2006
  • To successively synthesize star-branched polymers, we developed a new iterative methodology which involves only two sets of the reactions in each iterative process: (a) an addition reaction of DPE or DPE-functionalized polymer to a living anionic polymer, and (b) an in-situ reaction of 1-(4-(4-bromobutyl)phenyl)-1-phenylethylene with the generated 1,1-diphenylalkyl anion to introduce one DPE functionality. With this methodology, 3-, 4-, and 5-arm, regular star-branched polystyrenes, as well as 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, and a new 5-arm ABCDE, asymmetric star-branched polymers, were successively synthesized. The A, B, C, D, and E arm segments were poly(4-trimethylsilylstyrene), poly(4-methoxystyrene), poly(4-methylstyrene), polystyrene, and poly(4-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxystyrene), respectively. All of the resulting star-branched polymers were well-defined in architecture and precisely controlled in chain length, as confirmed by SEC, $^1H$ NMR, VPO, and SLS analyses. Furthermore, we extended the iterative methodology by the use of a new functionalized DPE derivative, 1-(3-chloromethylphenyl)-1-((3-(1-phonyletheny1)phenyl) ethylene, capable of introducing two DPE functionalities via one DPE anion reaction site in the reaction (b). The number of arm segments of the star-branched polymer synthesized by the methodology could be dramatically increased to 2, 6, and up to 14 by repeating the iterative process.