• Title, Summary, Keyword: BrdU

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Stress-induced Decrease of Granule Cell Proliferation in Adult Rat Hippocampus: Assessment of Granule Cell Proliferation Using High Doses of Bromodeoxyuridine Before and After Restraint Stress

  • Kim, Sung-Jin;Lee, Kuem-Ju;Shin, You-Chan;Choi, Song-hyen;Do, Eunju;Kim, Sangduk;Chun, Boe-Gwun;Lee, Min-Soo;Shin, Kyung-Ho
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.74-80
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    • 2005
  • Stress is known to inhibit granule cell proliferation in the hippocampus. However, recent studies suggest that the commonly used dose of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) is insufficient to label all fractions of granule cells. Furthermore, stress-induced changes in BrdU availability may influence the labeling of newly born cells. To investigate whether changes in BrdU availability affect measurements of stress-induced granule cell proliferation, granule cell proliferation was assessed using injection of high doses of BrdU before and after restraint stress lasting 1 h. In addition, to determine whether stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone levels were influenced by the BrdU, time-dependent changes in plasma corticosterone levels over 2 h after BrdU injection were compared with total accumulated plasma corticosterone levels [as determined by areas under the curve (AUC)]. Restraint stress significantly reduced the numbers of BrdU-labeled cells and clusters in the granule cell layer (GCL) of rats that received BrdU after stress, and decreases of similar magnitude were observed when the rats were given BrdU before stress. BrdU injection enhanced the stress-induced plasma corticosterone response, but there was no difference between the mean AUCs of plasma corticosterone levels of animals injected with BrdU before or after stress. These observations suggest that restraint stress decreases granule cell proliferation, and that this may be influenced by the extent and duration of plasma corticosterone increases rather than by changes in the availability of BrdU.

Age-Related Changes of Adult Neural Stem Cells in the MouseHippocampal Dentate Gyrus

  • Jung, Ji-Yeon;Byun, Kang-Ok;Jeong, Yeon-Jin;Kim, Won-Jae
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 2008
  • This study was designed to investigate the changes in the properties of the neuronal setm cells or progenitor cells associated with age-related decline in neurogenesis of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Active whole cells cycle marker Ki67 (a marker of whole cell cycle)-positive and S phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive. Neural stem cells gradually were reduced in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) in an age-dependant manner after birth (from P1 month to P1 year). The ratio of BrdUpositivecells/Ki67-positive cells was gradually enhanced in an age-dependent manner. The ratio of Ki67-positive cells/accu-mulating BrdU-positive cells at 3 hrs after BrdU injection was injected once a day for consecutive 5 days gradually decreased during ageing. TUNEL- and caspase 3 (apoptotic terminal caspase)-positive cells gradually decreased in the dentate SGZ during ageing and immunohistochemical findings of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) were not changed during ageing. NeuN, a marker of mature neural cells, and BrdU-double positive cells gradually decreased in an age-dependent manner but differentiating ratio and survival rate of cells were not changed at 4 wks after BrdU injection once a day for consecutive 5 days. The number of BrdU-positive cells migrated from the hippocampal SGZ into granular layer and its migration speed was gradually declined during ageing. These results suggest that the adult neurogenesis in the mouse hippocampal DG gradually decrease through reducing proliferation of neural stem cells accompanying with cells cycle change and reduced cells migration rather than changes of differentiation.

Effects of Ginseng radix on Alcohol-induced Decrease in New Cell Formation and Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Dentate Gyrus of Rats (인삼이 흰쥐의 치상회에서 알코올에 의한 새로운 신경세포 생성 및 nitric oxide synthase 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Min-Chul, Shin;Ee-Hwa, Kim;Youn-Hee, Kim
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 2002
  • 목적 : 본 연구에서는 알코올 독성에 대하여 흰쥐의 치상회에서 새로운 신경세포의 생성 및 nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 발현에 인삼이 미치는 영향을 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) 면역 조직 화학법 및 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) 조직화학법을 통해서 관찰하고자 한다. 방법 : 실험동물을 정상군, 인삼처치군, 알코올처치군 및 알코올-인삼 처치군으로 분류하여 각각의 실험군에 3일간 BrdU (50mg/kg)를 복강주사하였다. 인삼처치군은 30mg/kg 용량의 인삼 전탕액을 중완혈에 약침주사하였고, 알코올 처치군은 2 g/kg 용량의 알코올을 투여하였으며. 알코올-인삼 처치군은 2 g/kg 용량의 알코올 및 30mg/kg 용량의 인삼 전탕액을 투여한 후 각각의 BrdU 양성 세포수와 NADPH-d 양성세포수를 관찰하였다. 결과 : 알코올 투여군은 BrdU 양성세포 및 NADPH-d 양성세포 발현이 감소하였으나, 인삼 및 알코올 인삼처치군에서는 알코올 투여군에 비해서 모두 증가하였다. 결론 : 인삼은 알코올에 의해서 유발된 새로운 신경세포 생성의 감소에 대하여 보호효과가 있으며, 알코올에 의해서 부가적으로 영향 받는 산화질소는 세포생성 조절에 중요한 역할을 하는 것으로 사려된다.

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Turnover of biliaiy epithelial cells in Clonorchis sinensis infected rats (간흡충에 감염된 흰쥐 담관 상피세포의 증식 양상)

  • 홍성태;고원규
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 1993
  • We performed bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) staining to observe the proliferation pattern of epithelial cells on the biliaJy mucosa in Clonorchis sinensis infection. Albino rats were infected with 100 metacercariae each and their livers were processed for histopathological observation after BrdU injection. Five to six sites in the liver of a rat were selected for paraffin section, and stained immunohistochemically to visualize BrdU incorporating cells. The flukes were mainly in the common bile duct and right or left hepatic bile ducts. The proportion of stained epithelial cells in the infected bile ducts where the worms were found on the section was 2.9-10.2% at 1 week after infection. 7.3-12.8% at 2 weeks, 7.3-13.4% at 5 weeks, and 8.4-14.8% at 15 weeks while in the non-infected ducts o to 2.7% cells were stained. The stained cells were mainly at the base of the mucosal layer. It is suggested that mucosal epithelial cells of the bile ducts infected with C. sinensis become hyperplastic mainly by direct and local stimulation of the worms.

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Role of a Burr Hole and Calvarial Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in the Ischemic Rat Brain : A Possible Mechanism for the Efficacy of Multiple Burr Hole Surgery in Moyamoya Disease

  • Nam, Taek-kyun;Park, Seung-won;Park, Yong-sook;Kwon, Jeong-taik;Min, Byung-kook;Hwang, Sung-nam
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.58 no.3
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2015
  • Objective : This study investigates the role of a burr hole and calvarial bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) in a transient ischemic brain injury model in the rat and postulates a possible mechanism for the efficacy of multiple cranial burr hole (MCBH) surgery in moyamoya disease (MMD). Methods : Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats (250 g, male) were divided into four groups : normal control group (n=5), burr hole group (n=5), ischemia group (n=5), and ischemia+burr hole group (n=5). Focal ischemia was induced by the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). At one week after the ischemic injury, a 2 mm-sized cranial burr hole with small cortical incision was made on the ipsilateral (left) parietal area. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally, 2 times a day for 6 days after the burr hole trephination. At one week after the burr hole trephination, brains were harvested. Immunohistochemical stainings for BrdU, CD34, VEGF, and Doublecortin and Nestin were done. Results : In the ischemia+burr hole group, BrdU (+), CD34 (+), and Doublecortin (+) cells were found in the cortical incision site below the burr hole. A number of cells with Nestin (+) or VEGF (+) were found in the cerebral parenchyma around the cortical incision site. In the other groups, BrdU (+), CD34 (+), Doublecortin (+), and Nestin (+) cells were not detected in the corresponding area. These findings suggest that BrdU (+) and CD34 (+) cells are bone marrow-derived stem cells, which may be derived from the calvarial bone marrow through the burr hole. The existence of CD34 (+) and VEGF (+) cells indicates increased angiogenesis, while the existence of Doublecortin (+), Nestin (+) cells indicates increased neurogenesis. Conclusion : Based on these findings, the BMSCs through burr holes seem to play an important role for the therapeutic effect of the MCBH surgery in MMD.

Ju vitro Effect of Cortisol on the Proliferation of Canine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (Jn vitro에서 cortisol이 개 말초혈액 단핵구세포의 증식에 미치는 영향)

  • 나기정;양만표
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.230-234
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    • 1997
  • In vitro effect of cortisol on the proliferation of canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) was examined. The MNC was isolated from peripheral blood by a gradient centrifugation with Picoll-Hypaque. The cell proliferation assayed using a noneradioactive 5-Bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) kit. The MNC proliferated well in response to either phrtobeRagg$]$utinin-p (PHA-P) or culture supernatant from MNC stimulated with PHA-p. However, these proliferative responses of MNC were not affected by addition of coitisol of 1 to 1,OOfl ng/ml. The addition of cortisol in MNC culture with either PHA-P or corture supernatBnt from MNC stimulated with PHA-P far 4 days wag not also influenced on the viabilities of cultured MNC. In conclusions it was able to assay the cell proliferation with BrdU instead of radioactive isotope e.g. tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR). These results suggested that cortisol does not at least influence on MNC proliferation in vitro.

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An Immunohistochemical Study on DNA Synthesis in the Periodontium during Tooth Movement in Dog (성견의 실험적 치아이동시 치주조직내 DNA 합성에 관한 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Kim, Seong-Jin;Lim, Na-Won;Kim, Sang-Cheol
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.359-371
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes about the cellular activity on DNA synthesis in the periodontal ligament of dog, in which experimental tooth movement was performed. A control and 5 experimental dogs, one and half year in age, were studied. Light force (50-75g) was applied by placing open-coil spring between left mandibular premolars ; heavy force (250-300g), between right mandibular premolars. Experimental dogs were sacrificed after infusion of bromodeoxyuridine(BrdU), at 12 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after force application, respectively. And the histologic and the immunohistochemical evaluation were performed on the obtained periodontal tissue around mandibular premolars, using anti-romodeoxyuridine antibody, which can indicate proliferating cells. The results were as follows: 1. The tearing of periodontal ligament and the vascular dilatation at tension side were observed in 12 hours, increasing until 3 days. After then it decreased; Such a finding was more evident in heavy force group than in light force group. 2. The hyalinization of the periodontal ligament and the activity of osteoclast at pressure side were observed in 12 hours, increasing until 3 days. But from 7 days on, it decreased; Such a finding was more evident in heavy force group than in light force group. 3. The BrdU expression in the control group was positive, mainly in the oral epithelium and the fibroblasts in the periodontal ligament, but negative in bone cells in periodontal ligament. 4. The BrdU expression in the experimental group was more positive in tension side than in pressure side; The expression was a little more positive in the periapical area than in the cervical area of tooth. 5. The BrdU expression in light force group was the highest in 1 day, after which it decreased; In heavy force group, it was the highest in 12 hours, after which it decreased. But in 14 days, there was no difference between the experimental group and control group.

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The Effects of Swim Training on Neurogenesis in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus and Functional Ability After Focal Ischemic Stroke in Rats (수영 훈련이 뇌허혈 유발 흰쥐의 해마 치아이랑에서 뇌신경생성과 기능적 능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ho-Sung;Kim, Deuk-Ho;Lee, Jeong-Pil;Kim, Young-Joo;Shin, Young-Oh;Kim, Sang-Hoon;Kwon, Ki-Wook;Oh, Jae-Keun
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.11-21
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    • 2005
  • The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of swimming training on brain function after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Therefore, this study was examined on neurogenesis in dentate gyrus of hippocampus using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label proliferating cells and assessed the neurological response following focal cerebral ischemia in rats using neurological motor behavioral test. In an observer-blinded fashion, twenty male Sprague-Dawley (280~310 g, 7 weeks old) rats were divided into four groups: MCAO plus swimming group (ME, $n_1$=5), MCAO plus control group (MC, $n_2$=5), SHAM plus swimming group (SE, $n_3$=5), SHAM plus control group (SC, $n_4$=5). The results of this study were as follows: 1) The limb placing time before and after swimming in the ME group were significantly longer than the MC group (p<.05), the SE group were significantly longer than the SC group (p<.01). 2) The balance beam scores before and after swimming in the ME group was higher than the SE group, the MC group was higher than the SC group but was not significantly different (p>.001). 3) The foot fault index before and after swimming training in ME group was significantly lower (i.e., improved) than the MC group (p<.001) and the SE group (p<.001), the SE group was significantly lower (i.e., improved) than the SC group (p<.001). 4) The mean number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus in the ME group was significantly higher than the MC group (p<.001) and the SE group (p<.01). The MC group and the SE group was significantly higher than the SC group (p<.001). 5) There was significantly correlation between limb placing time and number of BrdU-positive cells on swimming training, there was positive correlation (r=.807, p<.0001) and between foot fault index and BrdU-positive cells number, there was negative correlation (r=-.503, p<.05). However, between balance beam scores and BrdU-positive cells number, there was no correlation. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the role of swimming training improves behavioral motor function probably by enhancing cell proliferation in that hippocampus. This study provides a model for investigating the stroke rehabilitation that underlies neurogenesis and functional ability.

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EVALUATION OF CELL PROLIFERATION IN EAR AND LYMPH NODE USING BRDU IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY FOR MOUSE EAR SWELLING TEST

  • Lee, Jong-Kwon;Park, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Hyung-Soo;Jung, Seung-Tae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.97-97
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    • 2002
  • A mouse ear swelling test (MEST) has been developed as an alternative to guinea pig models for contact sensitization potential. However, the MEST relies on a quantitative measurement of ear swelling as an endpoint by micrometer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cell proliferation in ear and lymph node using Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry as a possible reliable marker for MEST.(omitted)

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A Non-radioisotopic Endpoint Using Bromodeoxyuridine ELISA Method for Murine Local Lymph Node Assay (BrdU ELISA를 이용한 국소 림프절 시험법의 비방사선법 연구)

  • 이종권;박재현;박승희;김형수;정승태;엄준호;윤소미;장은정;최광식
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2003
  • Allergic contact dermatitis may be caused by a wide variety of chemicals. A murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been developed as an alternative to guinea pig models for assessing the contact sensitization potential of chemical. However, there is a need to develop a nonradioisotopic endpoint for the LLNA, because of the radioisotopic method's requiring the use of special facilities. In this study, we investigated the development of a nonradioisotopic endpoint for LLNA using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Female Balb/c mice were treated by the topical application on the dorsum of both ears with four different strong sensitizers, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), oxazolone (OXZ), toluene diisocyanate (TDI), and trimellitic anhydride (TMA), and a strong irritant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), once daily for three consecutive days. The proliferation of cells in the auricular Iymph node was analyzed by means of the labelling index (Ll) of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into cells. The weights of the Iymph nodes in the mice treated with allergens, DNCB, OXZ, TDl and TMA were increased compared to the vehicle control. The stimulation index (Sl) of mice treated with DNCB, OXZ, TDl, and TMA was over three-fold increase compared to the vehicle control. However, the S1 of mice exposed to SLS was not significantly increased compared to the vehicle control, while the lymph node weight of SLS was significantly increased. These results suggest that the LLNA modified endpoint using ELISA based on BrdU incorporation could provide a useful method of screening for irritants and allergens.