• Title, Summary, Keyword: Breed Discrimination

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Breed Discrimination Using DNA Markers Derived from AFLP in Japanese Beef Cattle

  • Sasazaki, S.;Imada, T.;Mutoh, H.;Yoshizawa, K.;Mannen, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.1106-1110
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    • 2006
  • In the meat industry, correct breed information in food labeling is required to assure meat quality. Genetic markers provide corroborating evidence to identify breed. This paper describes the development of DNA markers to discriminate between Japanese Black and F1 (Japanese Black${\times}$Holstein) breeds. The amplified fragment length polymorphism method was employed to detect candidate markers absent in Japanese Black but present in Holstein. The 1,754 primer combinations yielded eleven markers that were converted into single nucleotide polymorphism markers for high-throughput genotyping. The allele frequencies in both breeds were investigated for discrimination ability using PCR-RFLP. The probability of identifying F1 was 0.9168 and probability of misjudgment was 0.0066 using four selected markers. The markers could be useful for discriminating between Japanese Black and F1 and would contribute to the prevention of falsified breed labeling of meat.

A Simple Polymerase Chain Reaction-based Method for the Discrimination of Three Chicken Breeds

  • Kubo, Y.;Plastow, G.;Mitsuhashi, Tadayoshi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1241-1247
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    • 2009
  • A large number of branded chicken products exist in Japan, and in some cases, the breed of chicken is an important factor used to attract consumer interest in the retail product. In order to establish a simple method for verifying such breed claims we applied the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique to nine chicken breeds (White Cornish, Red Cornish, White Plymouth Rock, New Hampshire, Rhode Island Red, Barred Plymouth Rock, Hinaidori, Tosajidori, Tsushimajidori) to search for molecular markers able to discriminate chicken breeds. Three breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified, one for each of Hinaidori, Tosajidori, or New Hampshire. A total of 219 individuals from the nine breeds were analyzed using a specific PCR test for each of these SNP. The PCR tests made it possible to discriminate between the breeds of chickens to identify products from these three breeds. This PCR method provides an efficient method for the routine analysis and verification of certified chicken products.

Estimation of Genetic Characteristic and Cumulative Power of Breed Discrimination Using Microsatellite Markers in Hanwoo (Microsatellite Marker를 사용한 한우 품종 식별력 및 유전적 특성 분석)

  • Oh, Jae-Don;Lee, Jin-Ah;Kong, Hong-Sik;Park, Keong-Do;Yoon, Du-Hak;Jeon, Gwang-Ju;Lee, Hak-Kyo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 2008
  • To estimate the genetic characteristics and cumulative power of discrimination (CPD) existing among Hanwoo (Korean cattle) and exotic foreign population (Angus, Herford, Charolais, Holstein) we used a total of 414 genomic DNAs from five breeds population (Hanwoo, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Holstein). Genetic characteristics indices including mean allele number among loci, unbiased heterozygosity ($h_i$) within locus and polymorphic information content (PIC) and unbiased average heterozygosity (H) among loci in four breeds were calculated using the generated allele frequencies by each marker. The mean allele numbers for all loci ranged between 5 and 7 while heterozygosity (H) ranged from 0.75 (HW) to 0.64 (HF) among loci and across breeds heterozygosity (H) was 0.69. The generated unbiased average heterozygosity among loci in each breed was integrated to the global formula of CPD resulting in 99.71 % within the populations. The genetic variation of HW (Hanwoo) showed highest estimates among the analyzed breeds.

DNA markers in chicken for breed discrimination (닭에서 품종 확인을 위한 DNA 마커에 관한 고찰)

  • Hoque, Md. Rashedul;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Jun-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 2012
  • There is an emerging interest in using DNA markers for breed identification in animals. This article reviews the breed identification markers in chicken, mainly developed in Chungnam National University, with particular emphasis on the mitochondrial DNA markers and the nuclear DNA markers including the SNPs in MHC region and the plumage color related MC1R markers. This information would be very useful for an appropriate conservation breeding program as well as for the establishment of molecular markers for chicken breed identifications.

Identification of Korean Native Pork Using Breed-Specific DNA Marker of KIT Gene

  • Chung, Eui-Ryong;Chung, Ku-Young
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.403-409
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    • 2010
  • Accurate methods for the identification of closely related species or breeds in raw and processed meats must be developed in order to protect both consumers and producers from mislabeling and fraud. This paper describes the development of DNA markers for the discrimination and improvement of Korean native pig (KNP) meat. The KIT gene is related to pig coat color and is often used as a candidate marker. A 538 bp fragment comprising intron 19 of the pig KIT gene was amplified by PCR using specific primers, after which the PCR amplicons of a number of meat samples from KNP and three major improved breeds (Landrace, Duroc and Yorkshire) were sequenced in order to find a nucleotide region suitable for PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequence data showed the presence of two nucleotide substitutions, g.276G>A and g.295A>C, between KNP and the improved pig breeds. Digestion of KIT amplicons with AccII enzyme generated characteristic PCR-RFLP profiles that allowed discrimination between meats from KNP and improved pig. KNP showed three visible DNA bands of 264/249, 199, and 75 bp, whereas DNA bands of 249, 199, and 90 bp were detected in the three improved pig breeds. Therefore, the 75 bp DNA fragment was specific only to KNP, whereas the 90 bp DNA fragment was specific to the improved breeds. The breed-specific DNA markers reported here that target the KIT gene could be useful for the identification of KNP meat from improved pig meats, thus contributing to the prevention of falsified breed labeling.

Discrimination of Korean Native Chicken Populations Using SNPs from mtDNA and MHC Polymorphisms

  • Hoque, M.R.;Lee, S.H.;Jung, K.C.;Kang, B.S.;Park, M.N.;Lim, H.K.;Choi, K.D.;Lee, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1637-1643
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    • 2011
  • Korean native chickens are a very valuable chicken population in Korea and their prices are higher than that of commercial broilers. In order to discriminate two commercial Korean native chicken populations (CCP1 and CCP2), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from mitochondrial (mt) DNA D-loop sequences and LEI0258 marker polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region were investigated. A total of 718 birds from nine populations were sampled and 432 mtDNA sequences were obtained. Of these, two commercial Korean native chicken populations (363 birds) were used for investigation of their genetic relationship and breed differentiation. The sequence data classified the chickens into 20 clades, with the largest number of birds represented in clade 1. Analysis of the clade distribution indicated the genetic diversity and relation among the populations. Based on the mtDNA sequence analysis, three selected SNPs from mtDNA polymorphisms were used for the breed identification. The combination of identification probability (Pi) between CCP1 and CCP2 using SNPs from mtDNA and LEI0258 marker polymorphisms was 86.9% and 86.1%, respectively, indicating the utility of these markers for breed identification. The results will be applicable in designing breeding and conservation strategies for the Korean native chicken populations and also used for the development of breed identification markers.

Discrimination of Korean Cattle (Hanwoo) with Imported Beef from USA Based on the SNP Markers

  • Shim, Jung-Mi;Seo, Dong-Won;Seo, Seong-Won;Kim, Jong-Joo;Min, Dong-Myung;Kim, Ik-Chul;Jeon, Jin-Tae;Lee, Jun-Heon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.918-922
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    • 2010
  • Due to the large amount of beef imported from the USA to Korea, Korean consumers have become increasingly interested in the country of origin since it can affect market prices. Previously, Bos indicus and Bos taurus-specific markers were developed for the purpose of cattle breed identification, specifically discrimination of Australian beef. In this study, six SNP markers derived from Illumina 50K bovine SNP chip data were used for the discrimination between Korean cattle (Hanwoo) and imported beef from USA. PCR-RFLP genotyping methods were also developed, which indicates that these markers can be applied relatively easily compared to other markers. Taking into account a discrimination rate of 55% based on MC1R marker between Hanwoo and imported beef from USA, two additional markers, SNPs 23803 and 34776, were ideal and resulted in probability of identification of 0.942 and probability of misjudgment of 0.03. Therefore, the markers developed in this study can greatly contribute to the correct discrimination between beef from USA and Hanwoo beef.

ISAG-recommended Microsatellite Marker Analysis Among Five Korean Native Chicken Lines

  • Choi, Nu-Ri;Hoque, Md. Rashedul;Seo, Dong-Won;Sultana, Hasina;Park, Hee-Bok;Lim, Hyun-Tae;Heo, Kang-Nyeong;Kang, Bo-Seok;Jo, Cheorun;Lee, Jun-Heon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.6
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    • pp.401-409
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to determine genetic variation of five Korean native chicken lines using 30 microsatellite (MS) markers, which were previously recommended by ISAG (International Society for Animal Genetics). The initial study indicated that two microsatellite markers, MCW0284 and LEI0192, were not amplified in these lines and excluded for further analysis. Twenty eight microsatellite markers were investigated in 83 birds from five Korean native chicken lines. The identified mean number of alleles was 4.57. Also, the expected, observed heterozygosity (He, Ho) and polymorphism information content (PIC) values were estimated in these markers and they ranged from 0.31~0.868, 0.145~0.699, and 0.268~0.847, respectively. The results were used for the discrimination of five chicken lines using genetic distance values and also neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed. Based on the He and PIC values, eighteen markers are enough for the discrimination of these Korean native chicken lines for the expected probability of identity values among genotypes of random individuals (PI), random half sibs ($PI_{half-sibs}$) and random sibs ($PI_{sibs}$). Taken together, these results will help the decision of conservation strategies and establishment of traceability system in this native chicken breed. Also, the use of ISAG-recommended microsatellite markers may indicate that the global comparison with other chicken breeds is possible.

DNA Markers for the Genetic Diversity in Korean Native Chicken Breeds: A Review (한국재래닭의 품종 다양성 연구를 위한 유전자 마커 개발에 대한 고찰: 총설)

  • Seo, Dongwon;Lee, Jun Heon
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.63-76
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    • 2016
  • The genetic diversity of Korean native chicken is important for conservation of native chicken breeds and developing economically valuable traits in Korea. In this review, various types of genetic markers using Korean native chickens were investigated, which are mtDNA variations, microsatellite markers, markers in Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These genetic markers are suitable for breed discrimination and diversity studies because of their high polymorphism status. Thus, the purpose of this study was to summarize the genetic markers developed in the Korean native chickens and diversity studies using these breeds. Ultimately, these markers can be used for the future studies for understanding of genetic characteristics.

Analysis of the Genotype Distribution in Cattle Breeds Using a Double Mismatched Primer Set that Discriminates the MC1R Dominant Black Allele (소 MC1R 우성흑모색 대립인자를 구분하는 변형 프라이머를 이용한 소 품종들의 유전자형 분포 분석)

  • Han, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Young-Hoon;Cho, In-Cheol;Jang, Byoung-Gui;Ko, Moon-Suck;Jung, Ha-Yeon;Lee, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.633-640
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    • 2008
  • With a double mismatch primer set designed for amplifying the modified DNA sequence fragments, bovine melanocortin-1 receptor(MC1R) gene encoded in Extension locus which plays a critical role in coat color development was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction mediated restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP). Amplified PCR fragments were successfully discriminated with combining the MspI- and AluI-RFLP into three major alleles(ED, E+, and e), directly related to bovine coat color phenotypes. The genotyping results showed that Jeju black cattle contained three MC1R alleles, but yellowish-red colored Hanwoo and bridle colored Korean Brindle cattle did not contained the dominant black allele ED. However, two dominant black-colored cattle breeds, Holstein and Angus, contained the ED allele over 96% in frequency. Hanwoo×Holstein F1 and Hanwoo×Angus F1 crossbred calves showed ED/e MC1R genotypes, and uniformly black coat color. the results suggested that this MC1R genotyping method be useful in allele discrimination for bovine MC1R gene which used for breed classification and characterization, as one of the important genetic markers, using combination of MspI- and AluI-RFLP for modified PCR product amplified with a newly designed double mismatch primer set.