• Title, Summary, Keyword: Broilers processing

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Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

  • Chen, Yulian;Qiao, Yan;Xiao, Yu;Chen, Haochun;Zhao, Liang;Huang, Ming;Zhou, Guanghong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.855-864
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and influence the consumption of different chicken meat.

Effects of Water-misting Sprays with Forced Ventilation after Transport during Summer on Meat Quality, Stress Parameters, Glycolytic Potential and Microstructures of Muscle in Broilers

  • Jiang, N.N.;Xing, T.;Wang, P.;Xie, C.;Xu, X.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.1767-1773
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    • 2015
  • Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport during summer on meat quality, stress parameters, glycolytic potential and microstructures of muscle in broilers were investigated. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: i) 45-min transport without rest (T group), ii) 45-min transport with 1-h rest (TR group), iii) 45-min transport with 15-min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45-min rest (TWFR group). The results showed the TWFR group significantly increased (p<0.05) initial muscle pH ($pH_i$) and ultimate pH ($pH_u$) and significantly reduced $L^*$ (p<0.05), drip loss, cook loss, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase activity, plasma glucose content, lactate and glycolytic potential when compared with other groups. Microstructure of the muscle from TWFR group broilers under light microscopy showed smaller intercellular spaces among muscle fibers and bundles compared with T group. In conclusion this study indicated water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport could relieve the stress caused by transport under high temperature, which was favorable for the broilers' welfare. Furthermore, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport slowed down the postmortem glycolysis rate and inhibited the occurrence of PSE-like meat in broilers. Although rest after transport could also improve the meat quality, the effect was not as significant as water-misting sprays with forced ventilation after transport.

The Incidence of Muscle Abnormalities in Broiler Breast Meat - A Review

  • Huang, Xi;Ahn, Dong Uk
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.835-850
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    • 2018
  • The dramatic improvements in the growth rate and breast muscle size and yield in broilers through the intensive genetic selection, and the improvement in nutrition and management over the past 50 years have introduced serious abnormalities that influenced the quality of breast meat. The abnormalities include pale-soft-exudative (PSE) conditions, deep pectoral muscle (DPM) myopathy, spaghetti meat (SM), white striping (WS), and woody breast (WB) that have serious negative implications to the broiler meat industry. The incidences of PSE and DPM have been known for several decades, and their prevalence, etiology and economic impact have been well discussed. However, other abnormalities such as SM, WS and WB conditions have been reported just for few years although these conditions have been known for some time. The newly emerging quality issues in broilers are mainly associated with the Pectoralis major muscles, and the incidences have been increased dramatically in some regions of the world in recent years. As high as 90% of the broilers are affected by the abnormalities, which are expected to cause from $200 million to $1 billion economic losses to the U.S. poultry industry per year. So, this review mainly discusses the histopathological characteristics and biochemical changes in the breast muscles with the emphasis on the newly emerging abnormalities (SM, WS, and WB) although other abnormalities are also discussed. The impacts of the anomalies on the nutritional, functional, mechanical and sensory quality of the meat and their implications to the poultry industry are discussed.

Risk Assessment for Salmonellosis in Chicken in South Korea: The Effect of Salmonella Concentration in Chicken at Retail

  • Jeong, Jaewoon;Chon, Jung-Whan;Kim, Hyunsook;Song, Kwang-Young;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.1043-1054
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    • 2018
  • Salmonellosis caused by chicken consumption has been a critical issue in food safety worldwide, including in Korea. The probability of illness from consumption of chicken was simulated in study, based on the recipe of Dakgalbi, a commonly eaten chicken dish in Korea. Additionally, the processing stage at slaughterhouses to decrease Salmonella concentration in broilers was modeled to explore its effect on the likelihood of illness. A Monte Carlo simulation model was created using @RISK. Prevalence of Salmonella in chickens at the retail stage was found to be predominantly important in determining the probability of illness. Other than the prevalence, cooking temperature was found to have the largest impact on the probability of illness. The results also demonstrated that, although chlorination is a powerful tool for decreasing the Salmonella concentration in chicken, this effect did not last long and was negated by the following stages. This study analyzes the effects of variables of the retail-to-table pathway on the likelihood of salmonellosis in broiler consumption, and also evaluates the processing step used to decrease the contamination level of Salmonella in broilers at slaughterhouses. According to the results, we suggest that methods to decrease the contamination level of Salmonella such as chlorination had little effect on decreasing the probability of illness. Overall, these results suggest that preventing contamination of broiler with Salmonella must be a top priority and that methods to reduce the concentration of Salmonella in broilers at slaughterhouses hardly contribute to safe consumption of Salmonella-contaminated chicken.

Prevalence of Campylobacter jujuni in Broilers and Chicken Processing Plants (육계 및 도계장에서의 Campyobacter jejuni의 오염에 관한 연구)

  • 오정선;신광순;윤용덕;박정문
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 1988
  • Generally, carrier chickens contaminate the processing plant equipment to such an extent that negative chickens procell afterwards result in contaminated. meat. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of Complliobacter jejuni in two chicken procelling plants. Altogether two hundred samples were collected from cloaca, carcasses, chilling water, and evis-cerationknives at different processing stages during the period of June to September 1987. The isolated organisms were tested for distribution of biotype, serotype. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. C. jejuni was isolated from 41(34.2%) of 120 chicken feces, 9(45.0%) of 20 carC888eS before chilling, 11(55.0%) of 20 carcasses after chilling, 12(60.0%) of 20 eviscerationlmives. The evilceration knives and chilling water were considered as major means of croll contamination. 2. In biotyping 82 isolates of C. jejuni, 64(78.1%) were cl888ified as biotype I, and 18(21.9%) belonged to biotype II. 3. In serotyping 82 isolates of C. jejuni, 64(78.1%) were identified as serotype LIO 37, and 18(21.9%) were untypable.

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Comparison of the Quality of the Chicken Breasts from Organically and Conventionally Reared Chickens

  • Kim, Dong-Hun;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Seong, Pil-Nam;Lee, Jong-Moon;Jo, Cheor-Un;Lim, Dong-Gyun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.409-414
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    • 2009
  • In this study, the quality of chicken breasts from organically reared chickens was compared with that of chicken breasts from conventionally reared chickens. Broilers were raised in an indoor pen with conventional and organic production system, respectively. The diet formulation for the organically reared chickens and the production density were in accordance with the guidelines for organic chicken products. Twenty birds from each group were slaughtered and their breasts were obtained for analysis. The organic chicken breasts had a higher cooking loss, and waterholding capacity, and a lower shear force (p<0.05) compared to the conventional chicken breasts. The organic chicken breasts also showed higher $a^{\ast}$ and $b^{\ast}$ values and myoglobin contents compared with the conventional chicken breasts (p<0.05). In the fatty-acid analysis, the organic chicken breasts resulted in higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid contents, and a higher PUFA-saturated fatty acid ratio.

Strategy to Improve the Productivity of Broilers: Focusing on Pre-Starter Diet (초이사료 배합설계를 통한 육계 생산성 증대방안)

  • Nam, Doo Seok;Lee, Jinyoung;Kong, Changsu
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.247-256
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    • 2015
  • There are approximately 1,500 broiler farms in Korea, each raising 55,000 birds. Ninety-five percent of the farms are contracted with Integration Company. According to the Korean broiler performance index, broilers in Korea are marketed at 32 days with 1.52 kg of body weight. In contrast, the market age and body weight of broilers are 47 days/2.8 kg in the United States and 42 days/2.5 kg in Europe. Because of the younger market age of the Korean broiler, the pre-starter feed is important. Chicks exhibit poor absorption of dietary nutrients up to 7 days after hatching due to an immature digestive system and low enzyme secretion rate and activity. At the beginning of hatching, chicks obtain their nutrients from the egg yolk sac. It is highly recommended that chicks, after consuming the nutrients in the egg yolk sac, are given supplemented pre-starter feed to increase early growth rates and improve the performance of broiler production. Pre-starter nutrient requirements are not expressed in NRC, so Korean feeding standards for poultry and commercial breeding companies determine the nutrient requirements of pre-starter broiler chickens. Three approaches are followed to formulate specially designed pre-starter feeds for broiler chicks: (i) selective use of raw materials, (ii) proper standards of nutrient supply, and (iii) application of feed additives such as exogenous enzymes. In the selection of raw materials, those with high digestibility can be used. The absorption rate of carbohydrates in grains can be increased through feed processing at high temperature and high pressure. Soy proteins and fish meal can also be added as protein sources. As an energy source, vegetable oils are preferred over animal fats because of the former's high digestibility. It is suggested that the levels of proteins and amino acids are higher in pre-starter feed than in starter feed. With regard to energy, the sources of energy are more important than the levels of energy in feed. Feed additives such as exogenous enzymes can be used to improve nutrient digestibility. In addition, organic acids and plant extracts can be used as alternatives to animal growth promoters to stimulate immunity and prevent diseases. The growth performance of broilers is affected by various factors, such as management and disease control, in addition to the nutritional strategy; however, nutritional strategies play an important role in improving the productivity of broilers. Therefore, nutritional strategies, along with management and disease control, are required for improving the productivity of broilers in Korea.

Physico-Chemical Characteristics Evaluation of Spent Hen and Broiler (산란노계와 육계의 이화학적 품질특성 평가)

  • Jeon, Ki-Hong;Hwang, Yoon-Seon;Kim, Young-Boong;Choi, Yun-Sang;Kim, Byoung-Mok;Kim, Dong-Wook;Jang, Aera
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.527-532
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed to investigate the phyico-chemical characteristics of breast meat from spent hens (SP) in comparison with the same part from the broilers (BR). The moisture and crude protein contents for SP were 72.56% and 24.26%, which were lower than 75.87% and 24.64% for BR. Crude fat and crude ash contents in SP were 0.45% and 1.00%, which were higher than the BR contents of 0.41% and 0.51%. The respective L, a and b value for SP were 48.61, 2.40 and 2.42, which were lower than the BR values of 49.41, 1.45 and 3.06 respectively. The pH for SP was 5.89, which was higher than pH 5.79 for BR. The WHC for SP was 50.29%, which was lower than that of BR at 62.31%. SP scored 28.04% in the heating loss test, which was significantly higher than 19.09% for BR. The shear forces for SP and BR were 4.86 kg and 1.36 kg respectively, which meant that the texture of SP was much tougher than that of BR. Hardness for SP was 8.89 kg while that of BR was 3.92 kg indicating that the SP texture is firmer than that of BR. Oleic acid was most abundant fatty acid in both samples and was at 44.15% in SP and 27.68% in BR.

Studies on the Processing Characteristics of Poultry Meat -1. Water Holding Capacity of Chicken Muscle- (가금육(家禽肉)의 가공적성(加工適性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -1. 계육(鷄肉)의 보수력(保水力)-)

  • Sung, S.K.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.55-59
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    • 1973
  • This experiment was carried out to improve on the simple and conventional processing method by studying the characteristics of poultry meat. For the experiment, 20 hens culled and 20 broilers were slaughtered and divided into the following five groups; whole carcass, skinned carcass, debonned carcass, thigh muscle and breast muscle. Each group was ground by the super grinding machine. The results tobtained are summarized as follows; (1) The percentage of the ready-to-cook of cull hens and broilers was $64.32{\pm}2.11,\;67.96{\pm}1.16$, and of the water uptake, $105.43{\pm}1.9,\;104.13{\pm}0.2$, respectively. (2) In the chemical composition, broiler meat showed high moisture content and a little low fat content, as compared with cull hen meat. By groups, whole carcass ground meat contained lower maisture content, and higher fat and ash content than thigh muscle and breast muscle. (3) Thigh muscle and breast muscle group was higher than the other and whole carcass group was lower for the relative WHC and water retention.(4) The higher temperature the higher cooking loss percentage in all groups, and whole carcass group was the highest cooking loss percentage among the all groups.(5) The significant difference was little observed for the relative WHC, water retention and cooking loss percentage by groups between cull hen and Broiler.

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Implications of Feed Withdrawal in Broiler Meat Safety and Quality (출하 전 절식과 닭고기 안전성 및 품질)

  • 김동훈;채현석;장경만
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.202-208
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    • 2004
  • This review is summarized the importance of feed withdrawal treatment before slaughter based on the related recent research literature. Practical feed withdrawal program is required to prevent from carcass contamination when broilers are slaughtered. The feed withdrawal is more important in countries where regulate the microbial contamination. The feed withdrawal treatment for broiler has also advantage to reduce the carcass contamination from intestinal tract at slaughtering plant. Most researches were conducted to focus on proving the feed withdrawal effect on the efficiency of slaughtering and processing, proper duration and safety of broiler carcass. However, it is pointed out that the feed withdrawal programs are different depending on the production capability, feeding and slaughtering methods, inspection regulation of each country.