• Title, Summary, Keyword: Buckling

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Nonlinear response history analysis and collapse mode study of a wind turbine tower subjected to tropical cyclonic winds

  • Dai, Kaoshan;Sheng, Chao;Zhao, Zhi;Yi, Zhengxiang;Camara, Alfredo;Bitsuamlak, Girma
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.79-100
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    • 2017
  • The use of wind energy resources is developing rapidly in recent decades. There is an increasing number of wind farms in high wind-velocity areas such as the Pacific Rim regions. Wind turbine towers are vulnerable to tropical cyclones and tower failures have been reported in an increasing number in these regions. Existing post-disaster failure case studies were mostly performed through forensic investigations and there are few numerical studies that address the collapse mode simulation of wind turbine towers under strong wind loads. In this paper, the wind-induced failure analysis of a conventional 65 m hub high 1.5-MW wind turbine was carried out by means of nonlinear response time-history analyses in a detailed finite element model of the structure. The wind loading was generated based on the wind field parameters adapted from the cyclone boundary layer flow. The analysis results indicate that this particular tower fails due to the formation of a full-section plastic hinge at locations that are consistent with those reported from field investigations, which suggests the validity of the proposed numerical analysis in the assessment of the performance of wind-farms under cyclonic winds. Furthermore, the numerical simulation allows to distinguish different failure stages before the dynamic collapse occurs in the proposed wind turbine tower, opening the door to future research on the control of these intermediate collapse phases.

Beam-Column Connection with 1200mm Deep Multi-Reduced Taper Beam for Intermediate Moment Frame (깊이 1200mm급 변단면보의 중간모멘트골조용 내진접합부 개발)

  • Jung, Si-Hwa;Alemayehe, Robel Wondimu;Park, Man-Woo;Ju, Young-Kyu
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.135-146
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    • 2019
  • Deep beam has high section modules compared with shallow beam of the same weight. However, deep beam has low rotational capacity and high possibility of brittle failure so it is not possible to apply deep beams with a long span to intermediate moment frames, which should exhibit a ductility of 0.02rad of a story drift angle of steel moment frames. Accordingly, KBC and AISC limit the beam depth for intermediate and special moment frame to 750mm and 920mm respectively. The purpose of this paper is to improve the seismic performance of intermediate moment frame with 1200mm depth beam. In order to enhance vulnerability of plastic deformation capacity of deeper beam, Multi-Reduced Taper Beam(MRTB) shape that thickness of beam flange is reinforced and at the same time some part of the beam flange width is weakened are proposed. Based on concept of multiple plastic hinge, MRTB is intended to satisfy the rotation requirement for intermediate moment frame by dividing total story drift into each hinge and to prevent the collapse of the main members by inducing local buckling and fracture at the plastic hinge location far away from connection. The seismic performance of MRTB is evaluated by cyclic load test with conventional connections type WUF-W, RBS and Haunch. Some of the proposed MRTB connection satisfies connection requirements for intermediate moment frame and shows improved the seismic performance compared to conventional connections.

Structural behavior of the stiffened double-skin profiled composite walls under compression

  • Qin, Ying;Li, Yong-Wei;Lan, Xu-Zhao;Su, Yu-Sen;Wang, Xiang-Yu;Wu, Yuan-De
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2019
  • Steel-concrete composite walls have been proposed and developed for applications in various types of structures. The double-skin profiled composite walls, as a natural development of composite flooring, provide structural and architectural merits. However, adequate intermediate fasteners between profiled steel plates and concrete core are required to fully mobilize the composite action and to improve the structural behavior of the wall. In this research, two new types of fasteners (i.e., threaded rods and vertical plates) were proposed and three specimens with different fastener types or fastener arrangements were tested under axial compression. The experimental results were evaluated in terms of failure modes, axial load versus axial displacement response, strength index, ductility index, and load-strain relationship. It was found that specimen with symmetrically arranged thread rods sustained more stable axial strain than that with staggered arranged threaded rods. Meanwhile, vertical plates are more suitable for practical use since they provide stronger confinement to profiled steel plate and effectively prevent the steel plate from early local buckling, which eventually enhance the composite action and increase the axial compressive capacity of the wall. The calculation methods were then proposed and good agreement was observed between the test results and the predicted results.

Structure Analysis and Design Optimization of Stiffeners in LNG Tanks (LNG 저장탱크 보강재의 구조해석 및 최적설계)

  • Jin, Cheng-Zhu;Jin, Kyo-Kook;Ha, Sung-Kyu;Seo, Heung-Seok;Yoon, Ihn-Soo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.325-330
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    • 2012
  • This paper describes the structural analysis and optimization of stiffeners used in inner tanks for liquid natural gas (LNG) storage, so that the costs can be minimized while the critical buckling load of the inner tank still exceeds the external pressure exerted by the perlite. The original calculation of perlite pressure applied to the inner tank was based on Zick's code, which led to the overestimation of the external pressure, and consequently, an oversized stiffener. In this study, the effects of the material properties of perlite on the external pressure distribution are scrutinized, and the optimum dimensions of a single stiffener are finally obtained through a series of parametric studies. A 15% decrease in the cost of the stiffener compared with the original design is achieved.

A Study on Crashworthiness Optimization of Front Side Members using Bead Shape Optimization (비드 형상 최적화를 이용한 전방 측면 부재의 충돌 최적화 연구)

  • Lee, Jun-Young;Lee, Jung-Suk;Lee, Yong-Hoon;Bae, Bok-Soo;Kim, Kyu-Hak;Yim, Hong-Jae
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.331-337
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the front side member is optimized using a topography optimization technique. Optimization of a simple beam is conducted before optimization of the front side member. The objective function is set to minimize the first buckling factor in the longitudinal direction. The design variable corresponds to the perturbation of nodes normal to the shell's mid-plane space. The crash analysis is conducted on a simple beam, which is optimized by Response Surface Method and the topography optimization technique. In order to verify the topography optimization technique, the results of the RSM and topography optimization model are compared. Consequently, we confirm the satisfactory performance of the topography optimization technique, and apply this topography optimization to the front side member. Thus, the front side member is optimized and its crashworthiness is increased.

Behaviour of cold-formed steel concrete infilled RHS connections and frames

  • Angeline Prabhavathy, R.;Samuel Knight, G.M.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.71-85
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    • 2006
  • This paper presents the results of a series of tests carried out on cold-formed steel rectangular hollow and concrete infilled beam to column connections and frames. A stub column was chosen such that overall buckling does not influence the connection behaviour. The beam chosen was a short-span cantilever with a concentrated load applied at the free end. The beam was connected to the columns along the strong and weak axes of columns and these connections were tested to failure. Twelve experiments were conducted on cold-formed steel direct welded tubular beam to column connections and twelve experiments on connections with concrete infilled column subjected to monotonic loading. In all the experiments conducted, the stiffness of the connection, the ductility characteristics and the moment rotation behaviour were studied. The dominant mode of failure in hollow section connections was chord face yielding and not weld failure. Provision of concrete infill increases the stiffness and the ultimate moment carrying capacity substantially, irrespective of the axis of loading of the column. Weld failure and bearing failure due to transverse compression occurred in connections with concrete infilled columns. Six single-bay two storied frames both with and without concrete infill, and columns loaded along the major and minor axes were tested to failure. Concentrated load was applied at the midspan of first floor beam. The change in behaviour of the frame due to provision of infill in the column and in the entire frame was compared with hollow frames. Failure of the weld at the junction of the beam occurred for frames with infilled columns. Design expressions are suggested for the yielding of the column face in hollow sections and bearing failure in infilled columns which closely predicted the experimental failure loads.

Exact calculation of natural frequencies of repetitive structures

  • Williams, F.W.;Kennedy, D.;Wu, Gaofeng;Zhou, Jianqing
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.4 no.5
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    • pp.553-568
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    • 1996
  • Finite element stiffness matrix methods are presented for finding natural frequencies (or buckling loads) and modes of repetitive structures. The usual approximate finite element formulations are included, but more relevantly they also permit the use of 'exact finite elements', which account for distributed mass exactly by solving appropriate differential equations. A transcendental eigenvalue problem results, for which all the natural frequencies are found with certainty. The calculations are performed for a single repeating portion of a rotationally or linearly (in one, two or three directions) repetitive structure. The emphasis is on rotational periodicity, for which principal advantages include: any repeating portions can be connected together, not just adjacent ones; nodes can lie on, and members along, the axis of rotational periodicity; complex arithmetic is used for brevity of presentation and speed of computation; two types of rotationally periodic substructures can be used in a multi-level manner; multi-level non-periodic substructuring is permitted within the repeating portions of parent rotationally periodic structures or substructures and; all the substructuring is exact, i.e., the same answers are obtained whether or not substructuring is used. Numerical results are given for a rotationally periodic structure by using exact finite elements and two levels of rotationally periodic substructures. The solution time is about 500 times faster than if none of the rotational periodicity had been used. The solution time would have been about ten times faster still if the software used had included all the substructuring features presented.

Seismic design of chevron braces cupled with MRF fail safe systems

  • Longo, Alessandra;Montuori, Rosario;Piluso, Vincenzo
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.1215-1240
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, the Theory of Plastic Mechanism Control (TPMC) is applied to the seismic design of dual systems composed by moment-resisting frames and Chevron braced frames. The application of TPMC is aimed at the design of dual systems able to guarantee, under seismic horizontal forces, the development of a collapse mechanism of global type. This design goal is of primary importance in seismic design of structures, because partial failure modes and soft-storey mechanisms have to be absolutely prevented due to the worsening of the energy dissipation capacity of structures and the resulting increase of the probability of failure during severe ground motions. With reference to the examined structural typology, diagonal and beam sections are assumed to be known quantities, because they are, respectively, designed to withstand the whole seismic actions and to withstand vertical loads and the net downward force resulting from the unbalanced axial forces acting in the diagonals. Conversely column sections are designed to assure the yielding of all the beam ends of moment-frames and the yielding and the buckling of tensile and compressed diagonals of the V-Braced part, respectively. In this work, a detailed designed example dealing with the application of TPMC to moment frame-chevron brace dual systems is provided with reference to an eight storey scheme and the design procedure is validated by means of non-linear static analyses aimed to check the actual pattern of yielding. The results of push-over analyses are compared with those obtained for the dual system designed according to Eurocode 8 provisions.

Racking shear resistance of steel frames with corner connected precast concrete infill panels

  • Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.;Snijder, H.H.;Hofmeyer, H.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.1403-1419
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    • 2015
  • When precast concrete infill panels are connected to steel frames at discrete locations, interaction at the structural interface is neither complete nor absent. The contribution of precast concrete infill panels to the lateral stiffness and strength of steel frames can be significant depending on the quality, quantity and location of the discrete interface connections. This paper presents preliminary experimental and finite element results of an investigation into the composite behaviour of a square steel frame with a precast concrete infill panel subject to lateral loading. The panel is connected at the corners to the ends of the top and bottom beams. The Frame-to-Panel-Connection, FPC4 between steel beam and concrete panel consists of two parts. A T-section with five achor bars welded to the top of the flange is cast in at the panel corner at a forty five degree angle. The triangularly shaped web of the T-section is reinforced against local buckling with a stiffener plate. The second part consists of a triangular gusset plate which is welded to the beam flange. Two bolts acting in shear connect the gusset plate to the web of the T-section. This way the connection can act in tension or compression. Experimental pull-out tests on individual connections allowed their load deflection characteristics to be established. A full scale experiment was performed on a one-storey one-bay 3 by 3 m infilled frame structure which was horizontally loaded at the top. With the characteristics of the frame-to-panel connections obtained from the experiments on individual connections, finite element analyses were performed on the infilled frame structures taking geometric and material non-linear behaviour of the structural components into account. The finite element model yields reasonably accurate results. This allows the model to be used for further parametric studies.

Experimental compressive behavior of novel composite wall with different width-to-thickness ratios

  • Qin, Ying;Chen, Xin;Zhu, Xing-Yu;Xi, Wang;Chen, Yuan-Ze
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.187-196
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    • 2020
  • Double skin composite wall system owns several structural merits in terms of high load-carrying capacity, large axial stiffness, and favorable ductility. A recently proposed form of truss connector was used to bond the steel plates to the concrete core to achieve good composite action. The structural behavior of rectangular high walls under compression and T-shaped high walls under eccentric compression has been investigated by the authors. Furthermore, the influences of the truss spacings, the wall width, and the faceplate thickness have been previously studied by the authors on short walls under uniform compression. This paper experimentally investigated the effect of width-to-thickness ratio on the compressive behavior of short walls. Compressive tests were conducted on three short specimens with different width-to-thickness ratios. Based on the test results, it is found that the composite wall shows high compressive resistance and good ductility. The walls fail by local buckling of steel plates and crushing of concrete core. It is also observed that width-to-thickness ratio has great influence on the compressive resistance, initial stiffness, and strain distribution across the section. Finally, the test results are compared with the predictions by modern codes.