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Shape Optimization of the Plane Truss Structures by Mixed Cooridination Method (혼합조정법(混合調整法)에 의한 평면(平面) 트러스 구조물(構造物)의 형상최적화(形狀最適化)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Gyu Won;Lim, Jeong Whan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.55-68
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    • 1991
  • In this study, Mixed coordination method was selected to optimize the shape of the truss structures which takes multi-loading condition, allowable stress, buckling stress, displacement constraints into consideration. The structure was devided into substructures by Goal coordination method and the substructures were optimized by model coordination method which used two-level technique. Therefore the number of design variables and constrints can be decreased considerable. Under the condition of the same disign, the weight of truss structures can be decreased more considerable by means of optimizing even the shape of truss than by means of optimizing the section of truss while fixing geometrical configuration of it, even though there might be a little difference according to the early geomatrical shape of the truss and the design condition. Thus, the shape optimization of truss structures which utilize the results of this study can be helpful to the economical design of truss structures.

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Repeated Loading Test of Shear-Critical Reinforced Concrete Beams with Headed Shear Reinforcement (헤디드 바를 전단철근으로 사용한 철근콘크리트 보의 전단거동에 관한 반복하중 실험)

  • Kim, Young-Hoon;Lee, Joo-Ha;Yoon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2006
  • The repeated loading responses of four shear-critical reinforced concrete beams with two different shear span-to-depth ratios, were studied. One series of beams was reinforced using pairs of bundled stirrups with $90^{\circ}$ standard hooks, haying free end extensions of $6d_b$. The companion beams contained shear reinforcement made with larger diameter headed bars anchored with 50mm diameter circular heads. A single headed bar had the same area as a pair of bundled stirrups and hence the two series were comparable. The test results indicate that beams containing headed bar stirrups have a superior performance to companion beams containing bundled standard stirrups with improved ductility, larger energy absorption and enhanced post-peak load carrying capability. Due to splitting of the concrete cover and local crushing, the hooks of the standard stirrups opened resulting in loss of anchorage. In contrast, the headed bar stirrups did not lose their anchorage and hence were able to develop strain hardening and also served to delay buckling of the flexural compression steel. Excellent load-deflection predictions were obtained by reducing the tension stiffening to account for repeated load effects.

Suggestion for Confinement Steel Ratio of Rectangular RC Bridge Piers (사각단면 철근콘크리트 교각의 심부구속철근비 제안)

  • Park, Chang-Kyu;Chung, Young-Soo;Yun, Sang-Chul
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.749-757
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    • 2006
  • Many losses of life and extensive damage of social infrastructures have occurred due to moderate and strong earthquakes all over the world. In this research various design parameters have been evaluated to develop a rational seismic design code of rectangular reinforced concrete(RC) bridge piers. It was confirmed from this study that the axial force ratio and longitudinal steel ratio were most influencing design parameters on the seismic displacement ductility from experimental results of 54 rectangular RC bridge piers, which were tested at domestic and foregin countries. However, these important parameters are not considered in the confinement steel ratio of Korea Highway Bridge Design Specification(KHBDS). The objective of this study is to propose a rational design provision for the transverse reinforcement of rectangular RC bridge piers. New confinement steel ratio is proposed by reflecting the effect of the axial force and longitudinal steel into the current code of KHBDS. furthermore, minimum transverse confinement steel ratio is also proposed to avoid a probable buckling of longitudinal reinforcing steels of RC bridge piers with a relatively low axial force. New practical code can alleviate the rebar congestion in the plastic hinge region of RC bridge pier, which contributes to construct RC bridge piers in a simple and economic way.

Characteristics of Engineered Soils (Engineered Soils의 특성)

  • Lee, Jong-Sub;Lee, Chang-Ho;Lee, Woo-Jin;Santamarina, J. Caries
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2006
  • Engineered mixtures, which consist of rigid sand particles and soft fine-grained rubber particles, are tested to characterize their small and large-strain responses. Engineered soils are prepared with different volumetric sand fraction, sf, to identify the transition from a rigid to a soft granular skeleton using wave propagation, $K_{o}-loading$, and triaxial testing. Deformation moduli at small, middle and large-strain do not change linearly with the volume fraction of rigid particles; instead, deformation moduli increase dramatically when the sand fraction exceeds a threshold value between sf=0.6 to 0.8 that marks the formation of a percolating network of stiff particles. The friction angle increases with the volume fraction of rigid particles. Conversely, the axial strain at peak strength increases with the content of soft particles, and no apparent peak strength is observed in specimens when sand fraction is less than 60%. The presence of soft particles alters the formation of force chains. While soft particles are not part of high-load carrying chains, they play the important role of preventing the buckling of stiff particle chains.

An Experimental Study on the Influence of Masonry InFilled Walls on the Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frames with Non-seismic Details (정적실험을 통한 조적채움벽체가 비내진상세 RC 골조의 내진성능에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Min;Choen, Ju-Hyun;Baek, Eun-Rim;Oh, Sang-Hoon;Hwang, Cheol-Seong
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.114-120
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, the effect of the masonry infill walls on the seismic performance of the reinforced concrete(RC) frames with non-seismic details was evaluated through the static test of an masonry infilled RC frame sub-assemblage with non-seismic details of real size, and comparison with the test results of the RC frame sub-assemblage with non-seismic details. As the test results, lots of cracks occurred on the surface of the entire frame due to the compression of the masonry infilled wall, and the beam-column joint finally collapsed with the expansion of the shear crack and buckling(exposure) of the reinforcement. On the other hand, the stiffness of the shear force-story drift relationship decreased due to the wall sliding crack and column flexural cracks, and the strength finally decreased by around 60% of the maximum strength. The damage that concentrated on the upper and lower parts of columns was dispersed in the entire frame such as columns, a beam, and beam-column joints due to the wall, and the specimen was finally collapsed by expansion of the shear crack of the joint, not the shear crack of the column. Also, the stiffness of RC frame increased by 12.42 times and the yield strength by 3.63 times, while the story drift at maximum strength decreased by 0.18 times.

Evaluation of Minimum Spiral Reinforcement Ratio of Circular RC Columns (철근콘크리트 원형기둥의 나선철근 최소철근비에 대한 평가)

  • Kim, Young-Seek;Kim, Hyeong-Gook;Park, Cheon-Beom;Kim, Sang-Woo;Kim, Kil-Hee
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2017
  • Spiral reinforcement in a circular column plays an effective role in the ductile behavior of a column through position fixing and buckling restraining of the longitudinal reinforcement, and confining core-concrete. Each country has suggested the minimum volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement in order to secure the ductility of concrete columns. The minimum volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement suggested by ACI 318-14 and the national concrete structure design standard was developed based on the theory of Richard et al. (1928); furthermore it has been used until now. However, their theory cannot consider the effects of high strength concrete and high strength reinforcement, and arrangement condition of the spiral reinforcement. In this study, a modified minimum volumetric ratio equation is suggested, which is required to improve the ductility of reinforced concrete circular columns and to recover their stress. The modified minimum volumetric ratio equation suggested here considers the effect of the compressive strength of concrete, the yield strength of spiral reinforcement, the cross sectional area of columns, the pitch of spiral reinforcements and the diameter of spiral reinforcement. In this paper, the validity of the minimum volumetric ratios from ACI 318-14 and this study was investigated and compared based on the results of uniaxial compression experiment for specimens in which the material strength and the spiral reinforcements ratio were used as variables. In the end of the study, the modification method for the suggested equation was examined.

Multiple Damage Detection of Pipeline Structures Using Statistical Pattern Recognition of Self-sensed Guided Waves (자가 계측 유도 초음파의 통계적 패턴인식을 이용하는 배관 구조물의 복합 손상 진단 기법)

  • Park, Seung Hee;Kim, Dong Jin;Lee, Chang Gil
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.134-141
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    • 2011
  • There have been increased economic and societal demands to continuously monitor the integrity and long-term deterioration of civil infrastructures to ensure their safety and adequate performance throughout their life span. However, it is very difficult to continuously monitor the structural condition of the pipeline structures because those are placed underground and connected each other complexly, although pipeline structures are core underground infrastructures which transport primary sources. Moreover, damage can occur at several scales from micro-cracking to buckling or loose bolts in the pipeline structures. In this study, guided wave measurement can be achieved with a self-sensing circuit using a piezoelectric active sensor. In this self sensing system, a specific frequency-induced structural wavelet response is obtained from the self-sensed guided wave measurement. To classify the multiple types of structural damage, supervised learning-based statistical pattern recognition was implemented using the damage indices extracted from the guided wave features. Different types of structural damage artificially inflicted on a pipeline system were investigated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed SHM approach.

Structural Capacity of High Strength Steel Pipe Pile After Pile Driving (고강도 강관말뚝의 항타후 구조성능 분석)

  • La, SeungMin;Yoo, Hankyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.31 no.6C
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    • pp.251-258
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    • 2011
  • Steel pipe piles have been used as various deep foundation materials for a long time. Recent increase in steel material cost has made engineers reluctant in using it even with its good quality and ease of construction. Therefore when constructing with steel pipe pile, the decision to reuse the excessive pile length that is cut off from the designed pile head elevation after pile driving can be cost saving. This has caused many constructors to reuse the pile leftovers with new piles, but the absence of quantitative structural capacity behaviors of steel pipe pile after pile driving or appropriate countermeasures and standards in reusing steel pipe pile has resulted in wrong applications, pile structural integrity problems, inappropriate limitation of reusable pile length, etc. The structural performance analysis between a new pile and a pile that has undergone working state and ultimate state stress level during pile driving was performed in this research by means of comparing the results between the dynamic pile load test, tensile load test, charpy energy test and fatigue test for high strength steel of $440N/mm^2$ yield strength. Test results show that under working load conditions the yield strength variation is less than 2% and for ultimate load conditions the variation is less than 5% for maximum total blow count of 3000. The results have been statistically analyzed to check the sensitivity of each factors involved. From the test results, reusability of steel pipe pile lies not in the main pipe yield strength deviation but in the reduction of absorb energy, strength changes and quality control at the welded section, shape deformation and local buckling during pile driving.

Characteristics of Sand-Rubber Mixtures under Different Strain Levels: Experimental Observation (변형률에 따른 모래-고무 혼합재의 거동 특성: 실험적 관찰)

  • Lee, Chang-Ho;Byun, Yong-Hoon;Lee, Jong-Sub
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.85-94
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    • 2011
  • Mixtures of sand and rubber particles ($D_{sand}/D_{rubber}=1$) are investigated to explore their characteristics under different stain level. Mixtures are prepared with different volumetric sand fractions ($sf=V_{sand}/V_{total}$). Experimental data are gathered from a resonant column, an instrumented oedometer, and a direct shear tests. Results show that sand and rubber differently control the behavior of the whole mixture with strain level. Non-linear degradation of small strain stiffness is observed for the mixtures with $sf{\geq}0.4$, while the mixtures with low sand fraction ($sf{\leq}0.2$) show significantly high elastic threshold strain. Vertical stress-deformation increases dramatically when the rubber particle works as a member of force chain. The strength of the mixtures increases as the content of rubber particle decreases, and contractive behavior is observed in the mixtures with $sf{\leq}0.8$. Rubber particle plays different roles with strain level in the mixture: it increases a coordination number and controls a plasticity of the mixture in small strain; it prevents a buckling of force chain in intermediate strain; it leads a contractive behavior in large strain.

Influence of Lateral Ballast Resistance on the Buckling Fragility Curve of the Continuous Welded Rail Tracks (장대레일 궤도의 좌굴 취약도 곡선에 대한 도상횡저항력의 영향)

  • Bae, Hyun Ung;Choi, Jin Yu;Lee, Chin Ok;Lim, Nam Hyoung
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.185-185
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    • 2011
  • 기존 장대레일 궤도의 안정성 평가는 궤도 매개변수에 대하여 고정된 안전측의 값을 사용하는 결정론적인 해석에 의존해서 평가되어져 왔다. 그러나 실제현장의 궤도조건은 많은 영향인자들에 의해 그 특성이 불확실하게 변하고 있다. 따라서 온도하중에 의한 궤도 좌굴에 영향을 미치는 궤도 구성인자들의 불확실성 및 임의성을 보다 합리적으로 고려하기 위해서 확률론적 기법을 적용하는 것이 필수적이다. 본 연구에서는 기존 본 연구진에 의해 개발된 장대레일 궤도의 좌굴확률 평가시스템을 이용하여 좌굴 취약도 곡선을 나타내었으며, 궤도 좌굴에 영향을 미치는 주요변수 중 하나인 도상횡저항력에 대한 영향을 분석하였다. 좌굴확률 평가시스템에서는 장대레일 궤도의 좌굴확률을 산정하기 위하여 구조물의 안정과 파괴를 판단할 수 있는 기준을 한계상태방정식으로 표현하고, 이 한계상태방정식으로부터 확률론적 기법 중 하나인 AFOSM(Advanced First Order Second Moment) 방법을 이용하여 파괴확률의 간접적인 지표인 신뢰도지수(${\beta}$)를 통해 좌굴확률을 계산한다. 한계상태방정식에서 구조물의 강도(보유성능)에 해당하는 부분은 궤도의 허용좌굴온도이고, 하중(요구성능)에 해당하는 부분은 레일온도하중으로써 현재 레일온도와 중립온도의 차로 반영된다. 허용좌굴온도 산정에 고려되는 주요변수는 곡선반경(Radius), 도상횡저항력(Lateral Ballast Resista nce), 연직도상강성(Vertical Ballast Stiffness), 궤도 틀림량(Misalignment), 틀림길이(Half Wave Length), 열차운행속도(Velocity)이다. 각 확률변수들이 갖는 확률분포는 모두 정규분포로 가정하였다. 궤도의 기하학적 특성은 곡선반경 5,000m에 대해 고려하였으며, 열차는 KTX의 제원을 사용하여 정지된 상태에서 고려하였다. 틀림량과 틀림길이는 이에 대한 통계적 특성자료가 부족하여 확률변수로 고려하지 않고 결정론적 값으로 취급하였다. 레일온도의 통계적 특성치는 본 연구진에 의해 구축된 기후요소 및 레일온도 DB를 근거로 결정하였으며, 중립온도는 선로관리지침에 따라 $25{\pm}3^{\circ}C$를 기준으로 결정하였다. 또한 도상횡저항력은 실측 데이터를 참고로 하여 평균값에서 10%의 변동량을 갖는 것으로 보고 통계적 특성치를 결정하였다. 도상횡저항력이 좌굴확률에 미치는 영향을 매우 큰 것을 알 수 있었으며, 레일온도 $60^{\circ}C$일 때 도상횡저항력이 증가하면서 감소되는 좌굴확률이 도상저항력이 커질수록 그 감소량이 작아지는 것을 알 수 있었다.

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