• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Buckling

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A new method for infill equivalent strut width

  • Tabeshpour, Mohammad Reza;Arasteh, Arash Mahdipour
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.69 no.3
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    • pp.257-268
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    • 2019
  • Infills are as important members in structural design as beams, columns and braces. They have significant effect on structural behavior. Because of lots of variables in infills like material non-linear behavior, the interaction between frames and infill, etc., the infills performance during an earthquake is complicated, so have led designers do not consider the effect of infills in designing the structure. However, the experimental studies revealed that the infills have the remarkable effect on structure behavior. As if these effects ignored, it might occur soft-story phenomena, torsion or short-column effects on the structures. One simple and appropriate method for considering the infills effects in analyzing, is replacing the infills with diagonal compression strut with the same performance of real infill, instead of designing the whole infill. Because of too many uncertainties, codes and researchers gave many expressions that were not as the same as the others. The major intent of this paper is calculation the width of this diagonal strut, which has the most characteristics of infill. This paper by comprehensive on different parameters like the modulus of young or moment of inertia of columns presents a new formula for achieving the equivalent strut width. In fact, this new formula is extracted from about 60 FEM analyses models. It can be said that this formula is very efficient and accurate in estimating the equivalent strut width, considering the large number of effective parameters relative to similar relationships provided by other researchers. In most cases, the results are so close to the values obtained by the FEM. In this formula, the effect of out of plane buckling is neglected and this formula is used just in steel structures. Also, the thickness of infill panel, and the lateral force applied to frame are constant. In addition, this new formula is just for modeling the lateral stiffness. Obtaining the nearest response in analyzing is important to the designers, so this new formula can help them to reach more accurate response among a lot of experimental equations proposed by researchers.

Experimental and numerical investigations on axial strength of back-to-back built-up cold-formed steel angle columns

  • Ananthi, G. Beulah Gnana;Roy, Krishanu;Lim, James B.P.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.601-615
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    • 2019
  • In cold-formed steel (CFS) structures, such as trusses, wall frames and columns, the use of back-to-back built-up CFS angle sections are becoming increasingly popular. In such an arrangement, intermediate fasteners are required at discrete points along the length, preventing the angle-sections from buckling independently. Limited research is available in the literature on the axial strength of back-to-back built-up CFS angle sections. The issue is addressed herein. This paper presents the results of 16 experimental tests, conducted on back-to-back built-up CFS screw fastened angle sections under axial compression. A nonlinear finite element model is then described, which includes material non-linearity, geometric imperfections and explicit modelling of the intermediate fasteners. The finite element model was validated against the experimental test results. The validated finite element model was then used for the purpose of a parametric study comprising 66 models. The effect of fastener spacing on axial strength was investigated. Four different cross-sections and two different thicknesses were analyzed in the parametric study, varying the slenderness ratio of the built-up columns from 20 to 120. Axial strengths obtained from the experimental tests and finite element analysis were used to assess the performance of the current design guidelines as per the Direct Strength Method (DSM); obtained comparison showed that the DSM is over-conservative by 13% on average. This paper has therefore proposed improved design rules for the DSM and verified their accuracy against the finite element and test results of back-to-back built-up CFS angle sections under axial compression.

Experiment and bearing capacity analyses of dual-lintel column joints in Chinese traditional style buildings

  • Xue, Jianyang;Ma, Linlin;Wu, Zhanjing;Zhai, Lei;Zhang, Xin
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.641-653
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    • 2018
  • This paper presents experiment and bearing capacity analyses of steel dual-lintel column (SDC) joints in Chinese traditional style buildings. Two SDC interior joints and two SDC exterior joints, which consisted of dual box-section lintels, circular column and square column, were designed and tested under low cyclic loading. The force transferring mechanisms at the panel zone of SDC joints were proposed. And also, the load-strain curves at the panel zone, failure modes, hysteretic loops and skeleton curves of the joints were analyzed. It is shown that the typical failure modes of the joints are shear buckling at bottom panel zone, bending failure at middle panel zone, welds fracturing at the panel zone, and tension failure of base metal in the heat-affected zone of the joints. The ultimate bearing capacity of SDC joints appears to decrease with the increment of axial compression ratio. However, the bearing capacities of exterior joints are lower than those of interior joints at the same axial compression ratio. In order to predict the formulas of the bending capacity at the middle panel zone and the shear capacity at the bottom panel zone, the calculation model and the stress state of the element at the panel zone of SDC joints were studied. As the calculated values showed good agreements with the test results, the proposed formulas can be reliably applied to the analysis and design of SDC joints in Chinese traditional style buildings.

Behavior of composite box bridge girders under localized fire exposure conditions

  • Zhang, Gang;Kodur, Venkatesh;Yao, Weifa;Huang, Qiao
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.69 no.2
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    • pp.193-204
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    • 2019
  • This paper presents results from experimental and numerical studies on the response of steel-concrete composite box bridge girders under certain localized fire exposure conditions. Two composite box bridge girders, a simply supported girder and a continuous girder respectively, were tested under simultaneous loading and fire exposure. The simply supported girder was exposed to fire over 40% of its span length in the middle zone, and the two-span continuous girder was exposed to fire over 38% of its length of the first span and full length of the second span. A measurement method based on comparative rate of deflection was provided to predict the failure time in the hogging moment zone of continuous composite box bridge girders under certain localized fire exposure condition. Parameters including transverse and longitudinal stiffeners and fire scenarios were introduced to investigate fire resistance of the composite box bridge girders. Test results show that failure of the simply supported girder is governed by the deflection limit state, whereas failure of the continuous girder occurs through bending buckling of the web and bottom slab in the hogging moment zone. Deflection based criterion may not be reliable in evaluating failure of continuous composite box bridge girder under certain fire exposure condition. The fire resistance (failure time) of the continuous girder is higher than that of the simply supported girder. Data from fire tests is successfully utilized to validate a finite element based numerical model for further investigating the response of composite box bridge girders exposed to localized fire. Results from numerical analysis show that fire resistance of composite box bridge girders can be highly influenced by the spacing of longitudinal stiffeners and fire severity. The continuous composite box bridge girder with closer longitudinal stiffeners has better fire resistance than the simply composite box bridge girder. It is concluded that the fire resistance of continuous composite box bridge girders can be significantly enhanced by preventing the hogging moment zone from exposure to fire. Longitudinal stiffeners with closer spacing can enhance fire resistance of composite box bridge girders. The increase of transverse stiffeners has no significant effect on fire resistance of composite box bridge girders.

Compressive behavior of profiled double skin composite wall

  • Qin, Ying;Li, Yong-Wei;Su, Yu-Sen;Lan, Xu-Zhao;Wu, Yuan-De;Wang, Xiang-Yu
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.405-416
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    • 2019
  • Profiled composite slab has been widely used in civil engineering due to its structural merits. The extension of this concept to the bearing wall forms the profiled composite wall, which consists of two external profiled steel plates and infill concrete. This paper investigates the structural behavior of this type of wall under axial compression. A series of compression tests on profiled composite walls consisting of varied types of profiled steel plate and edge confinement have been carried out. The test results are evaluated in terms of failure modes, load-axial displacement curves, strength index, ductility ratio, and load-strain response. It is found that the type of profiled steel plate has influence on the axial capacity and strength index, while edge confinement affects the failure mode and ductility. The test data are compared with the predictions by modern codes such as AISC 360, BS EN 1994-1-1, and CECS 159. It shows that BS EN 1994-1-1 and CECS 159 significantly overestimate the actual compressive capacity of profiled composite walls, while AISC 360 offers reasonable predictions. A method is then proposed, which takes into account the local buckling of profiled steel plates and the reduction in the concrete resistance due to profiling. The predictions show good correlation with the test results.

Nonlinear response history analysis and collapse mode study of a wind turbine tower subjected to tropical cyclonic winds

  • Dai, Kaoshan;Sheng, Chao;Zhao, Zhi;Yi, Zhengxiang;Camara, Alfredo;Bitsuamlak, Girma
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.79-100
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    • 2017
  • The use of wind energy resources is developing rapidly in recent decades. There is an increasing number of wind farms in high wind-velocity areas such as the Pacific Rim regions. Wind turbine towers are vulnerable to tropical cyclones and tower failures have been reported in an increasing number in these regions. Existing post-disaster failure case studies were mostly performed through forensic investigations and there are few numerical studies that address the collapse mode simulation of wind turbine towers under strong wind loads. In this paper, the wind-induced failure analysis of a conventional 65 m hub high 1.5-MW wind turbine was carried out by means of nonlinear response time-history analyses in a detailed finite element model of the structure. The wind loading was generated based on the wind field parameters adapted from the cyclone boundary layer flow. The analysis results indicate that this particular tower fails due to the formation of a full-section plastic hinge at locations that are consistent with those reported from field investigations, which suggests the validity of the proposed numerical analysis in the assessment of the performance of wind-farms under cyclonic winds. Furthermore, the numerical simulation allows to distinguish different failure stages before the dynamic collapse occurs in the proposed wind turbine tower, opening the door to future research on the control of these intermediate collapse phases.

깊이 1200mm급 변단면보의 중간모멘트골조용 내진접합부 개발 (Beam-Column Connection with 1200mm Deep Multi-Reduced Taper Beam for Intermediate Moment Frame)

  • 정시화;알미아이유 로벨 원디므;박만우;주영규
    • 대한건축학회논문집:구조계
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.135-146
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    • 2019
  • Deep beam has high section modules compared with shallow beam of the same weight. However, deep beam has low rotational capacity and high possibility of brittle failure so it is not possible to apply deep beams with a long span to intermediate moment frames, which should exhibit a ductility of 0.02rad of a story drift angle of steel moment frames. Accordingly, KBC and AISC limit the beam depth for intermediate and special moment frame to 750mm and 920mm respectively. The purpose of this paper is to improve the seismic performance of intermediate moment frame with 1200mm depth beam. In order to enhance vulnerability of plastic deformation capacity of deeper beam, Multi-Reduced Taper Beam(MRTB) shape that thickness of beam flange is reinforced and at the same time some part of the beam flange width is weakened are proposed. Based on concept of multiple plastic hinge, MRTB is intended to satisfy the rotation requirement for intermediate moment frame by dividing total story drift into each hinge and to prevent the collapse of the main members by inducing local buckling and fracture at the plastic hinge location far away from connection. The seismic performance of MRTB is evaluated by cyclic load test with conventional connections type WUF-W, RBS and Haunch. Some of the proposed MRTB connection satisfies connection requirements for intermediate moment frame and shows improved the seismic performance compared to conventional connections.

Structural behavior of the stiffened double-skin profiled composite walls under compression

  • Qin, Ying;Li, Yong-Wei;Lan, Xu-Zhao;Su, Yu-Sen;Wang, Xiang-Yu;Wu, Yuan-De
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2019
  • Steel-concrete composite walls have been proposed and developed for applications in various types of structures. The double-skin profiled composite walls, as a natural development of composite flooring, provide structural and architectural merits. However, adequate intermediate fasteners between profiled steel plates and concrete core are required to fully mobilize the composite action and to improve the structural behavior of the wall. In this research, two new types of fasteners (i.e., threaded rods and vertical plates) were proposed and three specimens with different fastener types or fastener arrangements were tested under axial compression. The experimental results were evaluated in terms of failure modes, axial load versus axial displacement response, strength index, ductility index, and load-strain relationship. It was found that specimen with symmetrically arranged thread rods sustained more stable axial strain than that with staggered arranged threaded rods. Meanwhile, vertical plates are more suitable for practical use since they provide stronger confinement to profiled steel plate and effectively prevent the steel plate from early local buckling, which eventually enhance the composite action and increase the axial compressive capacity of the wall. The calculation methods were then proposed and good agreement was observed between the test results and the predicted results.

LNG 저장탱크 보강재의 구조해석 및 최적설계 (Structure Analysis and Design Optimization of Stiffeners in LNG Tanks)

  • 김성주;진교국;하성규;서흥석;윤인수
    • 대한기계학회논문집A
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.325-330
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    • 2012
  • 본 연구에서는 액화천연가스(LNG 즉 Liquefied Natural Gas) 저장탱크의 보강재(stiffener) 설계를 위한 주요 설계인자들의 특성을 파악하고 구조 최적설계를 수행하였다. 보강재가 결합된 LNG 저장탱크의 내조는 외부의 펄라이트(perlite)의 압력에 의해 좌굴되지 않도록 설계되는데, 기존의 보강재 설계방법에서는 펄라이트 압력이 내조 높이에 무관하게 동일하다고 가정하여, 보강재의 과도한 설계를 초래하였다. 본 연구에서는 펄라이트의 물성값에 따른 펄라이트 압력분포의 영향을 살펴보았고, 최적설계를 통해 기존 설계보다 보강재의 재료비용이 15.3% 절감됨을 알 수 있었다.

비드 형상 최적화를 이용한 전방 측면 부재의 충돌 최적화 연구 (A Study on Crashworthiness Optimization of Front Side Members using Bead Shape Optimization)

  • 이준영;이정석;이용훈;배복수;김규학;임홍재
    • 대한기계학회논문집A
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.331-337
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    • 2012
  • 본 논문은 위상최적화 기법을 이용하여 전방측면 부재를 최적화 한다. 전방측면 부재에 최적화를 진행하기 전에 사각단면 부재에 최적화를 진행한다. 목적함수는 1 차 좌굴 계수가 길이방향으로 최소화되도록 설정한다. 설계변수는 법선방향으로 질점의 이동이다. 사각단면부재의 반응표면법을 이용한 최적화 모델과 위상최적화 모델에 대해 충돌해석을 수행한다. 위상최적화 기법을 검증하기 위해 두 결과를 비교한다. 그 결과 위상최적화 기법을 충돌해석에 적용할 수 있다는 것을 확인하고 실제차량의 전방측면부재에 적용한다. 결과적으로 전방측면 부재는 최적화되고 내충격성이 향상한다.