• Title, Summary, Keyword: CAT

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Streptomyces coelicolor 의 Catalase 들의 분석

  • 김형표;이종수;하영칠;노정혜
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 1992
  • Srrepromycec. corlirolar produces at least 4 catalase activity bands with different electrophoretic mobilities on polyacrylamide gel which vary during development. Spores and mycelia at stationary phase produced all the activity bands(Cat1. 760 kr); Cat3-I, 170 kD: Cat3-2, 140 kD: Cat3-3. 130 kD; Cat4, 70 kD) except for Cat2 (300 kD). Mycelia at mid-logarithmic phase produced only Cat2 and Cat3-2 bands, and mycelia at late-logarithmic phase produced bands except Catl and Cat\ulcorner. Catalase-deficient mutants were screened in S. coelicalur by H201 bubbling test following NTG mutagenesis. Wc tested sevcral non-bubbling or slow-bubbling mutants for their catalase activities. The overall activities in cell extracts decreased more than 5 fold. Activity bands in native gel selectively decreased in intensity or disappeared. In all the non-bubbling mutants testcd, Cat3-2 band decreased significantly or disappeared. suggesting that Cat3-2 is the major catalase. The selective disappearance of bands in mutants suggest that each band is governed by different genes. We purified catalase activity from -:ell extracts obtained at late-logarithmic phase. Following chromatographies on Sepharose CL-4B. DEAE Sepharose CL-6B. Phcnyl Sepharose CL-4B. and hydroxylapatite columns. only the Cat3-2 activity was obtained. The native form of Cat3-2 has molecular weight of approximately 140 kD, judged by gel electrophoresis. Thc electrophoretic mobility on SDS-polyactylamide gel suggests that this enzyme contains 2 identical subunits of 67 kD.

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Design of XML Using UML in EtherCAT-based Encoder System (EtherCAT 기반 엔코더 시스템에서 UML을 이용한 XML 설계)

  • Lee, Ju-Kyoung;Lee, Suk;Lee, Kyung-Chang
    • IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 2014
  • The EtherCAT protocol has become a very promising alternative for real-time industrial application due to its ability to eliminate uncertainties in the Ethernet. However, the extended markup language (XML) for the EtherCAT network system, which is required in the design, lacks systematic development to take advantage of model transformation techniques. This paper focuses on the system development procedure of the EtherCAT-based encoder system using the CANopen over EtherCAT (CoE) protocol. UML modeling is being adapted to design for XML of EtherCAT-based encoder system. To this purpose, this paper analyzes the object dictionary (OD) of a commercial encoder and CANopen over EtherCAT. A UML diagram is then designed based on the analysis, and XML is generated through the designed UML diagram. Finally, an experimental test_bed for the EtherCAT-based encoder system is implemented and its performance is compared with a commercial encoder.

A Study on Analyzing and Improving EtherCAT Cycle Time (EtherCAT Cycle Time의 성능 분석 및 향상에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Bum-Yong;Park, Jaehyun
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.463-464
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    • 2009
  • 기존 필드버스의 낮은 트래픽 전송률로 인하여 IEEE 802.3 이더넷이 필드버스의 대안으로 제시되었다. 하지만, 이더넷은 CSMA/CD 메카니즘을 사용하기 때문에 실시간 성이 떨어진다는 단점이 있다. 이러한 단점을 개선하기 위하여 EtherCAT이 개발되었다. 본 논문에서는 EtherCAT의 Cycle Time 성능을 분석하고 개선하기 위하여 M-EtherCAT을 제안한다. M-EtherCAT은 EtherCAT과 달리 각 Telegram이 Slave를 거치지 않기 때문에 EtherCAT 보다 Cycle Time의 최소 주기를 더 줄일 수 있다.

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Catalases in Acinetobacter sp. Strain JC1 DSM 3803 Growing on Glucose (포도당을 이용하여 성장하는 Acinetobacter sp. Strain JC1 DSM 3809에 존재하는 Catalase)

  • Shin, Kyoung-Ju;Ro, Young-Tae;Kim, Young-Min
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 1994
  • Cells of Acinetobacter sp. strain JC1 DSM 3803, an aerobic monoxide-oxidizing bacterium, growing on glucose exhibited high catalase activity at the mid-exponential growth phase. The enzyme activity decreased gradually after then until the early stationary phase, increased again at the mid-stationary phase, and then decreased again thereafter. Cells growing on glucose was found to contain three kinds of catalses. Cat1, Cat2 and Cat3. The activities of Cat1 and Cat3 did change significantly during growth, but that of Cat2 exhibited significant variation. Cat3 was found to present only in cells growing on glucose, but not in cells growing on carbon monoxide of methanol. The activities of call and Cat3 in cell-free extracts were stable upon treatment with ethanol and chloroform, but decreased to some extent when the enzymewere treated with 2mM $H_2O_2$ and/or 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT). Cat2 was found to be extremely sensitive to the ethanol-chloroform and $H_2O_2$ treatments, but was insensitive to the AT treatment. Cat1 exhibited enzyme activity after incubation for 1 min at 80$^{\circ}C$. Cat2 and Cat3 did not show enzyme activity after incubation for 1 min at 60$^{\circ}C$ and 70$^{\circ}C$, respectively. Cat2 was found to have peroxidase activity. Cat3 was purified to homogenity in seven steps. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to be 150,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis revealed two identical subunits of molecular weight 65,000. The enzyme was found to show two $K_m$ values of 39 mM and 58mM. The optimal pH for the enzyme activity was 7.0, but the activities at pH 6.0, 8.0, and 9.0, were found to be comparable to that at the optimal pH. The optimal temperature for the enzyme activity was found to be 40$^{\circ}C$. The enzyme also exhibited strong activity at 20$^{\circ}C$, 30$^{\circ}C$, and 50$^{\circ}C$. The purified enzyme was not affected by the ethanol-chloroform treatment. The enzyme, howerver, showed less than 10% of the original activity when it was treated with 12 mN AT, 0.1 mM $NaN_3$ of 1mM KCN.

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Survey of Perception of Complementary and Alternative Therapies (CAT) (암환자를 돌보는 일부 종합병원 간호사의 보완대체요법에 대한 인식도)

  • Kim, Keum-Soon;Yi, Myung-Sun;An, Kyung-Eh;Yu, Han-Jin;Kwon, So-Hi
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.457-466
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study was done to investigate oncology nurses' perception, attitude, knowledge and practice of CAT and to describe nurses' needs for education on CAT Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. A total of 270 oncology nurses working at four medical centers in Seoul and Kyungki participated in this study. They completed the questionnaire between December 2005 and February 2006. Results: Oncology nurses perceived CAT as possible nursing interventions, but felt that there was no conclusive evidence on effectiveness/safety. Of the participants 44.4% have used CAT for themselves, and 73.9% of them were satisfied after using CAT. Two biggest reasons for CAT use were symptom control and emotional support. However, 80.8% of the participants had not had any training related to CAT Both nurses who have used CAT and those who have been trained to practice CAT represented a more positive perception toward CAT (p=.000). The biggest perceived obstacles to the practice of CAT were concerns about side effects (71.2%) and lack of knowledge and skill (69.6%). The most favorable CAT modalities in both practice and training were mind-body medicine. Conclusion: Overall oncology nurses' perception toward CAT was encouraging. However a high number of the nurses reported lack of knowledge and skill in CAT Education and training strategy for CAT need to be developed.

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Analysis of Catalases from Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum Sl

  • Lim, Hee-Kyung;Kim, Young-Mi;Lee, Dong-Heon;Kahng, Hyung-Yeel;Oh, Duck-Chul
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.168-176
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    • 2001
  • Five different types of catalases from photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 grown aerobically in the dark were found in this study, and designated Catl (350 kDa), Cat2 (323 kDa), Cat3 (266 kDa), Cat4 (246 kDa), and Cat5 (238 kDa). Analysis of native PAGE revealed that Cat2, Cat3, and Cat4 were also produced in the cells anaerobically grown in the light. It is notable that only Cat2 was expressed much more strongly in response to the anaerobic condition. Enzyme activity staining demonstrated that Cat3 and Cat4 had bifunctional catalase-peroxidase activities, while Catl, Cat2, and Cat5 were typical monofunctional catalases. S1 cells grown aerobically in the presence of malate as the sole source of carbon exhibited an apparent catalase Km value of 10 mM and a Vmax of about 705 U/mg protein at late stationary growth phase. The catalase activity of Sl cells grown in the anaerobic environment exhibited a much lower Vmax of about 109 U/mg protein at late logarithmic growth phase. The catalytic activity was stable in the broad range of temperatures (30$\^{C}$-60$\^{C}$), and pH (6.0-10.0). R. rubrum S1 was much more resistant to H$_2$O$_2$in the stationary growth phase than in the exponential growth phase regardless of growth conditions. Cells of stationary growth phase treated with 15 mM H$_2$O$_2$for 1 h showed 3-fold higher catalase activities than the untreated cells. In addition, L-glutamate induced an 80-fold increase in total catalase activity of R. rubrum S1 compared with magic acid. Through fraction analyses of S1 cells, Cat2, Cat3, Cat4 and Cat5 were found in both cytoplasm and periplasm, while Catl was localized only in the cytoplasm.

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Stimulation of Trout CYP1A Gene Expression in Mouse HEPA-1 Cells by 3-Methylcholanthrene

  • Lee, Soo-Young;Sheen, Yhun-Yhong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.404-409
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    • 1997
  • Trout CYP1A-CAT expression construct was generated by cloning -3.5 Kb $5^I$ flanking DNA of trout liver CYP1A gene in front of CAT gene at pCAT-basic vector. Hepa 1 cells, which are known to contain a functional arylhydrbcarbon $receptor^I$ were transfected with trout CYP1A-CAT using lipofectin. 3-Methylcholanthrene (1 nM) was added into hepa 1 cells in culture in order to examine if $5^I$ flanking DNA of trout CYP1A gene could interact with mouse transactivating factors to bring about transcription of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase(CAT) reporter gene. The level of CAT protein was measured by CAT ELISA and the level of CAT mRNA was determined by RTPCR. The treatment of 1 nM 3-methylcholanthrene resulted in two fold increases in CAT protein as well as CAT mRNA compared to untreated control hepa 1 cells. These data indicate that arylhydrocarbon receptors of mouse hepa 1 cells are functional to activate exogenously transfected trout CYP1A-CAT construct in terms of both transcription and translation of CAT. We also examined the effect of 3-methylcholanthrene on endogenous cyplal activity in hepa 1 cell. 3-Methylcholanthrene (1 nM) treatment to hepa 1 cells trahsfected with trout CYP1A-CAT construct stimulated the level of cyp1a1 mRNA by two folds and the activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase by two fold compared to that of control cells. In this study we reported that trout CYP1A-CAT reporter gene expression construct could be expressed by 3-methylcholanthrene treatment in mouse hepa 1 cells. Thus trout CYP1A-CAT could serve as a good model to study the mechanism of regulation of CYP1A1 gene expression.

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Nurses' Perceptions and Experiences with Complementary and Alternative Therapies (간호사의 보완대체요법에 대한 인식과 경험)

  • Son Haeng-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.314-323
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Complementary and alternative therapies(CAT) are defined as those treatments and healthcare practices not taught widely in medical schools, not generally used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by health care insurance. Recently, CAT have become increasingly popular with health care consumers and health care professionals. This study investigated nurses' perceptions and experiences with CAT. Method: 124 nurses who were working in university hospitals in Seoul and Inchon were randomly selected as participants for this study. They answered open and closed questionnaires on their Perceptions and experiences with CAT. Results: Most of the subjects recognized the existence of CAT (86.3%), and expected a treatment effect from CAT when it is combined with conventional therapy (84.7%). Nurses accepted CAT positively as complement for conventional therapy and useful modalities of psychological support when its effects have been proven scientifically. Forty nurses (32.3%) had learned CAT including soojichim, aroma therapy, relaxation, meditation, music therapy, massage, and acupressure. Eight nurses (6.5%) used CAT with patients including soojichim, hand massage, relaxation, and music therapy. Conclusion: In spite of the nurses' positive perceptions of CAT, the nurses' professional experiences were quite limited. Nurses need authorized training programs and continuing education opportunities in CAT. This would increase their ability to use CAT. But to improve scientific knowledge more evidence based research is.

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A Study on Korean Related Identities of the OCLC WorldCat Identities Network (OCLC WorldCat Identities Network의 한국 관련 아이덴티티에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Cheong-Ok
    • Journal of Korean Library and Information Science Society
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.451-470
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to review the processing of Korean related personal identities included in the OCLC WorldCat Identities Network and propose how to improve its errors. With twelve samples of English and Korean personal and subject identities, their related identities and works were examined, and their bibliographic records were retrieved from WorldCat. In searching WorldCat, inconsistencies in default search queries and the processing of identities with a date or a fuller form of name were observed.

A Study on the Use of Complementary and Alternative Therapies in Korean Adults (한국 성인의 보완대체요법 이용에 관한 조사)

  • Lee, Keum Jae;Kim, Ok Hyun;Chun, Woo Jung;Roe, Myung Hee;Kang, Moon Jung;Ko, Sung Hee;Lee, Kyeong Suk;Lee, Ko Eun
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.144-154
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to identify the use of complementary and alternative therapies, and the perception and attitudes toward CAT in Korean adults. Methods: The 1,010 study subjects were recruited from ten regions in South Korea. Data were collected from July to September, 2004. Results: The 43.2% of the sample(n=436) had an experience of using CAT. The subjects using CAT was more likely to have high score in the CAT perception compared to the subjects with no experience of CAT(p=.001). The primary source of information about CAT was mass media(59.7%). The 52.4% of the sample answered that CAT was supplementary and the 27.7% answered CAT was applicable to chronic pain or musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects(34.8%) pointed out that the greatest problem was no scientific informant in the use of CAT. The primary reason of using CAT was to maintain their health or to prevent disease(44.0%), and the 59.0% of the subjects responded that CAT was effective. Majority of subjects were satisfied with CAT(63.3%) and experienced no side effects of CAT(90.6%). Conclusion: This study suggests that professional counseling and education for CAT is needed for Korean public as well as the research approach to test the effects of CAT.

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