• Title, Summary, Keyword: CISH

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Characterization of porcine cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein gene and its association with piglet diarrhea traits

  • Niu, Buyue;Guo, Dongchun;Liu, Zhiran;Han, Xiaofei;Wang, Xibiao
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1689-1695
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein (CISH), which might play a role in porcine intestine immune responses, was one of the promising candidate genes for piglet anti-disease traits. An experiment was conducted to characterize the porcine CISH (pCISH) gene and to evaluate its genetic effects on pig anti-disease breeding. Methods: Both reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR were performed to obtain the sequence of pCISH gene. A pEGFP-C1-CISH vector was constructed and transfected into PK-15 cells to analysis the distribution of pCISH. The sequences of individuals were compared with each other to find the polymorphisms in pCISH gene. The association analysis was performed in Min pigs and Landrace pigs to evaluate the genetic effects on piglet diarrhea traits. Results: In the present research, the coding sequence and genomic sequence of pCISH gene was obtained. Porcine CISH was mainly localized in cytoplasm. TaqI and HaeIII PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays were established to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); A-1575G in promoter region and A2497C in Intron1, respectively. Association studies indicated that SNP A-1575G was significantly associated with diarrhea index of Min piglets (p<0.05) and SNP A2497C was significantly associated with the diarrhea trait of both Min pig and Landrace piglets (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study suggested that the pCISH gene might be a novel candidate gene for pig anti-disease traits, and further studies are needed to confirm the results of this preliminary research.

Relationship of Amplification and Expression of the C-MYC Gene with Survival among Gastric Cancer Patients

  • Khaleghian, Malihea;Shakoori, Abbas;Razavi, Amirnader Emami;Azimi, Cyrus
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7061-7069
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    • 2015
  • Background: During the past decades, the incidence and mortality rate of stomach cancer has demonstrated a great decrease in the world, but it is still one of the most common and fatal cancers especially among men worldwide, including Iran. The MYC proto-oncogene, which is located at 8q24.1, regulates 15% of genes and is activated in 20% of all human tumors. MYC amplification and overexpression of its protein product has been reported in 15-30% of gastric neoplasias. The aim of this investigation was to find the relative efficacy of CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization) or IHC (immunohistochemistry) in diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer, as well as the relationship of amplification and expression of C-MYC gene with patient survival. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 102 samples of gastric cancer were collected from patients who had undergone primary surgical resection at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, from July 2009 to March 2014. All samples were randomly selected from those who were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinomas. CISH and IHC methods were performed on all of them. Results: Patients were classified into two groups. The first consisted of stage I and II cases, and the second of stage III and IV. Survival tests for both groups was carried out with referrnce to CISH test reults. Group II (stage III & IV) with CISH+ featured lower survival than those with CISH- (p=0.233), but group I (stage I & II) patients demonstrated no significant variation with CISH+ or CISH- (p=0.630). Kaplan-Meier for both groups was carried out with IHC test findings and showed similar results. This data revealed that both diffuse and intestinal types of gastric cancer occurred significantly more in men than women. Our data also showed that CISH+ patients (43%) were more frequent in comparison with IHC+ patients (14.7%). Conclusions: For planning treatment of gastric cancer patients, by focusing on expanding tumors, which is the greatest concern of the surgeons and patients, CISH is a better and more feasible test than IHC, in regard to sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, CISH can be used as a feasible test for tumor growth and prognosis in stage III and IV lesions. This study also indicated that C-MYC amplification in gastric cancer is correlated with survival in advanced stages.

Chromogenic In Situ Hybridisation Test for Breast Cancer Patients with Equivocal IHC Results - a Study from Iran

  • Mehrazma, Mitra;Kalantari, Elham;Rezvani, Hamid;Bahar, Babak;Basi, Ali;Razavi, Seyed Mohsen;Rakhshani, Nasser
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7695-7700
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    • 2015
  • Background: HER2/neu overexpression on cell membranes of breast cancer cells is due to HER2/neu gene amplification and it is important to identify potential candidates for anti HER2 therapy with trastuzumab. IHC, FISH and CISH are standard FDA approved assays currently used to determine HER2 status in routine practice. The aim of this study was to determine HER2 gene amplification, using the CISH method in breast carcinoma samples which had IHC +2 reactions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from 2008-2010 using 334 consecutive breast carcinoma samples referred from local laboratories to Mehr Hospital. CISH assays were performed for all cases, and IHC tests were also done for determining efficacy and accuracy of local labs. HER2 status in local IHC tests was compared with central IHC and CISH results. Results: Of 334 breast cancer patients, 16 were negative for HER2 IHC (0, +1), 201 cases were equivocal (+2), and 31 positive (+3). Of 334 referral cases, 88 were CISH positive (26.3%) and 246 were CISH negative (73.7%). Of 201 IHC +2 cases, HER2 gene amplification was observed in 42 cases (kappa: 0.42). A 29.9% concordance was found between local IHC and central IHC. Sensitivity and specificity of local IHC were 90% and 53.8%, respectively. Conclusions: Low accuracy of IHC results in local labs was associated with the following factors: using former FDA-approved criteria for HER2 interpretation, utilizing non-validated kits, and lack of any quality assurance program. Therefore, following the new 2014 ASCO/CAP guideline and comprehensive quality assurance should be implemented to ensure accuracy of HER2 testing.

Negative HER2/neu Amplification Using Immunohistochemistry and Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization Techniques in Skin Melanoma Cases

  • Shayanfar, Nasrin;Bahari, Leila;Safaie-Naraghi, Zahra;Kamyab, Kambiz;Gheytanchi, Elmira;Rezaei, Nima
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.421-425
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    • 2015
  • Background: This study was performed to evaluate the amplification of HER-2/neu in patients with melanoma. Materials and Methods: Amplification of HER-2/neu was evaluated in a group of patients with melanoma, referred to two referral centers in Tehran, using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) techniques. Results: Forty patients with mean age $57.9{\pm}19.5years$ were enrolled in this study. The most frequent type of melanoma was acral, while lower limbs were the most frequent sites. The amplification of HER2/neu was negative in 97.5% of patients with IHC and in 100% of patients with CISH technique. Only one case (2.5%) shows weak positive staining (+2) in IHC method. Fifty five percent of melanoma was ulcerative, and the most common stages of tumors were stages 4b and 3b. More than 47% of cases were in Clark level III, while the mean of Breslow thickness was $3.56{\pm}2.87mm$. The stage of the case that showed weakly positive staining (2+) in IHC was 4b. Conclusions: The amplification of HER2/neu biomarker was negative in patients with melanoma, using both CISH and IHC techniques.

Evaluation of Sexing in Boar Sperm Using Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization (Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization을 이용한 돼지 정자의 성 선별)

  • Kim, H.H.;Roh, D.E.;Jo, T.K.;Byun, J.W.;Lee, J.W.;Kim, Y.S.;Hwang, Y.J.;Kim, D.Y.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2007
  • 돼지 정자의 성 선별에는 일반적으로 유속 세포 분석기를 이용한다. 유속 세포 분석은 DNA량의 차이에 기초하여 정자를 분리하는 기술로써 X 정자와 Y 정자를 90% 정확도로 분리할 수 있다. 그러나 이러한 유속 세포분석 기술은 정자의 손상을 야기해 정자의 기능과 수정능에 영향을 미치므로, 본 연구에서는 특정한 핵산 서열을 탐지할 수 있는 Chromogenic in situ hybridization(CISH)을 그와 비교하여 평가하였다. 유속 세포 분석을 수행하기 위해 정자를 SYBR 14와 PI로 염색하였고, histogram, dotplot, density, contour를 측정하였다. Y 염색체 특이적인 primer를 이용한 PCR로 유속 세포 분석의 정확도를 검사하였다. HRP/DAB 시스템에 기초한 CISH 분석에는 X 또는 Y 염색체에 상보적으로 결합하는 probe가 사용되었다. CISH 분석은 기존의 방법들보다 빠르고 쉬우며 비용이 적게 든다는 장점이 있다. 또한, CISH는 보다 정화한 정자의 선별을 가능하게 하는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구에 따르면 CISH가 기존의 선별 방법들을 평가하는 기술로서만이 아니라 특정한 성별을 가진 포유동물의 생산에도 사용될 수 있을 것이다.

Evaluation of HER-2/neu Overexpression in Gastric Carcinoma using a Tissue Microarray

  • Rakhshani, Nasser;Kalantari, Elham;Bakhti, Hadi;Sohrabi, Masoud Reza;Mehrazma, Mitra
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7597-7602
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    • 2014
  • Background: Amplification and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) oncogene has considerable prognostic value in breast and gastric cancers. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency, overexpression pattern, clinical significance, and concordance between the results for protein expression and gene amplification of HER-2/neu in gastric and gastro-esophageal junction carcinomas. Materials and Methods: In this study, 101 gastric tissue samples which were included in tissue microarray were immunohistochemically examined for overexpression of HER2/neu. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) was used for HER-2/neu amplification. The correlation of HER2/neu amplification with clinicopathological parameters was also assessed. In addition, concordance between CISH and IHC was detected. Results: This study demonstrated a significant difference in the overexpression of HER2/neu in gastric tumors. The overexpression of HER2/neu was significantly higher in intestinal type, poorly differentiated grade, large size ($5cm{\leq}$) and positive nodal involvement tumors (p-value=0.041, 0.015, 0.038 and 0.071, respectively). Also, amplification of HER2/neu according to CISH test, had a significant positive correlation with tumor size and tumor type (p-value=0.018 and 0.058, respectively).Concordance between CISH and IHC was 76.9% in 101 evaluable samples. Conclusions: IHC/CISH differences were attributed to basolateral membranous immunoreactivity of glandular cells resulting in incomplete membranous reactivity and/or a higher rate of tumor heterogeneity in gastric cancers compared to breast cancers. Therefore, this can be a potential marker for targeted therapy of malignant gastric tumors.

Detection of Gene Amplification by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification in Comparison with In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry

  • Tabarestani, Sanaz;Ghaderian, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein;Rezvani, Hamid
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7997-8002
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    • 2015
  • Gene amplification is an important mechanism in the development and progression of cancer. Currently, gene amplification status is generally determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a PCR-based method that allows copy number detection of up to 50 nucleic acid sequences in one reaction. The aim of the present study was to compare results for HER2, CCND1, MYC and ESR1 gene amplification detected by MLPA with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) as clinically approved methods. Tissue samples of 170 invasive breast cancers were collected. All were ER positive. Tissue samples had previously been tested for HER2 using immunohistochemistry. Amplification of the selected genes were assessed using MLPA, FISH and CISH and results were compared. HER2 MLPA and ISH results were also compared with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) which detects protein overexpression. Amplification of HER2, CCND1, MYC and ESR1 by MLPA were found in 9%, 19%, 20% and 2% of samples, respectively. Amplification of HER2, CCND1, MYC and ESR1 by FISH was noted in 7%, 16%, 16% and 1% of samples, respectively. A high level of concordance was found between MLPA/FISH (HER2: 88%, CCND1: 88%, MYC: 86%, ESR1: 92%) and MLPA/CISH (HER2: 84%). Of all IHC 3+ cases, 91% were amplified by MLPA. In IHC 2+ group, 31% were MLPA amplified. In IHC 1+ group, 2% were MLPA amplified. None of the IHC 0 cases were amplified by MLPA. Our results indicate that there is a good correlation between MLPA, IHC and ISH results. Therefore, MLPA can serve as an alternative to ISH for detection of gene amplification.

Evaluation of c-erbB2/neu Oncogene Status in Canine Mammary Tumors on Tissue Microarray

  • Kang, Jong-il;Cho, Ho-seong;A.W.M. Effendy;Park, Nam-yong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Veterinary Pathology Conference
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    • pp.40-40
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    • 2003
  • The c-erbB2/neu oncogene (alias HER2, NEU) encoding a tyrosine kinase receptor protein, the overexpression of which correlates with a more rapid progression and a worse prognosis in human breast cancer [1]. Otherwise, this gene is still poorly investigated in veterinary oncology [2,3]. To gain insight into the patterns of c-erbB2/neu status in canine mammary tumor, we constructed one such mammary tumor tissue microarray (TMA) from 60 tumors from our lab. This enabled the amplification of c-erbB2/neu oncogene of all 60 tumors to be simultaneously analyzed by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). The aim of this study was to evaluate status of c-erbB2/neu oncogene in canine mammary tumors and to correlate this status with the differentiation grade of neoplasm. (omitted)

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Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Response to Treatment with Melatonin in Lipopolysaccharide Activated RAW 264.7 Cells

  • Ban, Ju-Yeon;Kim, Bum-Sik;Kim, Soo-Cheol;Kim, Dong-Hwan;Chung, Joo-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2011
  • Melatonin, which is the main product of the pineal gland, has well documented antioxidant and immune-modulatory effects. Macrophages produce molecules that are known to play roles in inflammatory responses. We conducted microarray analysis to evaluate the global gene expression profiles in response to treatment with melatonin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, eight genes were subjected to real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to confirm the results of the microarray. The cells were treated with LPS or melatonin plus LPS for 24 hr. LPS induced the up-regulation of 1073 genes and the down-regulation of 1144 genes when compared to the control group. Melatonin pretreatment of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells resulted in the down regulation of 241 genes and up regulation of 164 genes. Interestingly, among genes related to macrophage-mediated immunity, LPS increased the expression of seven genes (Adora2b, Fcgr2b, Cish, Cxcl10, Clec4n, Il1a, and Il1b) and decreased the expression of one gene (Clec4a3). These changes in expression were attenuated by melatonin. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR were similar to those of the microarray. Taken together, these results suggest that melatonin may have a suppressive effect on LPS-induced expression of genes involved in the regulation of immunity and defense in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Moreover, these results may explain beneficial effects of melatonin in the treatment of various inflammatory conditions.

Expression of DNA Methylation Marker of Paired-Like Homeodomain Transcription Factor 2 and Growth Receptors in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast

  • Rahman, Wan Faiziah Wan Abdul;Fauzi, Mohd Hashairi;Jaafar, Hasnan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8441-8445
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    • 2014
  • Background: Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) is another new marker in breast carcinoma since hypermethylation at P2 promoter of this gene was noted to be associated with poor prognosis. We investigated the expression of PITX2 protein using immunohistochemistry in invasive ductal carcinoma and its association with the established growth receptors such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2). Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study using 100 samples of archived formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of invasive ductal carcinoma and stained them with immunohistochemistry for PITX2, ER, PR and HER2. All HER2 with scoring of 2+ were confirmed with chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH). Results: PITX2 protein was expressed in 53% of invasive ductal carcinoma and lack of PITX2 expression in 47%. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between PITX2 expression with PR (p=0.001), ER (p=0.006), gland formation (p=0.044) and marginal association with molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma (p=0.051). Combined ER and PR expression with PITX2 was also significantly associated (p=0.003) especially in double positive cases. Multivariate analysis showed the most significant association between PITX2 and PR (RR 4.105, 95% CI 1.765-9.547, p=0.001). Conclusion: PITX2 is another potential prognostic marker in breast carcinoma adding significant information to established prognostic factors of ER and PR. The expression of PITX2 together with PR may carry a very good prognosis.