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Review of the Properties of the Laser and the Spectrum of Laser Instruments for Diabetic Ulcer (당뇨병성 궤양에 사용되는 레이저의 특성에 대한 연구)

  • Kang, Ki-wan;Kang, Ja-yeon;Jeong, Min-jeong;Kim, Hong-jun;Seo, Hyung-sik;Jang, In-soo
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.14-23
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : One of major complications of diabetes, diabetic ulcer is also one of the main reasons for amputation, and the prevalence rate is 4-10%. Laser therapy is widely used for leg ulcer and diabetic ulcer, and it is known to improve wound epithelialization, cellular content, and collagen deposition. The purpose of this study is to investigate the properties of the laser and the spectrum of laser instruments for diabetic ulcer. Methods : We performed literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL and Web of science for the data in English. In addition, other databases were checked for different languages such as OASIS and NDSL for the literature in Korean, CNKI in Chinese, and CiNii and J-STAGE written in Japanese. We excluded all review article and experimental studies, and only clinical studies using laser or light emitting diode (LED) for diabetic ulcer were selected. Results : A total twenty papers were selected. Different light sources were used as follows: LED, HeNe, InGaAlP, GaAlAs, GaAs, CO2, and KTP. The number of LED studies was 9, and HeNe laser was 7, and InGaAlP and GaAlAs laser was 2, GaAs, CO2, and KTP laser was 1 for each. Various energy density of the clinical study were reported. Conclusions : It is suggested that to select appropriate laser type and give the adequate output power to treat diabetic ulcer. Further evaluation and research for the condition of laser therapy to treat diabetic ulcers are warranted.

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma Pro12Ala Polymorphism Could be a Risk Factor for Gastric Cancer

  • Zhao, Jing;Zhi, Zheng;Song, Guangyao;Wang, Juan;Wang, Chao;Ma, Huijuan;Yu, Xian;Sui, Aixia;Zhang, Hongtao
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2333-2340
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    • 2015
  • Background: Due to the strong inhibitory effects of $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene on the growth of cancer cells, the role of Pro12Ala polymorphism in $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene has been extensively investigated in cancer recently. However, the results were inconsistent according to cancer type. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the $PPAR{\gamma}$ Pro12Ala polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility. Materials and Methods: Search strategies were conducted in Pubmed, Medline (Ovid), Chinese biomedical database (CBM), China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang database, covering all publications, with the last search up to November 01, 2014. The strength of association between $PPAR{\gamma}$ Pro12Ala polymorphism and gastric cancer risk was assessed by OR with 95%CI. Results: A total of 546 cases and 827 controls in 5 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that the variant G allele carriers (CG+GG) had a 2.31 times higher risk for gastric cancer when compared with the homozygote CC (odds ratio (OR)=2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.67-3.21 for CG+GG vs. CC). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly elevated risks were both found in Asians (OR=2.56, 95% CI=1.42-4.64) and Caucasians (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.48-3.25). Similarly, in the subgroup analysis by H. pylori status, a significantly increased risk was identified in H. pylori (+) populations (OR=3.68, 95%CI=2.07-6.52), but not in H. pylori(-) populations (OR=1.17, 95%CI=0.58-2.39). Conclusions: This pooled analysis suggested that the $PPAR{\gamma}$ Pro12Ala polymorphism could be an independent predictive risk factor for gastric cancer especially in H. pylori infected populations in Asians and Caucasians. Nevertheless, prospectively designed cohort studies are needed to further investigate gene-gene and gene-environment interactions to confirm the combined effects of $PPAR{\gamma}$ Pro12Ala polymorphisms and H. pylori infection on gastric cancer risk.

Sanjoin-tang (Suanzaoren decoction) for Insomnia in Menopausal Syndromes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (산조인탕치료가 여성갱년기 수면장애에 미치는 효과 : 체계적 문헌고찰 및 메타분석)

  • Jun, Ji Hee;Choi, Tae-Young;Lee, Myeong Soo;Song, Eunhye;Ang, Lin;Park, Sunju
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2020
  • Objectives : The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of Sanjoin-tang (Suanzaoren decoction, SZRD) for insomnia in menopausal syndromes. Method : We searched the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (VIP), Wanfang, Research Information Service System (RISS), OASIS, Korean studies Information Service System (KISS), and National Digital Science Library (NDSL) databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that used SZRD for women in menopause were included. The methodological quality of each RCT was assessed using the risk of bias tool. Results : In total, nine RCTs were finally included. The included RCTs had a high risk of bias across their domains. Three RCTs examined the effects of SZRD compared with western medicine (WM) in insomnia. Three RCTs showed favorable effects of SZRD with insomnia. Infrastructure also showed that SZRD resulted in better clinical WM (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.32, P=0.001, I2=0%). Four RCTs showed favorable effects of Modified SZRD with insomnia. Infrastructure also showed that Modified SZRD resulted in better clinical WM (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.23, P=0.004, I2=0%). Among the 4 RCTs, three RCTs showed an equivalent effect on the total Pittsburh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The meta-analysis also showed that Modified SZRD had a superior effect on the total of PSQI (total of PSQI : MD -2.55, 95% CI -3.72 to -1.37, P<0.0001, I2=85%). Only 2 trials reported adverse events and none reported severe adverse events. Conclusion : SZRD appears to be safe, but there is insufficient evidence to make a definitive conclusion because only a few studies reported adverse events. Due to the poor methodological quality of the included studies and the small number of trials included, the evidence cannot be reproduced and assessed. Well-designed RCTs with a larger sample size are needed in the future.

Effect of Acupuncture on Sciatica in Rat Models: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (좌골신경통 백서모델에서 침치료의 효과: 체계적 문헌고찰 및 메타분석)

  • Yoon, Ye-Ji;Kim, Soojeon;Cho, Jae-Heung;Kim, Koh-Woon;Song, Mi-Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.79-93
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    • 2020
  • Objectives While sciatic neuropathy is one of the common symptoms which have the lifetime incidence of 13~40%, still there is no consensus about the standardized and the most effective conservative treatment. In addition, the importance of systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical are growing as they could suggest possible effective treatment strategy for future studies. Therefore, we conducted systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate analgesic effect of acupuncture on sciatica in rat models. Methods Systematic search was conducted for all controlled comparative preclinical trials which assessed analgesic effect of acupuncture in sciatica rat models. Database of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CNKI and 6 Korean databases were used. The primary outcome was pain, which is evaluated by stimulus behavior tests in rat models. We assessed the methodological quality with Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation's risk of bias tool. RevMan 5.3 was used for meta-analysis and subgroup analysis was conducted according to treatment site, acupuncture point, treatment period and frequency used in electroacupuncture. Results 14 studies were finally included following our inclusion criteria. The data from meta-analysis indicated that the acupuncture significantly improved the result values of behavior tests for pain evaluation, compared to no-treatment control group in animal models (standardized mean difference=4.43, 95% confidence interval 3.16 to 5.69, Z=6.84, p<0.00001; χ2=68.02, p<0.00001; I2=82%). The results of subgroup analysis indicate that acupuncture treatment of unilateral site, distal acupoints, longer treatment period and applying 2/100 Hz frequency in electroacupuncture could be more effective. Conclusions Systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies are getting important for the future clinical studies and the improvement of heatlh care. Therefore the results of the study would provide evidence and better design for the forthcoming studies.

The Effect of Auricular Acupuncture for Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (비만치료에 대한 이침요법의 효과에 대한 고찰: 체계적 문헌고찰 및 메타분석)

  • Park, Seohyun;An, Sunjoo;Choi, Sunghwan;Kang, Shinwoo;Keum, Dongho
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.52-68
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the weight loss effects of auricular acupuncture in obese patients. Methods: Six databases (Research Information Sharing Service [RISS], Korean studies Information Service System [KISS], Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System [OASIS], PubMed, The Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched up to May 20, 2020. Eight eligible randomized controlled trials were included the present study. The quality of included studies was assessed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool and a meta-analysis was performed by Review Manager software. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis was performed to detect the sources of heterogeneity, identify the selection of acupuncture methods and explore its contributions to the weight loss effects. Results: Among 8 trials, 5 trials used auricular acupuncture and 2 trials used auricular acupressure, 1 trial used both types of intervention. Most commonly selected acupoints were Shenmen (TF4) and stomach (CO4). Treatment duration was six to twelve weeks, and total treatment session was six to twelve. Compared to the control groups, auricular acupuncture significantly decreased body weight, body mass index (BMI), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) and ghrelin. For the selection of acupuncture methods, both methods performed similarly in most outcome except waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BFP), and triglycerides (TG). Conclusions: We found that auricular acupuncture can be effective for weight loss and controlling appetite. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution due to heterogeneity. So further vigorous and well-designed studies should be conducted to strengthen the evidence of the use of auricular acupuncture for obesity.

Recent Trends of Immunologic Studies of Herbal Medicine on Rheumatoid Arthritis (류마티스 관절염에 대한 한약의 면역학적 연구동향)

  • Choi, Do-young;Lee, Jae-dong;Back, Yong-hyeon;Lee, Song-shil;Yoo, Myung-chul;Han, Chung-soo;Yang, Hyung-in;Park, Sang-do;Ryu, Mi-hyun;Park, Eun-kyung;Park, Dong-seok
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.177-196
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    • 2004
  • Objective : Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that pathogenesis is not fully understood and one of the most intractable musculoskeletal diseases. The concern in the immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis has been increased since 1980's and many immunotherapeutic agents including disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were developed and became the mainstay of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the cure of the disease has hardly been achieved. In oriental medicine, rheumatoid arthritis is related to Bi-Zheng(痺證), that presents pain, swelling, andlor loss of joint function as major clinical manifestations, and also known to be deeply involved in suppression of immune function related to weakness of Jung-Ki(正氣). The herbal medicine, empirically used, could be a potential resource of development of new immunotherapeutic agents for rheumatoid arthritis. Methods : We developed a search strategy using terms to include "rheumatoid arthritis and herbal medicine" combined with "Chinese medicine" and/or "Oriental medicine". The search was focused on experimental studies of herbal medicine (January 1999 to May 2004), which is known to have effects on immune function of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Computerized search used Internet databases including KISS and RISS4U (Korea), CNKI (China), MOMJ (Main Oriental Medicine Journal, Japan), and PubMed. The articles were selected from journals of universities or major research institutes. Results : The literature search for experimental studies on effects of herbal medicine on immunity of rheumatoid arthritis retrieved a total of 21 articles (Korea; 8, China ; 12, Japan ; 1). Of 21 articles, 10 were related to single-drug formula, 2 to drug interaction, and 9 to multi-drug formula. Single-drug formula was mainly used for aqua-acupuncture and researches on active components. Studies of drug interaction emphasized harmony of Ki-Hyul(氣血) and balance of Han-Yeul(寒熱). Multi-drug regimen was mainly found among formulas for Bo-Ki-Hyul(補氣血) and Bo-Sin(補腎). Conclusion : Studies on rheumatoid arthritis were performed both in vitro and in vivo in vitro study, LPS-stimulated splenocytes and synoviocytes were treated with herbal medicine, resulting in proliferation and activation of immune cells and suppression of cytokine activities in vivo study CIA animal model demonstrated that herbal medicine decreased antibody production and improved function of immune cells. In cellular and molecular study herbal medicine showed profound effects on the level of mRNA expression of certain cytokines related to immune function. This study revealed that herbal medicine has significant immune modulatory action and could be used for recovery of immune dysfunction of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

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Association between Dietary Factors and Breast Cancer Risk among Chinese Females: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Liu, Xue-Ou;Huang, Yu-Bei;Gao, Ying;Chen, Chuan;Yan, Ye;Dai, Hong-Ji;Song, Feng-Ju;Wang, Yao-Gang;Wang, Pei-Shan;Chen, Ke-Xin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.1291-1298
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    • 2014
  • Background: Evidence for associations between dietary factors and breast cancer risk is inconclusive among Chinese females. To evaluate this question, we conducted a systematic review of relevant case-control and cohort studies. Methods: Studies were systematically searched among 5 English databases (PudMed, ScienceDirect, Wiley, Clinicaltrials.gov, and Cochrane) and 3 Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP) until November 2012. Random effects models were used to estimate summary odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Thirty one case-control studies and two cohort studies involving 9,299 cases and 11,413 controls were included. Consumption of both soy and fruit was significantly associated with decreased risk of breast cancer, with summary ORs of 0.65 (95% CIs: 0.43-0.99; I2=88.9%, P<0.001; N=13) and 0.66 (95% CIs: 0.47-0.91; $I^2$=76.7%, P<0.001; N=7), respectively. Consumption of fat was significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer (OR=1.36; 95% CIs: 1.13-1.63; $I^2$=47.9%, P=0.088; N=6). There was nonsignificant association between consumption of vegetables and breast cancer risk (OR=0.72; 95% CIs: 0.51-1.02; $I^2$= 74.4%, P<0.001; N=9). However, sensitivity analysis based on adjusted ORs showed decreased risk of breast cancer was also associated with consumption of vegetables (OR=0.49; 95% CIs: 0.30-0.67). Conclusion: Both soy food and fruit are significantly associated with decreased risk of breast cancer among Chinese females, and vegetables also seems to be protective while dietary fatexerts a promoting influence.

Heparanase mRNA and Protein Expression Correlates with Clinicopathologic Features of Gastric Cancer Patients: a Meta-analysis

  • Li, Hai-Long;Gu, Jing;Wu, Jian-Jun;Ma, Chun-Lin;Yang, Ya-Li;Wang, Hu-Ping;Wang, Jing;Wang, Yong;Chen, Che;Wu, Hong-Yan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8653-8658
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    • 2016
  • Background: Heparanase is believed to be involved in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the clinicopathologic features of gastric cancer with high heparanase expression remain unclear. Aim : The purpose of this study was to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize available evidence for the use of heparanase mRNA and protein expression to evaluate the clinicopathological associations in gastric cancer in Asian patients by meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Relevant articles listed in MEDLINE, CNKI and the Cochrane Library databases up to MARCH 2015 were searched by use of several keywords in electronic databases. A meta-analysis was performed to clarify the impact of heparanase mRNA and protein on clinicopathological parameters in gastric cancer. Combined ORs with 95%CIs were calculated by Revman 5.0, and publication bias testing was performed by stata12.0. Results: A total of 27 studies which included 3,891 gastric cancer patients were combined in the final analysis. When stratifying the studies by the pathological variables of heparanase mRNA expression, the depth of invasion (633 patients) (OR=4.96; 95% CI=2.38-1.37; P<0.0001), lymph node metastasis (639 patients) (OR=6.22; 95%CI=2.70-14.34, P<0.0001), and lymph node metastasis (383 patients) (OR=6.85; 95% CI=2.04-23.04; P=0.002) were all significant. When stratifying the studies by the pathological variables of heparanase protein expression, this was the case for depth of invasion (1250 patients) (OR=2.76; 95% CI=1.52-5.03; P=0.0009), lymph node metastasis (1178 patients) (OR=4.79 ; 95% CI=3.37-6.80, P<0.00001), tumor size (727 patients) (OR=2.06 ; 95% CI=1.31-3.23; P=0.002) (OR=2.61; 95% CI=2.09-3.27; P=0.000), and TNM stage (1233 patients) (OR=6.85; 95% CI=2.04-23.04; P=0.002). Egger's tests suggested publication bias for depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, lymph node metastasis and tumor size of heparanase mRNA and protein expression. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that higher heparanase expression in gastric cancer is associated with clinicopathologic features of depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage at mRNA and protein levels, and of tumor size only at the protein level. Egger's tests suggested publication bias for these clinicopathologic features of heparanase mRNA and protein expression, and which may be caused by shortage of relevant studies. As a result, although abundant reports showed heparanase may be associated with clinicopathologic features in gastric cancer, this meta-analysis indicates that more strict studies were needed to evaluate its clinicopathologic significance.