• Title, Summary, Keyword: CNTF

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Increased CNTF Expression in the Reactive Astrocyte Following Spinal Cord Injury in Rats (흰쥐에서 척수 손상후 반응성 별아교세포에서의 CNTF 발현 증가)

  • Kim, Chang-Jae;Moon, Se-Ho;Lee, Byung-Ho;Chung, Mee-Young;Chea, Jun-Seuk;Lee, Mun-Yong;Chun, Myung-Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.182-193
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    • 1998
  • Background: Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), identified as a survival factor for developing peripheral neurons is upregulated by reactive astrocytes in the traumatized tissue and in areas of terminal degeneration after a brain lesion. But in the spinal cord, CNTF is expressed in the non-astrocytic phenotypic, maybe oligodendrocytes. The present study was undertaken to determine the upregulation of CNTF expression in reactive astrocytes following spinal cord lesion in the rat. Methods: Unilateral incision of the dorsal funiculus at the thoracic level was performed and rats were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14 and 28 postlesion. Western blot analysis, immunocytochemical analysis and double immunofluorescence for CNTF and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were performed after spinal cord lesion. Results: A major band with 24 kDa and additional band of higher molecular weight form were detectable, and the intensity of the 24 kDa immunoreactive band increased up to 14 days postlesion and decreased toward laminectomized control values. CNTF immunoreactivity was markedly upregulated in the injured dorsal funiculus and adjacent gray matter. The time course of CNTF expression is coincident with the appearance of reactive astrocytes in the injured spinal cord. Moreover, double immunofluorescence for CNTF and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed that CNTF immunoreactivity was in GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes. Conclusions: These results show that CNTF upregulation occurred in reactive astrocytes following spinal cord lesion, and suggest a role for CNTF in the regulation of astrocytic responses after spinal cord injury.

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Immunohistochemical Localization of Nerve Growth Factor, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein and Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in the Forebrain of the Developing Mongolian Gerbil (발생중인 Mongolian gerbil의 전뇌에서 NGF, GFAP 및 CNTF의 분포)

  • Park, Il-Kwon;Lee, Kyoug-Youl;Song, Chi-Won;Kwon, Hyo-Jung;Park, Mi-Sun;Lee, Mi-Young;Jeong, Young-Gil;Lee, Chul-Ho;Ha, Kwon-Soo;Lee, Kang-Yi;Kim, Moo-Kang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2002
  • The immunohistochemical localization of the nerve growth factor (NGF), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNIF) in the developing Mongolian gerbil forebrain was investigated by the immunohistochemical and electron microscopy methods. Generally, the NGF specifically recognizes the neurons, the GFAP does the glia, and the CNIF does the motor neurons. This study demonstrates the location of the NGF, GFAP and CNTF in the developing Mongolian gerbil from the embryonic days 17 (E17) to the postnatal weeks 3 (PNW 3). The NGF was localized at E19 in the olfactocy bulb and the cerebral cortex, expanded to the hippocampus, and the diagonal bond from the late prenatal period to PNW 3. GFAP was observed in the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle at E17, projected into the cerebral cortex at E19. The GFAP was observed to have the largest numbers in several parts of the forebrain at the postnatal days 2 (PND2), while the most numerous CNTF was observed at PNW 2. The CNTF-IR cells were observed only in the postnatal days and were found in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex both neuron and neuroglia at PND3. Electron microscopy showed that the NGF, GFAP and CNTF were not related to any connections with any particular subcellular structure. These results suggest that NGF, GFAP and CNTF be related to the neuron and neuroglia at the prenatal and postnatal stages in the developing Mongolian gerbil.

Epac2 contributes to PACAP-induced astrocytic differentiation through calcium ion influx in neural precursor cells

  • Seo, Hyunhyo;Lee, Kyungmin
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.128-133
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    • 2016
  • Astrocytes play a critical role in normal brain functions and maintaining the brain microenvironment, and defects in astrocytogenesis during neurodevelopment could give rise to severe mental illness and psychiatric disorders. During neuro-embryogenesis, astrocytogenesis involves astrocytic differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) induced by signals from ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). However, in contrast to the CNTF signaling pathway, the exact mechanism underlying astrocytic differentiation induced by PACAP is unknown. In the present study, we aimed to verify a signaling pathway specific to PACAP-induced astrocytogenesis, using exchange protein directly activated by cAMP2 (Epac2)-knockout mice. We found that PACAP could trigger astrocytic differentiation of NPCs via Epac2 activation and an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration via a calcium ion influx. Taken together, we concluded that astrocytogenesis stimulated by PACAP occurs through a novel signaling pathway independent from CNTF-JAK/STAT signaling, that is the well-known pathway of astrocytogenesis.

Effect of JAK-STAT pathway in regulation of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in chickens

  • Zhu, Yaling;Mao, Huirong;Peng, Gang;Zeng, Qingjie;Wei, Qing;Ruan, Jiming;Huang, Jianzhen
    • Animal Bioscience
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.143-153
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    • 2021
  • Objective: To explore the molecular mechanisms of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) in laying hens, an experiment was conducted to reveal the differences in histopathological observation and gene expression between FLHS group and normal group. Methods: We compared the histopathological difference using hematoxylin and eosin staining and proceeded with RNA sequencing of adipose tissue to search differentially expressed genes and enriched biological processes and pathways. Then we validated the mRNA expression levels by real-time polymerase chain reaction and quantified protein levels in the circulation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: We identified 100 differentially expressed transcripts corresponding to 66 genes (DEGs) were identified between FLHS-affected group and normal group. Seven DEGs were significantly enriched in the immune response process and lipid metabolic process, including phospholipase A2 group V, WAP kunitz and netrin domain containing 2, delta 4-desaturase sphingolipid 2, perilipin 3, interleukin-6 (IL-6), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). And these genes could be the targets of immune response and be involved in metabolic homeostasis during the process of FLHS in laying hens. Based on functional categories of the DEGs, we further proposed a model to explain the etiology and pathogenesis of FLHS. IL-6 and SOCS3 mediate inflammatory responses and the satiety hormone of leptin, induce dysfunction of Jak-STAT signaling pathway, leading to insulin resistance and lipid metabolic disorders. Conversely, CNTF may reduce tissue destruction during inflammatory attacks and confer protection from inflammation-induced insulin resistance in FLHS chickens. Conclusion: These findings highlight the therapeutic implications of targeting the JAK-STAT pathway. Inhibition of IL6 and SOCS3 and facilitation of CNTF could serve as a favorable strategy to enhance insulin action and improve glucose homoeostasis, which are of importance for treating obesity-related disorders for chickens.

GP130 cytokines and bone remodelling in health and disease

  • Sims, Natalie A.;Walsh, Nicole C.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.8
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    • pp.513-523
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    • 2010
  • Cytokines that bind to and signal through the gp130 co-receptor subunit include interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, oncostatin M (OSM), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), and ciliary neutrophic factor (CNTF). Apart from contributing to inflammation, gp130 signalling cytokines also function in the maintenance of bone homeostasis. Expression of each of these cytokines and their ligand-specific receptors is observed in bone and joint cells, and bone-active hormones and inflammatory cytokines regulate their expression. gp130 signalling cytokines have been shown to regulate the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes. Furthermore, cytokine and receptor specific gene-knockout mouse models have identified distinct roles for each of these cytokines in regulating bone resorption, bone formation and bone growth. This review will discuss the current models of paracrine and endocrine actions of gp130-signalling cytokines in bone remodelling and growth, as well as their impact in pathologic bone remodelling evident in periodontal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, spondylarthropathies and osteoarthritis.

A Review of Carbon-Reinforced Carbon Nanotube Fibers Composites (탄소강화 탄소나노튜브 섬유 복합소재 연구 동향)

  • Lee, Dongju;Ryu, Seongwoo;Ku, Bon-Cheol
    • Composites Research
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 2019
  • Although carbon nanotubes(CNTs) have outstanding theoretical mechanical and electrical properties, CNT fibers(CNTFs) have not yet reached that level. Particularly, tensile strength is only about 10% or less, so studies for making up for it are being actively conducted. As a way for improving mechanical strength, methods such as synthesizing long CNT, orientation, chemical cross-linking, hydrogen bonding and polymer infiltration are being studied. In this review paper, we report preparation methods for highly conductive and strong CNTF/Carbon composites through coating and infiltration followed by carbonization of carbon precursor polymers such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polydopamine (PDA) on CNTFs.