• Title, Summary, Keyword: COX-1

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SAR of COX-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 억제제의 구조-활성)

  • 권순경
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 2001
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX) is an enzyme, which catalyzes the production of prostaglandins from arachi-donic acid and exists in two isoforms (COX-1 and COX-2). COX-1 is involved in the maintenance of physiological functions such as platelet aggregation, cytoprotection in the stomach and maintenance of normal kidney function. COX-2 is induced significantly in vivo under inflammatory conditions. COX-1 and COX-2 serve different physiological and pathological functions. All commercially available nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are inhibitors of both COX-1 and COX-2. Therefore, selective inhibitors of COX-2 may be effective antiinflammatory agents without the ulcerogenic effects associated with current NSAms. Since the mid 1990s, a number of reports have been appeared on the preparation and biological activity of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Recently celecoxib, and rofecoxib, the representative COX-2 inhibitors, are introduced in the drug market. In this paper the relationship of structure-activity for selective COX-2 inhibitors is reviewed.

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Effects of Natural Extracts on COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA Expression on UVB-induced Skin Inflammation in C57BL/6 Mouse

  • Ahn, Ryoung-Me
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.566-570
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    • 2006
  • Exposure to ultraviolet B(UVB) radiation causes skin inflammation such as pigmentation and the induction of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) gene expression. In this study, we investigated the effect of natural extracts from Tea, EGb 761 and Korean red ginseng(KRG), on the pigmentation and expression of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA in UVB-irradiated C57BL/6 mice. Before UVB irradiation, the skin color was significantly showed the lightening effect by topical application of natural compounds (p<.05). In the case of UVB irradiated mice, we observed a decrease in pigmentation by compounds (p<.05). In irradiated skin, COX-1 mRNA expression is not changed following UVB irradiation, but COX-2 gene increases. Also, natural compounds lowered mRNA levels of COX-2. Therefore, these results suggest that COX-2 mRNA increases by UVB irradiation. Also, Tea, EGb 761 and KRG as a topical application may inhibit skin pigmentation and modulate COX-2 mRNA level.

COX-inhibitors down-regulate TCDD-induced cyp1a1 activity in C57BL/6 mouse and Hepa- I cells.

  • Bang Syrieo;Jung, Cho-Min;Yhong, Sheen-Yhun
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.173-173
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    • 2002
  • In order to understand the mechanism of action of TCDD, we have examined the effect of COX-inhibitors on cyp1a1 activity. We observed the effect of COX-inhibitor on EROD activity in C57BL/6 mouse in vovo. And we also evaluated the effect of COX-inhibitors on cyp1a1 mRNA, mouse cyp1a1 promoter activity and EROD activity in Hepa cell. When Aspirin were pretreated with 3MC in vivo, the EROD activity that was stimulated by 3MC was inhibited. And Pretreatment of Aspirin, Celecoxib, Nimesulide and other several Cox-inhibitors in vitro, inhibited the TCDD stimulated EROD activity and Luciferase acitivity. In case of cyp1a1 mRNA level, Nimesulide and SB100 were able to decrease cyp1a1 mRNA that was stimulated by TCDD, but other tested COX-inhibitors were not decrease. We don't know this different result exactly. For the action of Cox-inhibitors on the Cyp1a1, it seems to be important to do pretreatment of these chemicals as apposed to TCDD. In this study, thus, we have suggested that COX-inhibitors such as aspirin, celecoxib, Nimesulide and other several Cox-inhibitors decrease the TCDD induced Cyp1a1.

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Relation between Cyclooxygenase-2 and Polo-like Kinase-1 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (비소세포 폐암에서 Cyclooxygenase-2와 Polo-like Kinase-1의 상관관계)

  • Lee, Kyu-Hwa;Yang, Seok-Chul
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.67 no.4
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    • pp.303-310
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    • 2009
  • Background: Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK-1) is observed in a wide variety of cancers. Augmented expression of COX-2 and enhanced production of prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2)$ are associated with increased tumor cell survival and malignancy; COX-2 has been implicated in the control of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell growth. PLK-1 siRNA induced the cell death of lung cancer cells and the systemic administration of PLK-1 siRNA/atelocollagen complex inhibited the growth of lung cancer in a liver metastatic murine model. COX-2 and PLK-1 are involved in proliferation and in cell cycle regulation, and there is a significant correlation between their interaction in prostate carcinoma. Methods: In this study, we investigated the pattern of COX-2 and PLK-1 expression in NSCLC, after treatment with IL-1$\beta$, COX-2 inhibitor and PLK-1 siRNA. Results: Expression of PLK-1 was decreased in A549 COX-2 sense cells, and was increased in A549 COX-2 anti-sense cells. Knock out of PLK-1 expression by PLK-1 siRNA augmented COX-2 expression in A549 and NCl-H157 cells. When A549 and NCI-H157 cells were treated with COX-2 inhibitor on a dose-dependent basis, PLK-1 and COX-2 were reduced. However, when the expression of COX-2 was induced by IL-1$\beta$, the production of PLK-1 decreased. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that COX-2 and PLK-1 are regulated and inhibited by each other in NSCLC, and suggest that these proteins have a reverse relationship in NSCLC.

Activation of p38 MAPK Is Involved in Endothelin-1-stimulated COX-2 Expression in Cultured Feline Esophageal Smooth Muscle Cells

  • Song, Hyun Ju;Min, Young Sil;Shin, Chang Yell;Jeong, Ji Hoon;Sohn, Uy Dong
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2006
  • We investigated the possible role of p38 MAPK and $ET_B$ receptors in ET-1 induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) in cultured feline esophageal smooth muscle cells (ESMC). Confluent layers of ESMC were stimulated with 10 nM ET-1 and expression of COX-1 and COX-2, involvement of receptors, and activation of p38 MAPK, were examined by Western blot analysis. Levels of $PGE_2$ induced by ET-1 were measured by Elisa. Using $ET_A$and $ET_B$ antagonists (BQ-123 and BQ-788, respectively), the contribution of the ET receptors to COX-1 and COX-2 expression induced by ET-1 was determined. Western blot analysis revealed that treatment of ESMC with ET-1 resulted in transient expression of COX-2 and activation of p38 MAPK. Activation of p38 MAPK was maximal after 1 h. SB202190, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, reduced expression of COX-2, but not COX-1. ET-1-induced release of $PGE_2$ was also blocked by SB202190. COX-2 expression was upregulated only via the $ET_B$ receptor, and COX-1 expression was not affected by either antagonist. Taken together, our data suggest that ET-1 causes p38 MAPK-dependent expression of COX-2 by interacting with $ET_B$ receptors on ESMC.

Cyclic Expression of Cyclooxygenase-l and -2 in Human Endometrium (인간 자궁내막에서 Cyclooxygenase-1과 -2의 주기적 발현 양상)

  • Park, Dong-Wook;Yang, Hyun-Won;Kwon, Hyuek-Chan;Hwang, Kyung-Joo;Yoo, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Chi-Hyeong;Kim, Sei-Kwang;Cho, Dong-Jea;Oh, Kie-Suk
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.25-33
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    • 1998
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX) is an enzyme involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins (PGs), and exists in two forms, COX-1 and COX-2. COX has been reported to be involved in early implantation by secretion of PGs which causes permeability of vessels and reaction of decidual cells around the implantation site. Recently, in mice and sheep studies, COX-1 and COX-2 expression in the endometrium has been reported to be different according to implantation and stages of the estrous cycle, but expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle has not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to observe the variances of COX-1 and COX-2 expression by immunohistochemical staining in endometrial samples obtained from human hysterectomy specimens and biopsies of women of reproductive age according to different stages of the menstrual cycle. Also, we attempted to observe COX-1 and COX-2 expression in the epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium obtained during the mid-secretory phase, which were cultured separately. COX-2 showed a cyclic pattern of expression according to the different stages of the menstrual cycle and was strongly expressed particularly at the mid-secretory phase which corresponds to the time of implantation. However, COX-1 tended to be increased in the early proliferative, and mid- and late secretory phases, but was also expressed in the whole menstrual cycle showing no particular pattern. In the separately cultured cells COX-1 was expressed in epithilial cells and COX-2 in the stromal cells. The above results suggest that since COX-2 is expressed at the same time as implantation and cultured cells display a specific secretory pattern, COX-2 has inductive endocrine enzyme properties and has an important effect on endometrial cells during implantation. Also, COX-2 expression in endometrial cells may be utilized as a useful marker of endometrial maturation.

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Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (비스테로이드 항염제)

  • Lee, Choong-Ki
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2000
  • Inhibition of cyclooxygenase(COX), and thus prevention of the formation of prostaglandins, provided a unifying explanation of the therapeutic and toxic actions of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Recently, the discovery of the two isoforms of COX was made by molecular biologists studying neoplastic transformation in chick embryo cells. The constitutive enzyme, COX-1, is obviously responsible for the production of prostaglandins involved in housekeeping functions such as maintenance of integrity of the gastric mucosa, renal blood flow and platelet aggregation. The inducible form of COX (COX-2) is responsible for the formation of prostaglandins that pathologically affects inflammation, pain and fever. Clearly, all the experimental and clinical data support the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of NSAIDs are due to inhibition of the COX-2 enzyme, whereas the gastrotoxicity is due to inhibition of COX-1. The cox-2/COX-1 ratios of the NSAIDs in common use have been measured and compared with epidemiological data on their side effects. There is little evidence to suggest that one NSAID is clearly more effective than another, But substantial individual variability is present with respect to the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of these drugs: therefore it is essential to adjust the dosage and choose specific drug to the patient's response.

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Cloning and Expression of the Cyclooxygenase-2 gene in the Rock bream, Oplegnathusfasciatus (돌돔, Oplegnathus fasciatus의 Cyclooxygenase-2 유전자의 cloning 및 발현분석)

  • Jin, Ji Woong;Kim, Do Hyung;Kim, Young Chul;Jeong, Hyun Do
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2013
  • Megalocytivirus is a major fish pathogen in marine aquaculture of Asian countries including Korea. Despite of many species affected by this pathogen, little is known interaction between megalocytivirus and the fish immune system. One of the cyclooxygenase isoforms, named COX-2, is playing an important role in immune regulation, and distinct from COX-1 isoform of constitutive activity. COX-2 enzyme is induced by various inflammatory signals, including injection of lipopolysaccharide or infection by pathogenic agents. We cloned COX-2 gene in rock bream using degenerated primers designed from reported sequences of other fish species in PCR followed with 5'- and 3'-end RACE-PCR. The full length of cDNA of rbCOX2 (rock bream COX-2) gene are 2655 bp and that translates into 609 amino acids. The rbCOX-2 genomic organization are found to span 10 exons separated by 9 introns. We also studied if the experimental infection of rock bream with megalocytivirus could affect the expression of COX-2 gene. When injected with LPS, expression of the COX-2 gene was reached peak level at 1 day post injection and showed 13.10 fold increased level compared with that of control. While, when injected with megalocytivirus, we were not able to find significantly increased COX-2 gene expression different from that of control. Cloned and analyzed COX-2 gene in rock bream will help to understand defence mechanisms in fish after viral infection and will also support the development of the measures for treatment and prevention of viral infection.

CELECOXB (CELEBREX) INHIBITS PHORBOL ESTER-INDUCED COX-2 EXPRESSION AND $PGE_2$ PRODUCTION IN MOUSE SKIN: AP-1 AND C/EBP AS POSSIBLE MOLECULAR TARGETS

  • Chun, Kyung-Soo;Surh, Young-Joon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.103-104
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    • 2002
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX), an important enzyme involved in mediating the inflammation, catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. There are two isoforms of COX, designated as COX-1 and COX-2. While COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues, COX-2 can be induced transiently by proinflammatory cytokines, endotoxins, growth factors, oncogenes, UV and mitogens.(omitted)

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Antiinflammatory Evaluation and Synthesis of Benzothiazine Derivatives as Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor (Cyclooxygenase-2 저해제로서의 benzothiazine 유도체 합성과 항염작용 평가)

  • 신혜순;박명숙;권순경
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.272-278
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    • 2000
  • The antiinflammatory mechanism of NSAIDs is attributed to the reduction of prostaglandin synthesis by the direct inhibition of cyclooxygenase. Inhibition of prostaglandin production in organs such as stomach and kidney can result in gastric lesions, nephrotoxicity and increased bleeding. In this study, newly designed COX-2 inhibitors, synthesized 1,2-benzothiazine derivatives, were screened in vitro for selectivity of COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition properties. Lead compounds in the structure-activity relationship were studied to synthesize new highly selective COX-2 inhibitors.13 determine inhibitory effect of COX-2, synthesized 1,2-benzothiazine derivatives were screened with accumulation of prostaglandin by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in aspirin-treated macrophages and murine macropharge cell. Some of synthesized 1,2-benzothiazine derivatives were shown to be effective as selective COX-2 inhibitory activity. Others exhibited a preferential inhibition of COX-2, although some COX-1 inhibitory activity was still present. As a conclusion, simple monomer derivatives were more active than dimer derivatives. Substitution of halogen (Br, C1) on the benzothiazine nucleus slightly enhanced inhibition activity.

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