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Hepatoprotective Effects of Semisulcospira libertine Hydrolysate on Alcohol-induced Fatty Liver in Mice (알코올성 지방간 유발 마우스에서 다슬기 유래 가수분해물의 간 보호 효과)

  • Song, Eun Jin;Cho, Kyoung Hwan;Choo, Ho Jin;Yang, Eun Young;Jung, Yoon Kyoung;Seo, Min Gyun;Kim, Jong Cheol;Kang, Eun Ju;Ryu, Gi Hyung;Park, Beom Yong;Hah, Young-Sool
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.318-325
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    • 2017
  • Alcoholic steatosis is a fundamental metabolic disorder and may precede the onset of more severe forms of alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we isolated enzymatichydrolysate from Semisulcospira libertine by alcalase hydrolysis and investigated the protective effect of Semisulcospira libertine hydrolysate on liver injury induced by alcohol in the mouse model of chronic and binge ethanol feeding (NIAAA). In an in vitro study, the hydrolysate protects HepG2 cells from ethanol toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by histopathological examination, as well as by quantitating activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). After the administration of S. libertina hydrolysate, fat accumulation and infiltration of inflammatory cells in liver tissues were significantly decreased in the NIAAA mouse model. The elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities, along with the lipid contents of a damaged liver, were recovered in experimental mice administrated with S. libertina hydrolysate, suggesting its role in blood enzyme activation and lipid content restoration within damaged liver tissues. Moreover, treatment with S. libertine hydrolysate reduced the expression rate of cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, and IL-6, which accelerate inflammation and induces tissue damage. All data showed that S. libertine hydrolysate has a preventive role against alcohol-induced liver damages by improving the activities of blood enzymes and modulating the expression of inflammation factor, suggesting S. libertine hydrolysate could be a commercially potential material for the restoration of hepatotoxicity.

Bladder Preserving Treatment in Patients with Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (근침윤성 방광암 환자의 방광 보존적 치료 결과)

  • Yu, Jeong-Il;Oh, Dong-Ryol;Huh, Seung-Jae;Choi, Han-Yong;Lee, Hyon-Moo;Jeon, Seong-Soo;Yim, Ho-Young;Kim, Won-Suk;Lim, Do-Hoon;Ahn, Yong-Chan;Park, Won
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.70-78
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    • 2007
  • [ $\underline{Purpose}$ ]: This study analyzed the tumor response, overall survival, progression free survival and related prognostic factors in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer subjected to bladder preserving treatment. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: Between August 1995 and June 2004, 37 patients with muscle invasive (transitional cell carcinoma, clinically stage T2-4) bladder cancer were enrolled for the treatment protocol of bladder preservation. There were 33 males and 4 females, and the median age was 67 years (range $38{\sim}86\;years$). Transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) was performed in 17 patients who underwent complete resection. The median radiation dose administered was 64.8 Gy (range $55.8{\sim}67\;Gy$). The survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. $\underline{Results}$: An evaluation of the response rate was determined by abdomen-pelvic CT and cystoscopy at three months after radiotherapy. A complete response was seen in 17 patients (46%). The survival rate at three years was 54.7%, with 54 months of median survival (range $3{\sim}91$ months). During the study, 17 patients died and 13 patients had died from bladder cancer. The progression free survival rate at three years was 37.2%. There were 24 patients (64.9%) who had disease recurrence: 16 patients (43.2%) had local recurrence, 6 patients (16.2%) had a distant recurrence, and 2 patients (5.4%) had both a local and distant recurrence. The survival rate (p=0.0009) and progression free survival rates (p=0.001) were statistically significant when compared to the response rate after radiotherapy. $\underline{Conclusion}$: The availability of complete TURB and appropriate chemoradiotherapy were important predictors for bladder preservation and survival.

Long Term Follow Up of Interferon-alpha Treatment in Children with Chronic Hepatitis B (만성 B형간염 환아에 대한 Interferon-alpha 치료결과의 장기 추적관찰)

  • Baek, Seoung-Yon;Eom, Ji-Hyun;Chung, Ki-Sup
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.140-151
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: We tried to evaluate the long term efficacy and positive predictive factors of interferon-alpha treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: The study population included 113 children who received interferon therapy between May 1982 and July 2002 (20 years) for chronic hepatitis B in Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine. Male to female ratio was 2.3 : 1 and the mean age at diagnosis was $11.1{\pm}4.1$ years old. Response to treatment was defined as normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), disappearance of HBeAg and HBV-DNA Eighty two children responded while 32 did not. Interferon-alpha was given intramuscularly for 6 months at a dosage of $3{\times}10^6$ unit, 3 times weekly. In relapsed cases, lamivudine or interferon retreatment was done. Results: Seroconversion rate was 77.0% in terms of HBeAg, 74.3% in terms of HBV-DNA, and 80.5% in terms of ALT normalization after treatment. Seroconversion rate of both HBeAg and HBV-DNA was 72.6%. Analyzed by life table method, the effect of the treatment had been maintained over 10 years after cessation of therapy. Pre-treatment ALT level was the only significant positive predictive factor of response. Eleven cases (13.4%) relapsed, and 2 out of 3 showed response when treated with lamivudine and 1 out of 3 with interferon retreatment. Conclusion: Interferon-alpha showed significant efficacy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in our study. Further studies about the effect of interferon therapy on complications of hepatitis such as hepatocarcinoma, cirrhosis are warranted.

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Analysis of Treatment Failure after Curative Radiotherapy in Uterine Cervical Carcinoma (자궁경부암에 있어서 방사선치료 후의 치료실패 분석)

  • Chai, Gyu-Young;Kang, Ki-Mun;Lee, Jong-Hak
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.224-229
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : The aim of this study is to analyze the treatment failure patterns and the risk factors for locoregional or distant failure of uterine cervical carcinoma treated with radiation therapy. Materials and methods . A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 154 patients treated with curative radiation therapy in Gyeongsang National University Hospital from April 1989 through December 1997. According to FIGO classification, 12 patients were stage IB, 24 were IIA, 98 were IIB, 1 were IIIA, 17 were IIIB, 2 were IVA. Results : Overall treatment failure rate was $42.1\%$ (65/154), and that of complete responder was $31.5\%$ (41/130). Among 65 failures, 25 failed locoregionally, another 25 failed distantly, and 15 failed locoregionally and distantly. Multivariate analysis confirmed tumor size (>4 cm) as risk factor for locoregional failure, and tumor size (>4 cm), pelvic lymph node involvement as risk factors for distant failure. Conclusion : On the basis of results of our study and recent published data of prospective randomized study for locally advanced uterine cervical carcinoma, we concluded that uterine cervical carcinoma with size more than 4 cm or pelvic lymph node involvement should be treated with concurrent chemoradiation.

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Predictors of Success of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty Adjusted for Intraocular Pressure Variations (단안 선택적 레이저섬유주성형술에서 안압 변동을 보정한 성공예측인자의 분석)

  • Lee, Jun Seok;Lee, Chong Eun;Seo, Sam;Lee, Kyoo Won
    • Journal of The Korean Ophthalmological Society
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    • v.59 no.12
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    • pp.1166-1172
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To investigate the efficacy, and identify predictors of success of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients after adjusting for intraocular pressure (IOP) changes in the untreated fellow eye. Methods: This retrospective chart review included 52 eyes of 52 OAG patients who underwent SLT in one eye and were followed-up for at least 1 year after the procedure. The IOP was measured before the treatment, at 1, 2, and 3 months posttreatment, and every 3 months thereafter. To account for the possible influence of IOP fluctuations on laser outcomes, post-laser IOP values of the treated eye of each patient were also analyzed, after adjusting for IOP changes in the untreated fellow eye. Success was defined as an IOP decrease ${\geq}20%$ of the pretreatment IOP. The success rate was determined based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and factors predictive of success were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: The mean pretreatment IOP was $23.17{\pm}6.96mmHg$. The mean IOP reduction was $5.59{\pm}4.78mmHg$ (29.7%) and the success rate was 65.4% at 1 year. The adjusted mean IOP reduction was $4.70{\pm}4.67mmHg$ (23.9%) and the adjusted success rate was 53.9%. Pretreatment IOP was associated with SLT success; the higher the pretreatment IOP, the greater the post-laser IOP reduction (p = 0.025). Age and mean deviation index did not show a significant association with SLT success (p = 0.066 and p = 0.464, respectively). Conclusions: SLT is a safe and effective alternative method of IOP reduction in OAG patients. Herein, pretreatment IOP was the only factor significantly associated with SLT success. IOP fluctuations of the untreated eye should be considered for a better understanding of the impact of treatment.

The Role of Pelvic Irradiation after Hysterectomy in Early Stage Cervical Carcinoma with Pelvic Nodal Metastasis (림프절 전이를 동반한 초기 자궁경부암에서 수술 후 방사선치료의 역할)

  • Suh, Hyun-Suk
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.469-475
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : To determine the role of Pelvic irradiation in stage I or IIA cervical carcinoma with pelvic nodal metastasis after hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. Materials and Methods : This is a retrospective study of 68 cervical carcinoma patients who were found to have pelvic nodal metastasis at hysterectomy and received pelvic irradiation from 1983 to 1996 at Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital. External beam radiation therapy to pelvis was delivered using 4 MeV Linac and intracavitary irradiation was given via vaginal ovoids or cylinders. Five-year survival and disease-free survival were estimated by Kaplan-Meier Method and prognostic factors related to survival were analysed by log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results : Median length of follow-up was 52months. Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) were 81.8$\%$ and 81.7$\%$ respectively. Patients with endometrial invasion had a 57.1$\%$ 5-year DFS compared to 87.5$\%$ for those without endometrial invasion (p=0.0074). Multivariate analysis revealed endometrial invasion as an only statistically significant prognostic factor for 5-year DFS. Among total 15 (22$\%$) recurrences. pelvic recurrences occurred in 4 cases and distant metastases occurred in 13 cases. Conclusion : We have been able to confirm previous results demonstrating marked decrease in local recurrence after pelvic irradiation. In view of the high proportion of distant metastasis found in this study, a trial of aggressive adjuvant systemic therapy and irradiation in early stage cervical carcinoma patients with pelvic nodal metastasis, especially with endometrial invasion, appears to be warranted.

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Hepatoprotective Effects of Oyster Hydrolysate on Lipopolysaccharide/D-Galactosamine-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice (Lipopolysaccharide/D-Galactosamine에 의해 유도된 급성 간 손상 생쥐모델에서 굴가수분해물의 간 보호 효과)

  • Ryu, Ji Hyeon;Kim, Eun-Jin;Xie, Chengliang;Nyiramana, Marie Merci;Siregar, Adrian S.;Park, Si-Hyang;Cho, Soo Buem;Song, Dae Hyun;Kim, Nam-Gil;Choi, Yeung Joon;Kang, Sang Soo;Kang, Dawon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.659-670
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    • 2017
  • Oxidative stress and inflammation are key factors responsible for progression of liver injury. A variety of functions of oyster hydrolysate (OH) are affected by their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, little is known regarding the effects of OH on a liver injury model. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of OH on acute liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN) in mice. Experimental groups were divided into six groups as follows (each group, n=10): control (saline), LPS/D-GalN, LPS/D-GalN+OH (100 mg/kg), LPS/D-GalN+OH (200 mg/kg), LPS/D-GalN+OH (400 mg/kg), and LPS/D-GalN+silymarin (25 mg/kg, positive control). The experimental acute liver injury model was induced with LPS ($1{\mu}g/kg$) and D-GalN (400 mg/kg). We first analyzed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in OH. OH showed high DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and reduced ROS generation in Chang cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, OH showed anti-inflammatory activities, such as inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase. Treatment with OH down-regulated tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$, interleukin (IL)-6, and $IL-1{\alpha}$ expression levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. OH significantly reduced LPS/D-GalN-induced increases in the concentrations of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum. In the LPS/D-GalN group, liver tissues exhibited apoptosis of hepatocytes with hemorrhages. These pathological alterations were ameliorated by OH treatment. Consistently, hepatic catalase activity was low in the LPS/D-GalN group compared to the control group, and catalase activity was significantly restored by OH treatment (P<0.05). Furthermore, OH markedly reduced the LPS/D-GalN-induced increase in $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IL-1{\beta}$, and IL-6 levels in liver tissue. Taken together, these results show that OH has hepatoprotective effects on LPS/D-GalN-induced acute liver injury via inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation, suggesting that OH could be used as a health functional food and potential therapeutic agent for acute liver injury.

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethanolic Extract from Polyopes affinis through Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Activation in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells (LPS로 자극된 대식세포에서의 NF-κB와 MAPK 활성 조절을 통한 참까막살(Polyopes affinis) 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Park, Sun-Hee;Park, So-Young;Choi, Hyeun-Deok;Choi, Jung-Su;Jang, Mi-Ran;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.537-544
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    • 2017
  • In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of Polyopes affinis ethanol extract (PAEE) was investigated using LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and a croton oil-induced ICR mice model. Treatment with PAEE significantly reduced production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$, and $IL-1{\beta}$] in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. PAEE treatment also reduced expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear $factor-{\kappa}B$, and mitogen-activated protein kinases in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In the croton oil-induced ear edema test, application of PAEE (10~250 mg/kg body weight) reduced ear edema in a dose-dependent manner, and PAEE treatment at 50 mg/kg body weight showed similar inhibitory effects compared with prednisolone (10 mg/kg body weight). Histological analysis revealed reduced dermal thickness and lower number of infiltrated mast cells. These results suggest that PAEE might be used as a promising anti-inflammatory agent for inhibition of LPS-induced inflammation and ear edema formation.

Changes of the Clinicopathological Characteristics and Survival Rates of Gastric Cancer with Gastrectomy - 1990s vs early 2000s (위절제 위암 환자의 임상병리학적 특성과 생존율의 변화: 1990년대와 2000년대 초기의 비교)

  • Sim, Young-Kwan;Kim, Chan-Young;Jeong, Yeon-Jun;Kim, Jong-Hun;Hwang, Yong;Yang, Doo-Hyun
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.200-206
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The incidence of upper gastric cancer and especially the diffuse type have increased in western countries. The aim this study was to investigate the chronologic changes of the clinicopathological features and survival rates of Korean upper gastric cancer patients. Materials and Methods: 1,638 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy were included in this study and they were divided into two groups; the 1990's (1991~1999, n=987) and the early 2000's (2000~2003, n=651). We evaluated the differences of the clinicopathologic features and the factors that affected the survival rates by univariative and multivariative analysis. Results: The older age (>60) patients increased from 42.7% to 50.7% respectively. Being overweight (body mass index$\geq$23) also increased from 31.5% to 43.2%. For the pathology, the incidence of stage Ia gastric cancer increased (29.8% to 44.5%) and the incidence of stage IV gastric cancer decreased (23.5% to 11.8%). Yet there was no difference according to the WHO classification, Lauren's classification and the location of tumor between the groups. The 5 year survival rates increased 67.7% to 83.7%, according to the group. Multivariative analysis showed that the odd ratios of the early 2000s was 0.715 (95% CI; 0.555~0.921) as compared to that of the 1990s. Conclusion: There were no changes of the clinicopathologic features, like the pattern in western countries, although the incidence early gastric cancer, old age patients and overweight patients increased. The survival rate of early 2000s was better that that of the 1990s.

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P53 Overexpression and Outcome of Radiation Therapy in Head & Neck Cancers (두경부종양 환자에서 p53의 과발현과 방사선치료결과)

  • Kim In Ah;Choi Ihl Bhong;Kang Ki Mun;Jang Ji Young;Kim Kyung Mi;Park Kyung Shin;Young Shin Kim;Kang Chang Suk;Cho Seung Ho;Kim Hyung Tae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : Experimental studies have implicated the wild type p53 In cellular response to radiation. Whether altered p53 function can lead to changes in clinical radiocurability remains an area of ongoing study. This study was performed to investigate whether any correlation between change of p53 and outcome of curative radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancels. Methods : Immunohistochemical analysis with a mouse monoclonal antibody (DO-7) specific for human p53 was used to detect to overexpression of protein in formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor sample from 55 head and neck cancer patients treated with curative radiation therapy (median dose of 7020 cGy) from February 1988 to March 1996 at 51. Mary's Hospital. Overexpression of p53 was correlated with locoregional control and survival using Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression multi-variate analysis was peformed that included all clinical variables and status of p53 expression. Results : Thirty-seven (67.2$\%$) patients showed overexpression of p53 by immunohistochemical staining in their tumor. One hundred percent of oral cavity, 70$\%$ of laryngeal, 66.7$\%$ of oropharyngeal, 66.7$\%$ of hypopharyngeal cancer showed p53 overexpression (P=0.05). The status of p53 had significant relationship with stage of disease (P=0.03) and history of smoking (P=0.001). The overexpression of p53 was not predictive of response rate to radiation therapy. The locoregional control was not significantly affected by p53 status. Overexpression of p53 didn't have any prognostic implication for disease free survival and overall survival. Primary site and stage of disease were significant prognostic factors for survival. Conclusions : The p53 overexpression as detected by immunohistochemical staining had significant correlation with stage, primary site of disease and smoking habit of patients. The p53 overexpression didn't have any predictive value for outcome of curative radiation therapy in a group of head and neck cancers.

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