• Title, Summary, Keyword: CSD

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Design and Implementation of Low Power Container Security Device based on IEEE 802.15.4 (IEEE 802.15.4 기반 저전력 컨테이너 보안장치의 설계 및 구현)

  • Park, Se-Young;Kim, Taek-Hyun;Choi, Hoon;Baek, Yun-Ju
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.35 no.2B
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    • pp.215-224
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    • 2010
  • A container security device (CSD) monitors intrusions through the cargo door; it is a reduced function device that uses IEEE 802.15.4 with a beacon mode. However, in the beacon mode, the CSD consumes too much battery power in periodical idle listening and sensing trials. Moreover, the CSD cannot send the message to the CSD reader actively, and it makes big latency problem. Therefore, we propose a low-power CSD to reduce the unnecessary power consumption. The proposed CSD follows the requirements of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and reduces battery consumption through a power-efficient hardware design, a night-watch mechanism for low-power operation and low-power sensing to reduce unnecessary monitoring. And the CSD sends alert message to the CSD reader. Simulation results show that our CSD reduces battery consumption by over 70% through the night-watch mechanism and by approximately 80% through the low-power sensing. And the CSD can send the alert message to the remote CSD reader by over 94%.

Policy Based Cloned CSD Detection Mechanism in Logistics (항만 물류 환경에서의 복제된 CSD 탐지를 위한 정책 기반 복제 탐지 매커니즘)

  • Hwang, Ah-Reum;Suh, Hwa-Jung;Kim, Ho-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.98-106
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    • 2012
  • CSD(Container Security Device) is a security device with sensors that can detect the abnormal behavior such as illegal opening of a container door. Since the CSD provides security and safety of the container, CSD should not only provide security services such as confidentiality and integrity but also cloning detection. If we can not detect the cloned CSD, an adversary can use the cloned CSD for many illegal purposes. In this paper, we propose a policy based cloned CSD detection mechanism. To evaluate proposed clone detection mechanism, we have implemented the proposed scheme and evaluated the results.

Development of Application Service for Secure Container Transport Based on CSD (CSD 기반의 컨테이너 안전운송 응용 서비스 개발)

  • Choo, Young-Yeol;Choi, Su-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.2203-2208
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, we describe application service development for secure land and marine transport based on CSD (Conveyance Security Device) systems. Based on CSD systems, we present application service and security service according to relevant standards as well as test procedure of developed services. Exploiting temperature, moisture, impact sensors, state monitoring function of container freight was developed to prevent disaster during transportation in addition to security function with CSD. For confidentiality of messages exchanged among application service entity and CSD systems, Encryption and decryption functions going by RC5 and AES-128 algorithms were implemented at desktop PC and 8 bit CPU environments, respectively. Measuring the elapsed time during encryption and decryption shows that two algorithms are allowable for the application service.

A Study on The Development of Container Security Device(CSD) based on Active RFID (능동형 RFID 기반 컨테이너 보안 장치(CSD)의 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Hyung-Rim;Kim, Jae-Joong;Kang, Moo-Hong;Shin, Joong-Jo;Shon, Jung-Rock;Moon, Young-Sik;Lee, Eun-Kyu
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.35 no.2B
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    • pp.244-251
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    • 2010
  • CSD is Active RFID based Container Security Device which is proposed by the U.S Department of Home Security. It is mounted inside the container to sense opening of the container door. ConTracer is the CSD which is developed in this research whose major features are sensing door opening status as well as history inquiring on internal environment and shock to the container by mounting the temperature/humidity/shock sensors. Moreover, its RFID frequency bandwidth uses 433MHz and 2.4GHz to correspond actively to the radio regulations used by different countries. This paper introduces the development trend of CSD, compares the ConTracer which is developed thru this research and other company's CSD, and introduces CSD System which is designed and established using ConTracer. Finally, the implemented CSD System is verified by applying the demonstration service to container distribution between Korea and China.

Crowdsourcing Software Development: Task Assignment Using PDDL Artificial Intelligence Planning

  • Tunio, Muhammad Zahid;Luo, Haiyong;Wang, Cong;Zhao, Fang;Shao, Wenhua;Pathan, Zulfiqar Hussain
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.129-139
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    • 2018
  • The crowdsourcing software development (CSD) is growing rapidly in the open call format in a competitive environment. In CSD, tasks are posted on a web-based CSD platform for CSD workers to compete for the task and win rewards. Task searching and assigning are very important aspects of the CSD environment because tasks posted on different platforms are in hundreds. To search and evaluate a thousand submissions on the platform are very difficult and time-consuming process for both the developer and platform. However, there are many other problems that are affecting CSD quality and reliability of CSD workers to assign the task which include the required knowledge, large participation, time complexity and incentive motivations. In order to attract the right person for the right task, the execution of action plans will help the CSD platform as well the CSD worker for the best matching with their tasks. This study formalized the task assignment method by utilizing different situations in a CSD competition-based environment in artificial intelligence (AI) planning. The results from this study suggested that assigning the task has many challenges whenever there are undefined conditions, especially in a competitive environment. Our main focus is to evaluate the AI automated planning to provide the best possible solution to matching the CSD worker with their personality type.

Effects of Mixing Ratios of Cow Manure and Stall Bedding on Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) Survival (우분에 깔짚 혼입 수준이 퇴비화 과정중 이화학적 성상 변화와 지렁이 생존에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwangbo, Soon;Jo, Ik-Hwan;Son, Jang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.183-195
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    • 2014
  • The present study was conducted to provide basic data for environmentally friendly treatment of manure using vermicomposting by investigating the influence of physiochemical property change during the composting period on the survival of earthworms after mixing cow manure in different levels (0(CSD0), 10(CSD10), 20(CSD20), 30(CSD30), and 40%(CSD40)) with the sawdust that is used bedding in livestock pens. As composting proceeds, earthworms were able to survive in all treatments after 3 weeks. In terms of the C/N ratio by treatment groups, the sawdust mix treatment was significantly higher than the CSD0 treatment (p<0.05). The C/N ratio in the 3rdweek when earthworms started surviving was 23.26-61.05. As composting progressed, pH and electrolytic conductivity were highest in the CSD0 treatment and tended to decrease with higher proportion of sawdust in the mix. It was found that pH and electrolytic conductivity that earthworms starting to survive are 7.4-7.7 and 0.28-1.17 mS/cm respectively. To summarize, when composing cow manure with various levels of sawdust mix, all physiochemical property changes turned out to allow the survival of earthworms, but the results suggest that efficient vermicomposting requires the tests to examine growth and reproduction according to the sawdust mix ratio.

A High-speed/Low-power CSD Linear Phase FIR Filter Structure Using Vertical Common Sub-expression (수직 공통패턴을 사용한 고속/저전력 CSD 선형위상 FIR 필터 구조)

  • 장영범;양세정
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4A
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    • pp.324-329
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    • 2002
  • In the high-speed/low-power digital filter applications like wireless communication systems, canonical signed digit(CSD) linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter structures are widely investigated. In this paper, we propose a high-speed/low-power CSD linear phase FIR filter structure using vertical common sub-expression. In the conventional linear phase CSD filter, horizontal common sub-expressions are utilized due to the inherent horizontal common sub-expression of symmetrical filter coefficients. We use the fact that their MSBs are also equal since adjacent filter coefficients have similar values in the linear phase filter Through the examples, it is shown that our proposed structure is more efficient in case that precision of implementation is lower, and tap length are longer.

Design and Implementation of Low-power CSD Considering Beacon Period and Channel Scan Time (비컨 주기와 채널 탐색기간을 고려한 저전력 CSD의 설계 및 구현)

  • Kim, Taek-Hyun;Park, Se-Young;Choi, Hoon;Baek, Yun-Ju
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.50-54
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    • 2010
  • A Container Security Device (CSD) which is different existing RFID Tag strengthens the physical security as mounted inside the container and the information security as encrypts doubly a data. CSD must use the resources efficiently in order to operate with the battery. Therefore, it needs low-power mechanism which repeats the sleep period and channel scan period. However, by adjusting these periods, the trade-off occurs between energy efficiency and network connectivity. In this paper, we implement low-power CSD and resolve this problem by adjusting beacon period and channel scan time. As a result, We guarantee the network connectivity 95% or more and maximum life up to 16 days using common AA batteries.

Pilot Case for Container Security Device (CSD) Based on Active RFID

  • Lee, Eun-Kyu;Moon, Young-Sik;Shin, Joong-Jo;Shon, Jung-Rock;Choi, Sung-Pill;Kim, Chae-Soo;Kim, Jae-Joong;Choi, Hyung-Rim
    • Journal of information and communication convergence engineering
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.238-243
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    • 2010
  • CSD is Active RFID based Container Security Device which is proposed by the U.S Department of Home Security. It is mounted inside the container to sense opening of the container door. ConTracer is the CSD which is developed in this research whose major features are sensing door opening status as well as history inquiring on internal environment and shock to the container by mounting the temperature/ humidity/ shock sensors. Moreover, its RFID frequency bandwidth uses 433MHz and 2.4GHz to correspond actively to the frequency used by different countries. This paper introduces the development trend of CSD, compares the ConTracer which is developed thru this research and other company's CSD, and introduces CSD System which is designed and established using ConTracer. Finally, the implemented CSD System is verified by applying the demonstration service to container distribution between Korea and China.

Low-area FFT Processor Structure using Common Sub-expression Sharing (Common Sub-expression Sharing을 사용한 저면적 FFT 프로세서 구조)

  • Jang, Young-Beom;Lee, Dong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.1867-1875
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, a low-area 256-point FFT structure is proposed. For low-area implementation CSD(Canonic Signed Digit) multiplier method is chosen. Because multiplication type should be less for efficient CSD multiplier application to the FFT structure, the Radix-$4^2$ algorithm is chosen for those purposes. After, in the proposed structure, the number of multiplication type is minimized in each multiplication block, the CSD multipliers are applied for implementation of multiplication. Furthermore, in CSD multiplier implementation, cell-area is more reduced through common sub-expression sharing(CSS). The Verilog-HDL coding result shows 29.9% cell area reduction in the complex multiplication part and 12.54% cell area reduction in overall 256-point FFT structure comparison with those of the conventional structure.