• Title, Summary, Keyword: CSM

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Purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of Csm1/Csm4 sub-complex in CRISPR/Cas Type III-A system

  • Baek, In-Young;Park, Kwang-Hyun;Ahn, Woo-chan;An, Yan;Hwang, In-kyu;Woo, Euijeon
    • Biodesign
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 2018
  • The CRISPR/Cas system is an adaptive prokaryotic immune response that defends against exogenous genetic elements. The CRISPR/Cas Type III-A system targets RNA and DNA that is coupled with transcription. The effector complex of the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas system has five Csm components, Csm1~Csm5. The Csm1/Csm4 sub-complex is placed in the crRNA 5' ends of the effector RNP complex and likely involved in the discriminative function for self vs non-self DNA. Here, we prepared Csm1/Csm4 proteins from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 and crystallized the sub-complex. The Csm1/Csm4 was crystallized using hanging-drop vapor diffusion from a reservoir solution containg 200 mM sodium chloride, 100 mM sodium acetate trihydrate, pH 4.6, 26% (+/-)-2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol. The diffraction data to $2.8{\AA}$ resolution show that the crystal belongs to the space group P6522 with unit cell parameters of $a=154.91{\AA}$, $b=154.91{\AA}$, $c=182.25{\AA}$, ${\alpha}={\beta}=90^{\circ}$ and ${\gamma}=120^{\circ}$.

Influence of Feeding Processed Cottonseed Meal on Meat and Wool Production of Lambs

  • Nagalakshmi, D.;Sastry, V.R.B.;Rao, V. Kesava
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.26-33
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    • 2002
  • In order to assess the effect of feeding raw or processed cotton (Gossypium) seed meal (CSM) on meat and wool production, 30 male crossbred lambs (3-4 months) of uniform body weight were assigned equally to five dietary treatments in a completely randomised design. The CSM was processed by three different methods i.e., cooking the meal at $100^{\circ}C$ for 45 minutes, treatment with 1% calcium hydroxide ($Ca(OH)_2$) for 24 h and iron treatment in the ratio of 1 part free gossypol (FG) to 0.3 parts of iron for 30 minutes. The lambs were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures, containing 30% deoiled peanut meal (reference diet) and 40% of either raw, cooked, $Ca(OH)_2$ or iron treated CSM for 180 days. The raw and variously processed CSM replaced about 50% nitrogen of reference concentrate mixture. The concentrate mixtures were fed to meet 80% of the protein requirements (NRC, 1985) along with ad libitum chopped maize (Zea mays) hay. The slaughter weight, empty body weight and carcass weight was higher ($p{\leq}0.01$) in lambs fed cooked CSM incorporated diets, compared to diets containing deoiled peanut meal (DPNM). These parameters were not influenced by feeding diets containing either raw, $Ca(OH)_2$ or iron treated CSM in comparison DPNM diets. The carcass length, loin eye area and edible and inedible portion of carcass and the meat: bone ratio in whole carcass were also not affected by feeding CSM based diets. Among various primal cuts, the yield of legs was lower ($p{\leq}0.05$) from raw CSM fed lambs in comparison to DPNM fed lambs. The fat content in the Longissimus dorsi muscle was reduced ($p{\leq}0.05$) in lambs fed processed CSM based diets compared to those fed DPNM diet. Replacing DPNM with either raw or processed CSM based diets did not influence the sensory attributes and overall acceptability of meat. The wool yield was higher ($p{\leq}0.05$) in iron treated CSM fed lambs. The fibre length and fibre diameter were comparable among lambs on various dietary regimes. Among lambs fed variously processed CSM diets, the feed cost per kg of edible meat production was lower ($p{\leq}0.05$) on $Ca(OH)_2$ treated CSM, followed by cooked CSM diet and then on raw CSM based diets compared to DPNM diet. The CSM after 1% $Ca(OH)_2$ treatment or cooking for 45 minutes appears to be a satisfactory protein supplement in lamb diets for meat and wool production to replace at least 50% nitrogen of scarce and costly peanut meal.

A Study on the Preparation and Properties of Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Modified Polyvinylchoride (Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene으로 개질된 Polyvinylchloride의 제조와 물성)

  • Ahn, Jae-Joon;Lee, Seung-Tae;Kim, Byung-Kyu;Shin, Young-Jo
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 1994
  • As a toughness modifier for plastics chlorosulfonated polyethylene(CSM) can be used. CSM has a good resistance to oxygen and ozone. CSM has a crosslinkable functional group(sulfonyl chorid) with sulfur and metal oxide. Polyvinylchloride(PVC) is widely used industrial plastics because of its balanced properties and low cost. But it has some disadvantages such as low impact strength, light, ozone and oxygen degradation. In order to improve these properties of PVC, CSM was blended with PVC. The toughening effect appeared at about 10wt% and there is no additional effect above 30wt% of CSM. The weatherability, ozone resistance and mechanical properties of PVC were improved by blending with CSM. The toughening mechanism is studied by SEM.

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A Study on the Reduction of Gossypol Levels by Mixed Culture Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cottonseed Meal

  • Zhang, Wenju;Xu, Zirong;Sun, Jianyi;Yang, Xia
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1314-1321
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this work was to study the effect of mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of C. tropicalis ZD-3 with A. niger ZD-8 on detoxification of cottonseed meal (CSM), and to investigate the effect of fermentation period, proportion of CSM in substrate, sodium carbonate, minerals and heat treatment on the reduction of free gossypol levels during mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of CSM. Experiment 1: Three groups of disinfected CSM substrate were incubated for 48 h after inoculation with either of the fungi C. tropicalis ZD-3, A. niger ZD-8 or mixed culture (C. tropicalis ZD-3 with A. niger ZD-8). One non-inoculated group was used as the control. Levels of initial and final free gossypol (FG), CP and in vitro CP digestibility were assayed. The results indicated that mixed culture fermentation was far more effective than single strain fermentation, which not only had higher detoxification rate, but also had higher CP content and in vitro digestibility. Experiment 2: CSM substrates were treated according to experimental variables including fermentation period, proportion of CSM in substrate, sodium carbonate, minerals and heat treatment, Then, the treated CSM substrates were inoculated with mixed culture (C. tropicalis ZD-3 with A. niger ZD-8) and incubated at $30^{\circ}C$ for 36 h in a 95% relative humidity chamber. After fermentation ended, FG and CP content of fermented CSM substrate was assayed. The results showed that the appropriate fermentation period was 36 h, and the optimal proportion of CSM in substrate was 70%. Addition of sodium carbonate to CSM substrate was beneficial for fermentative detoxification. Heat treatment could facilitate fermentative detoxification, and supplementation with minerals was instrumental in reducing gossypol levels during mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of CSM.

Preparation and Characterization of Emulsified Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (CSM) (유화 Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (CSM)의 제조 및 특성 연구)

  • Choi, Seo-Young;Lee, Eun-Kyoung;Choi, Kyo-Chang
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.12-21
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    • 2005
  • In this work, magnesium carbonate and calcium hydroxide as metallic crosslinking agent were added to chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber (CSM) emulsion to enhance the mechanical properties of emulsion film such as tensile strength, elongation at break, and tear strength and crosslinking density, thermal features, and surface energy were also investigated. Crosslinking density of the CSM emulsion film with increasing the amount of magnesium carbonate and calcium hydroxide increased, leading to the enhancement of water resistance. It was shown that compared with calcium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate had a little higher crosslinking density and $T_g$ value. The surface energy and mechanical characteristics of the CSM emulsion film, however, showed somewhat different behaviors. The highest surface energy, tensile strength, and tear strength were observed when 0.75% for magnesium carbonate and 1.0% for calcium hydroxide were added respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that as metallic crosslinking agent to improve water resistance and mechanical properties of the CSM emulsion, magnesium carbonate is more preferable to calcium hydroxide.

FATIGUE RESISTANCE OF DENTAL IMPLANTS TREATED WITH LASER METHOD

  • Park, Eun-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.734-739
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    • 2006
  • Statement of problem. Many surface processing methods of dental implant have been developed, the laser processing is one of them. Purpose. This study was to investigate in vitro the fatigue resistance of implants treated with laser method(CSM implant, CSM Company, Daegu, Korea). Material and methods. Fatigue tests of 23 laser treated CSM implant(CSM Company, Daegu, Korea) were conducted using Instron 8871 (Load cell, 5 kN, Instron Co., England), according to ISO 14801 (2003), Results. From 300 N, each specimens were not fractured and withstood until more than 5,000,000 cycle. Conclusion. Within the limits of this in vitro study, implants treated with laser method (CSM implant, CSM Company, Daegu, Korea) have had enough rigidity and fatigue resistance to use clinically with reliance.

RETROSPECTIVE MULTICENTER STUDY OF CSM ENDOSSEOUS DENTAL IMPLANT

  • Park, Eun-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.321-328
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    • 2007
  • Statement of problem. To work the economic limitation of dental implant usage, some types of domestic implant have been developing. But, there have been seldom reported about the clinical success rate of them as yet. Purpose. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to evaluate the performance of CSM implants(CSM company, Daegu, Korea). Material and methods. Thirty-five patients were rehabilitated with 150 CSM implants in this multicenter study. Results. The success rate was 96.2%. CSM Titanium fixtures can obtain slightly higher success rate when a cover screw was not used for implant installation than when used. However it doesn't show significant difference(p=.7615, Fisher's Exact test). Conclusion. This multicenter retrospective study demonstrated the efficacy of the CSM implant in the treatment of variety of clinical manifestation of tooth loss. And it can be assumed that whether a cover screw is used or not should no influence on the osseointegration.

The Effects of Xylose Treatment on Rumen Degradability and Nutrient Digestibility of Soybean and Cottonseed Meals

  • Sacakli, P.;Tuncer, S.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.655-660
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    • 2006
  • Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of xylose treatment on rumen degradability characteristics of DM, OM and CP and in vivo digestibility of DM, OM, CP and crude fiber (CF) of soybean meal (SBM) and cottonseed meal (CSM). In Trial 1, three ruminally cannulated Merino rams were used. Xylose treatments at both levels, 0.5 and 1%, decreased effective degradability of DM, OM and CP of SBM, whereas 0.5 and 1% xylose treatment of CSM did not show any effect on effective degradability of DM, OM and CP. By contrast, maximum potential degradabilities of DM, OM and CP of CSM seemed to be increased by 1% xylose treatment. It was concluded that xylose treatment was effective in protecting SBM proteins from degradation in the rumen, but the same treatment was not so effective for CSM protein. In trial 2, three Merino rams were used. With treatments, DM, OM, CP and CF digestibilities of SBM and CSM were not changed. Crude fiber digestibility was numerically increased by the treatments of 0.5 and 1% xylose of both SBM and CSM compared to untreated SBM and CSM but differences were not significant. In conclusion SBM proteins can be effectively protected from degradation in the rumen by xylose treatment, without negatively affecting in vivo digestibility of protein, whereas xylose treatment appeared to be less effective on protecting of CSM proteins.

Coverage and System Analysis of Ground based Rader System for Space Debris Tracking (우주물체 추적용 레이더 시스템 개발을 위한 커버리지 및 체계 분석)

  • Kim, Hae-Dong;Seong, Jae-Dong;Moon, Byoung-Jin;Song, Ha-Ryong
    • Aerospace Engineering and Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.142-152
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    • 2014
  • This paper analyzes the conjunction events of Korea satellites by year or kind of satellite using CSM, which is provided by JSpOC. If multiple CSM for single conjunction event are available, consistency analysis is performed using minimum range of CSM. And this paper presents the contact analysis results with space objects if there is a radar system in Korea. The effectiveness of Korea's radar system is analyzed by calculating the access time or frequency with space objects. Furthermore, we investigate the radar systems of other space agencies and find the specific parameter depending on the operating environment. Using this information, we define the requirements of radar system, which is appropriate the Korea.

Haematological and Immunological Response in Lambs Fed on Raw and Variously Processed Cottonseed Meal

  • Nagalakshmi, D.;Sastry, V.R.B.;Agrawal, D.K.;Katiyar, R.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2001
  • An experiment was conducted with twenty crossbred male lambs to assess the effect of cotton (Gossypium) seed meal (CSM) on blood constituents and immunity. Lambs were randomly assigned to a reference diet (30% deoiled peanut meal, DPNM) and four test diets containing 40% of either raw, 45 minutes cooked, 1% $Ca(OH)_2$ and iron (1 free gossy-pol, FG : 0.3 Fe) treated CSM (replacing approximately 50%, reference concentrate mixture). These isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures were fed to meet 80% of protein requirements (NRC, 1985) along with ad lib maize hay for 180 days. Blood was collected at 60, 120 and 180 days post feeding. The lambs were sensitized with Brucella abortus S99 antigen after 140 days and were subjected to ELISA and delayed type hypersensitivity. Blood haemoglobin, erythrocyte count, leucocyte count, total protein, total albumin, total globulin, urea, creatinine concentration and aspartate aminotransferase activity in lambs fed on raw or processed CSM were comparable to the values of reference lambs. The higher (p<0.01) blood glucose levels observed in CSM fed lambs at 60 days of feeding was latter reduced to the levels comparable with those on reference diet at 120 and 180 days of feeding. The alanine amino transferase activity was lower in lambs fed raw and cooked CSM containing diets at 120 and 180 days of feeding. A marginal increase in serum iron and alkaline posphatase activity was observed in iron treated group and raw CSM fed lambs, respectively. The humoral immune response and DTH reactivity was lower (p<0.05) in lambs fed raw CSM (consuming 302.83 mg FG/day). Cooking, $Ca(OH)_2$ and iron treatment of raw CSM showed a positive response in alleviating the suppression of immune response owing to the reduced consumption of FG by 40.19, 17.40% and 26.73%, respectively in these diets. The present study thus indicated that consumption of 40% raw CSM (302.83 mg FG/day) though did not affect majority of the haematological and blood biochemical parameters, but markedly suppressed the immune mechanism of lambs.