• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cadmium

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Accumulation and Organ distribution of protein Bound Cadmium in Rats compared with CdCl2 (단백질에 결합된 카드뮴과 CdCl2를 섭취한 쥐에서 카드뮴의 체내축적 및 분포의 차이)

  • 이명희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.828-836
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    • 1994
  • A low level exposure experiment was conducted on growing rats to investigate the accumulation and organ distribution of protein bound cadmium compared with cadmium chloride. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 21days with one of the semisynthetic diets, which contains cadmium as either bovine liver- or kidney meal bound cadmium, cadmium chloride with uncontaminated liver meal or cadmium chloride without organ meal, in the levels of ca. 0.5, 1 and 1.5mg/kg diet, respectively. After 21days of exposure cadmium was accumulated in liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tracts depending upon cadmium levels in diet. Inspite of very low cadmium accumulation in whole blood, it tends also to increase with dietary cadmium levels. The blood cadmium concentration of animals fed organ meal containing diets was about 4-7 fold higher than that without organ meal, regardless of cadmium was intrinsically bound to protein or not. However, significant effects of organ protein on cadmium accumulation in liver, kidney and digestive tracts were not detectable, when cadmium was supplemented as cadmium chloride. On the other hands, animals fed diet containing ca. 1.5mg Cd/kg as organ bound cadmium retained more cadmium in liver, kidney and digestive tracts compared to cadmium chloride with organ meal, whereby the increase of cadmium concentration in kidney was greater then in liver. However, when the concentration of protein bound cadmium was<1mg/kg diet, organ bound cadmium was not significantly different from cadmium chloride in bioavailability and organ distribution. From this result it is suggested that the intestinal absorption of protein bound cadmium is influenced of the amount of cadmium bound in protein. When cadmium concentration in protein is relatively low, protein bound cadmium seems to be absorbed in the same way as cadmium ions are absorbed. However, when the concentration is high, at least a small amount of intact protein bound cadmium could be absorbed and accumulated selectively in kidney.

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Effect of the Aloe arborescens Added-Diet on the Cadmium Toxicity in Rat (알로에 첨가식이가 흰쥐의 카드뮴 독성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Un-Sung;Lee, Cherl-Ho;Kim, Seong-Jo;Lee, Joo-Don;Moon, Kwang-Hyun;Baek, Seung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.555-563
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    • 1995
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of Aloe arborescens on the cadmium toxicity in rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley strains were divided into five groups consisting of a control group, a cadmium treatment group and 3 aloe(0.5%, 0.75%, 1%) treatment groups and observed for 9 weeks. The weight increment of the cadmium and 0.75% aloe group was higher than that of the cadmium treatment group(p<0.01). The food intake did not show the consistency rule among the experimental groups and the decrement tendency of food intake affected by cadmium feeding group. The decrement tendency of water intake affected by cadmium appeared to be suppressed by aloe treatment, especially cadmium and 0.75% aloe treatment group showed the remarkable increment of water intake. The diet efficiency of the control group was the highest among the experimental groups and that of cadmium and 0.75% aloe group was higher than other aloe treatment groups. The weight of each organ did not show consistency among the experimental groups but only the testicle of cadmium and 0.75% aloe treatment group was heavier than that of the control group. The cadmium accumulation was high in order of kidney>liver>spleen>heart>lung>testicle>brain. The cadmium content of the cadmium treatment group was more than that of cadmium and 0.5% aloe group, cadmium and 0.75% aloe group, cadmium and 1% aloe group. The cadmium content of cadmium and 0.75% aloe group was the lowest among other aloe treatment groups. Therefore, cadmium and 0.75% aloe is the most recommendable aloe treatment to eliminate the cadmium accumulated in organ.

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Mechanism of Cadmium Accumulation into the Cell of Cadmium-Ion Tolerant Yeast (카드뮴 내성 효모의 세포내 카드뮴 축적 기작)

  • 유대식;송형익;정기택
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 1990
  • The mechanism of intracellular accumulation of cadmium in a cadmium-ion tolerant yeast, Hansenula ammala B-7, which is an extreme cadmium tolerant strain and has the ability to take up a large amount of cadmium was investigated. The amounts of cadmium taken up by the scalded yeast cells were 2 to 3 times more than the value of the living cells. The living Hansenula anomala B-7 cells adsorbed 74% of cadmium taken up onto the other layer of the cells and 26% of it accumulated inside the cells. But the scalded cells adsorbed 98.3% of cadmium taken up and accumulated 1.7% of it inside the cells. A cadmium uptake and its accumulation were accelerated up to 162.3% and 275.4% by Triton X-100 in the living cells, respectively. Whereas in the scalded cell cadmium uptake was not affected by Triton X-100. Furthermore the cadmium uptake and its accumulation were strongly inhibited by metabolic inhibitors like 2,4-dinitrophenol, sodium azide and potassium cyanide in the living cells, but in the scalded cells cadmium uptake was not affected by metabolic inhibitors. These results suggested that the intracellular accumulation of cadmium by the cadmium-tolerant Hansenula anomala B-7 cells was apparently dependent of biological activity, and also gave evidence of the existance of energy-dependent system.

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Induction of Metallothionein and Toxicity in Acute Cadmium Intoxicated Rat (카드뮴 급성폭로에 의한 Metallothionein 생성과 독성작용)

  • Min, Kyung-Joon;Park, Jung-Duck;Hong, Yeon-Pyo;Chang, Im-Won
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.231-250
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    • 1993
  • Thirty five male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with cadmium chloride solution ranging from 0.2 to 3.2mg $CdCl_2/kg$ by intravenous single injection. At 48 hours after administration of cadmium, total cadmium, MT bound cadmium and histopathologic finding in liver, kidney, lung, heart, testis, metallothionein in liver, kidney and total cadmium in bleed were examined. Tissue cadmium concentration was highest in liver, followed by in kidney, heart, lung and testis. Cadmium bound to rnetallothionein (MT-Cd) and ratio of MT-Cd to total cadmium were increased in liver and kidney dependently of cadmium exposure dose, but not significantly changed in other organs. On histopathologic finding, the most susceptible organ was heart in considering cadmium exposed dose, but testis in considering cadmium concentration. Blood cadmium concentration was increased with dose-dependent pattern, and significantly correlated with tissue cadmium concentration, so that we may estimate tissue cadmium concentration by measurement of blood cadmium concentration. Metallothionein in liver and kidney was increased with dose-dependent pattern, higher in liver than in kidney, and was significantly correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. However, metallothionein induction efficiency of tissue cadmium(${\mu}g\;MT/{\mu}g\;Cd$) was eater in liver than in kidney, and reverse to tissue concentration or exposed dose of cadmium.

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The Effect of Combined Treatment of Cadmium ana Methionine on the Accumulation of Cadmium in Liver and Kidney and the Activation of Alkaline Phosphatase in Blood of Mice (카드뮴과 Methionine 동시투여(同時投與)가 Mouse장기내(藏器內)의 카드뮴 함량(含量)과 Alkaline Phosphatase활성도(活性度)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • You, Kyung-Soo;Bae, Eun-Sang;Cha, Chul-Whan
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 1983
  • This research is to examine the detoxication effect of methionine on cadmium intoxication For this purpose, this paper provides an analysis of the data on the groups of mice (ICR), one group of mice treated with 40 ppm of cadmium only. and other groups of mice combined-treated with cadmium and 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% methionine. After breeding for 40 days, the data on the growth of mice, changes in activation of alkaline phosphatase in blood, and the cadmium content in the liver and kidney, are analysed. The results were as follows: 1) The growth-rate of mice, in the cadmium only injected group, was declined by 9% in comparison with the control group after 40 days. But the two groups of cadmium with 0.5% and 1% methionine showed the rise of 9% ana 14% respectively above the growth-rate of the control group. The results from the groups of cadmium with 0.1% and 0.25%, methionine were similar to that from the cadmium only injected group. 3) Changes in activation of alkaline phosphatase in blood decreased to 86.45% in the cadmium only injected group behind the 100% activation of the control group. The groups of cadmium with 0.1% and 0.25% methionine showed no difference with the former group. But the groups of cadmium with 0.5% and 1% methionine recovered to the 93.14% and 96.08% of activation respectively. 3) The mean content of cadmium in the liver was $0.028{\pm}0.001{\mu}g/g$ in the control group. The cadmium only injected group showed the mean cadmium content of $2.80{\pm}0.62{\mu}g/g$ in the liver, which was similar to $2.82{\pm}1.03{\mu}g/g$ in the group of cadmium with 0.1% methionine, and $2.56{\pm}0.77{\mu}g/g$ in the group of cadmium with 0.25% methionine. But the groups of cadmium with 0.5% and 1% methionine showed the reduction of cadmium contents in the liver to $1.84{\pm}0.56{\mu}g/g$ and $1.74{\pm}0.35{\mu}g/g$ respectively. In the kidney, the groups of cadmium with 0.1%, 0.25% and 0.5% methionine shelved the similar cadmium content to the group treated with cadmium only. But the group of cadmium with 1% methionine showed a small increase to $4.13{\pm}1.00{\mu}g/g$ in comparison with the group treated with cadmium only. This analysis proves that the mobility and diffusion of cadmium in tile tissues advance faster ill the group treated with cadmium and methionine than in the group treated with cadmium only.

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Microbiological Characteristics of Heavy Metal Ion-Tolerant Microorganisms. (중금속 내성균주의 미생물학적 성질)

  • 유대식
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.183-190
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    • 1979
  • Cadmium ion-tolerant microorganisms were isolated from the sludge and soil of a cadmium ion-polluted area, a zinc mineralized area, in Kyung Sang Pook Do, Korea. A strain, C-7, which showed tile highest tolerance to cadmium ion was selected by screening from 18 cadmium tolerant microorganisms. By the taxonomical characteristics of this strain, it was identified as a variant of Erwinia sp.. The strain grew in a medium cadmium ion up to a concentration of 2, 800 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml and the maximum intercellular accumulation of Cd$^{2+}$ was measured to be 28.60 mg/g dried cells (57.2%) during incubation in medium containing 50 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml under aerobic condition at 28$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hour.r.

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A Study on the Protective Effects of Selenium Against Cadmium Toxicity in Mice (흰쥐 장기내 카드뮴 독성에 대한 셀레늄이 방어효과에 관한 연구)

  • 이종섭;박홍주;박경옥
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.28-37
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    • 1995
  • This study is performed to find out the effects of selenium against cadmium toxicity. The experimental mice were divided into 6 gruops such as control group, cadmium alone treatment group, selenium treatment groups and two simultaneous treatment groups of selenium and cadmium. Mice were given intraperitoneal administration with two dosage of sodium selenite such as 1.0 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg body weight and cadmium chloride was administered 3.0 mg/kg body weight. After giving the challenge dose, the concentration of cadmium and metallothionein and histopathological change of liver and kidney were determined. The results were summarized as follows on 1. The simultaneously administration of selenium and cadmium significantly more decreased cadmium concentration in kidney and iiver tissues compared to the administration of cadmium only(P<0.05). 2. The simultaneously administration of selenium and cadmium more increased metallothionein concentration compared to administration of cadmium only. 3. The simultaneously administration of selenium and cadmium more decreased cadmium concentration in urine compared to the administration of cadmium only. 4. When liver and kidney tissues were observed with optical microscope, no obvious changes were visible in those tissues.

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Effect of Dietary Cysteine Level on Cadmium on Cadmium and Lead Toxicity in Rats (식이내 Cysteine 수준이 흰쥐의 카드뮴과 납중독에 미치는 영향)

  • 류정미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.597-607
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    • 1996
  • This study has been investigated the potenial of increased dietary cysteine to alter the effects of cadmium and lead on tissure and bone metal concentrations, excretion and tissue metallothionein(MT) concentrations. Fifty-four male rats of Sprgue-Dawley strain weighing 149$\pm$17g were divided into 9 groups according to body weight. Nine experimental diets with different cadmium (0ppm, 400ppm), lead(0ppm, 710ppm) and cysteine (0.06%, 0.45%, 0.90%) levels were given to rats for 30 days ; Food intake, weight gain, F.E.R, and weights of liver, kidney and femur were decreased in cadmium supplied groups than in cadmium free groups. Urinary and fecal cadmium excretions were increased and MT synthesis we induced in liver, kidney and small intestine in cadmium supplied groups. In lead supplied groups, weight gain and F.E.R were decreased. With cysteine supplementation in cadmium supplied groups, weight gain and F.E.R, and weights of liver, kidney and femur were increased. Cadmium excretion in feces and MT concentrations in liver and kidney were also increased with cysteine supplementation. In lead supplied groups, there was no significant increase in food intake, weight gain and F.E.R with cysteine supplementation. Lead excretion in feces was increased in cysteine supplemented groups. In conclusion, effect of cadmium administration was more toxic than lead adminstration. Cysteine alleviated cadmium and lead toxicity by increasing metallothionein concentration and fecal excretions of heavy metals. Especially, effect of cysteine supplementation was more effective in cadmium groups than in lead groups. Effect of cysteine supplementation was not different with level of cysteine supplementation in both cadmium and lead groups.

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Effects of Cadmium and Cadmium Binding Protein on the Respiration of Mitochondria of Rat Kidney (흰쥐 신장의 미토콘드리아 호흡에 미치는 Cadmium과 Cadmium Binding Protein의 영향)

  • Cho, Hae-Kyoung;Boo, Moon-Jong;Choe, Rim-Soon
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.59-73
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    • 1989
  • To investigate the effect of cadmium and cadmium binding protein on the electron transport system and conformational changes of rat kidney mitochondria, various cadmium concentration were treated in vitro and respiration rate, NADH-CoQ reductase activity were measured. Ultrastructural changes at state IV respiration were also observed. CdBP was isolated from the rat liver by Sephadex G-75 column fractionation and treated in vitro with cadmium. Also mitochondrial state IV respiration rate was measured. When cadmium was treated in vitro, state IV respiration and enzyme activity were decreased and ultrastructural transformation of mitochondria from a condensed to an orthodox conformation was inhibited under state IV respiration. In case cadmium and CdBP were treated together, oxygen consumption was more increased than cadmium only. Conformational changes of mitochondria from a condensed to orthodox conformation were also observed. This indicates that CdBP have a protective effect against cadmium toxicity.

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A Study on Antitoxic Effects of Pine Leaf Extracts against Cadmium Toxicity in Rats (송엽 추출물을 이용한 카드뮴 독성의 해독에 관한 연구)

  • 이종섭;박경옥
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.88-97
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to investigate the antitoxic effects of Pine Leaf extracts against cadmium toxicity. The experimental rats were divided into 5 groups, such as control group cadmium alone treatment group and simultaneous treatment groups of cadmium and three doses of Pine Leaf extracts. Each group was administered with different dose of Pine Leaf extracts such as 0.5 mg, 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg/kg wet weight in pallets for 12 weeks. Cadmium Chloride($CdCl_2$) was administered by 4 mg/kg body weight. The results were summarized as follows: The simultaneous administration of cadmium and Pine Leaf significantly more decreased cadmium concentration in liver tissues compared to the administration of cadmium only. When blood were measured, no significantly difference in haemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte values compared to the administration of cadmium only, but RBC significantly more increased. The simultaneous administration of cadmium and Pine Leaf more no sigmificantly difference metallothionein concentration in liver than the administration of cadmium only. There were showed the histopathological slight changes in the liver and kidney tissues of rats.

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