• Title, Summary, Keyword: Calf

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The Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Calf Reduction (Type A Botulinum Toxin이 장딴지근 퇴축에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jung Min;Ha, Jae Seong;Lee, Keun Cheol;Kim, Seok Kwun;Lee, Gi Nam;Lee, Myong Jong;Lee, Kun Ho
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2005
  • Botulinum toxin type A is widely used for anti-wrinkling therapy, and correction of the square face. The toxin ultimately prevent the release of membrane-bound acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction of striated muscles and thus produce chemical denervation and paralysis of the muscles. Our purpose of study is to know if application of botulinum toxin type A on calf reduction is effective, how much dosage is effective, and what are the possible complications. We reviewed data of 30 consecutive patients subjected to calf reduction in Dong-A University Hospital from February 2003 to April 2003. We injected normal saline 2cc on both calves region in 15 control group patients, and the other patients was divided 3 group. Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 was injected 50U, 100U, 150U botulinum toxin A on each calf region and followed up for 6 month. Maximal circumference of calf was not changed in the control group but an average of 0.7 cm reduction was noted in group 1, average 1.34 cm(right calf) and 1.26cm(left calf) in group 2, average 1.44cm(right calf) and 1.58cm(left calf) in group 3. Maximal area of calf was not changed in the control group but average reduction of 12.5%(right calf) and 12.7%(left calf) was obtained in group 1, average 19.4% (right calf) and 19.9%(left calf) in group 2, average 24.8%(right calf) and 21.07%(left calf) in group 3, as measured on CAT scan. Total fat amount and fat amount in the lower extremity was no change in all the groups, but lean body mass was decreased average 1.27%(right calf) and 1.15%(left calf) in group 1, average 3.47%(right calf) and 2.98%(left calf) in group 2, average 3.58%(right calf) and 3.95%(left calf) in group 3. Photography of the preoperative and postoperative 6 month state revealed higher satisfaction in Group 2, 3 compared to Group 1. Use of botulinum toxin type A in calf reduction is a very simple, safe, non-invasive method and effective in terms of calf contouring rather than reduction of calf circumference.

Korean native calf mortality: the causes of calf death in a large breeding farm over a 10-year period (대규모 한우 번식 목장에서의 10년간 송아지 폐사 원인)

  • Kim, Ui-Hyung;Jung, Young-Hun;Choe, Changyong;Kang, Seog-Jin;Chang, Sun-Sik;Cho, Sang-Rae;Yang, Byung-Chul;Hur, Tai-Young
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2015
  • Calf losses have an economic impact on larger Korean native cattle (KNC) breeding farms due to replacement, productivity, and marketing. However, little research on KNC calf mortality or causes of calf death on large-scale breeding farms has been conducted. Based on medical records and autopsy findings from the Hanwoo experimental station of the National Institute of Animal Science, calf death records from 2002 to 2011 were used to identify the causes of mortality. Mortality rate of KNC calves was 5.7%. Large differences (1.8~12.6%) in yearspecific mortalities were observed. Calf deaths were due to digestive diseases (68.7%), respiratory diseases (20.9%), accidents (6.0%), and other known diseases (2.2%). The main cause of calf death was enteritis followed by pneumonia, rumen indigestion, and intestinal obstruction. The greatest number of calf deaths occurred during the fall followed by summer. These results indicated that enteritis and pneumonia were the main reasons for calf death. However, autopsy findings demonstrated that other factors also caused calf death. This study suggested that seasonal breeding and routine vaccinations are the most important factors for preventing calf death, and improving calf health in high land areas with low temperature.

A Note on Risk Factors for Calf Mortality in Large-Scale Dairy Farms in the Tropics : A Case Study on Rift Valley Area of Kenya

  • Bebe, B.O.;Abdulrazak, S.A.;Ogore, P.O.;Ondiek, J.O.;Fujihara, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.855-857
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    • 2001
  • The aim of this study was to assess the associations of some potential risk factors and occurrence of calf mortality in large-scale dairy farms. Njoro area of the Rift valley, Kenya was selected due to its potential of large-scale dairy farms, since the time of the Europeans settlers. The study was retrospective and focused on the calves dying from January 1996 through October 1998. Sample of studied population consisted of 105 calves extracted from the farm records. Data was collected using a questionnaire and were grouped into farm-level and animal-level factors. Calf mortality was 15.6% and important risk factors for calf mortality were sex of calf, season of birth, pneumonia disease, age of dam when calf was born and house type for calves. Female calve born during colder wet seasons and born to dams of 2-4.5 years of age were equally at higher risk. Calves raised in movable pens compared to those raised in permanent pens were at higher risk of mortality from pneumonia. Animal level factors were major causes of calf mortality in commercial farms used in this study and therefore details study is needed in these factors in controlling the calf mortality rates.

Comparison of the Duration of Maintained Calf Muscle Flexibility After Static Stretching, Eccentric Training on Stable Surface, and Eccentric Training on Unstable Surfaces in Young Adults With Calf Muscle Tightness

  • Jang, Hee-Jin;Kim, Suhn-Yeop;Jang, Hyun-Jeong
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.57-66
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to determine the duration of maintained calf muscle flexibility gained in young adults with calf muscle tightness, as measured by increases in ankle active and passive dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) after three stretching interventions. Twenty subjects (5 men and 15 women) with calf muscle tightness received the following three stretching interventions in one leg (assigned at random): static stretching (SS), eccentric training on stable surface (ETS), and eccentric training on unstable surfaces (ETU). The subjects received all three interventions to the same leg, applied in a random order. Each intervention had a break of at least 24 h in-between, in order to minimize any carryover effect. Each intervention used two types of stretching: with the calf muscle stretched and both knees straight, and with the knee slightly bent in order to maximize the activation of the soleus muscle. All three interventions were performed for 200 seconds. We measured the duration of maintained calf muscle flexibility through active and passive ankle DFROM before intervention, immediately after intervention (time 0), and then 3, 6, 9, 15, and 30 min after intervention. We found a difference in the duration of maintained calf muscle flexibility between the three interventions. In the ETS and ETU interventions, a significant improvement in calf muscle flexibility, both ankle active and passive dorsiflexion ranges of motion (ADFROM and PDFROM), was maintained for 30 min. In the SS intervention, however, ADFROM before 9 min and PDFROM before 6 min were statistically different from the baseline. Our results suggest that ETS and ETU may be more effective than SS for maintaining calf muscle flexibility in young adults.

Transient Effects of Calf Muscle Fatigue and Visual Control on Postural Balance During Single Leg Standing

  • Han, Jin-Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.67-71
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    • 2017
  • PURPOSE: Muscle fatigue is a cause to change proprioception. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of calf muscle fatigue and visual control on postural balance during single-legged standing in healthy adults. METHODS: Nineteen healthy adults (male) were participated in this study (mean age: 24.36 years; mean height: 171.32 cm; mean weight: 64.58 kg). The postural balance (sway length, sway area, sway velocity of COG displacement) was measured by Balance Trainer System (BT4) in before and after calf muscle fatigue feeling in single legged stance. In this study, repetitive single-legged heel rise test was used to induce fatigue of the calf muscle. Paired t- test was used to compare the postural balance between before and after calf muscle fatigue. Data of subjects were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Level of significance was set to .05. RESULTS: The sway length, sway area, sway velocity of COG (center of gravity) displacement after calf muscle fatigue feeling was significantly increased compared to before calf muscle fatigue feeling during single leg standing both eye open and close conditions (p<.05). CONCLUSION: This study suggested that calf muscle fatigue feeling has affected on postural balance when standing one leg both eye open and close conditions and postural control was disturbed by muscle fatigue and visual feedback in single leg standing.

체외배양 기술로 생산된 초기배에 의한 한우 송아지 생사기술 개발. II. 체외성숙, 수정된 소 초기배의 체외발생에 있어서 ITS와 EGF의 효과

  • 서경덕;김호중;김갑수;김광식
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 1998
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ITS and EGF on embryonic development of in vitro matured and fertilized bovine oocytes in culture medium su, pp.ementing with or without calf serum. When fertilized oocytes were cultured in TCM-199 containing 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0\ulcorner/ml ITS with 5% calf serum, the rates of development to blastocyst stage and the cell number of blastocysts were not significantly different among all treatments. And also monolayer of cumulus/granulosa cells prepared in containing calf serum and ITS were no beneficial effects of embryonic development. On the other hand, when EGF was su, pp.imented to TCM-199 containing calf serum or calf serum free, embryonic development rates(24.0 2.8% to 29.2 1.7% or 8% to 9%) and cell number of blastocysts(p<0.05) were significantly increased compared with EGF-free(22.1 2.1 or 1.0%, p<0.05). But when fertilized oocytes were cultured with cumulus/granurosa cells in TCM-199 containing EGF and calf serum, the rate of embryos development to the blastocyst stage and cell number of blastocysts were not significantly different compared with EGF-free and any concentrations. These results showed that ITS and EGF was not improved the development of bovine embryo in vitro matured and in vitro fertilized with calf serum and/or monolayer of cumulus/granulosa cells.

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Factors Affecting High Mortality Rates of Dairy Replacement Calves and Heifers in the Tropics and Strategies for Their Reduction

  • Moran, John B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.1318-1328
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    • 2011
  • The tropics is not an ideal location for calf rearing as the high temperatures and humidities introduce many potential disease problems to milk fed calves. In addition, the type of dairy farming (generally poorly resourced small holder farming) and the general lack of awareness of the long term implications of poorly reared stock do not encourage farmers to pay close attention to their calf and heifer rearing systems. Surveys of calf rearing systems in Asia, tropical Africa and South America highlight the high calf and heifer mortalities. A range of 15 to 25% pre-weaning calf mortality is typical on many tropical dairy farms. It is often as high as 50%, indicating very poor calf management. This contrasts with US findings of less than 8% mortality from birth to 6 months while surveys of Australian farmers report only 3% losses. Simple extension programs on farms in Sri Lanka and Kenya have drastically reduced calf mortalities and improved pre-weaning growth rates. Improved management strategies leading to lower calving intervals, higher calving rates, reduced still born and pre-weaned calf mortalities and fewer non pregnant heifers can supply many more dairy herd replacements than currently occurs. Such strategies can increase the number of replacement heifer calves in the herd from 15 to over 35%, thus allowing farmers to increase their herd sizes through natural increases. Simple management procedures such as ensuring adequate intake of good quality colostrum within the first 12 hours of life, housing and good hygiene to minimise disease transfer, providing clean drinking water, developing appropriate feeding protocols to encourage early rumen development and paying closer attention to climate control and animal health can all lead to improved calf vigour and performance. Good record keeping is also important so farmers can more easily identify susceptible calves and quickly treat potential problems.

Prediction of Calf Diseases using Ontology and Bayesian Network (온톨로지와 베이지안 네트워크를 활용한 송아지 질병 예측)

  • Kang, Yun-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.1898-1908
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    • 2017
  • Accurately Diagnosing and managing disease in livestock can help sustainable livestock productivity and maintain human health. Maintaining the health of livestock is an important part of human health. The prediction of calf diseases is carried out by pre-processing the calf biometric data. calf information is used as information for calf birth history, calf biometric information, environmental information on housing, and disease management. It can be developed as an ontology and used as a knowledge base. The Bayesian network was used and inferred in the process of analyzing the correlations of calf diseases. Prediction of diseases based on knowledge of calf disease on calf diseases name, causes, occur timing, care and symptoms, etc., will be able to respond to accurate disease treatment and prevent other livestock from being infected in advance.

The dairy calf mortality : the causes of calf death during ten years at a large dairy farm in Korea (대규모 젖소 목장의 10년간 송아지 폐사 원인 분석)

  • Hur, Tai-Young;Jung, Young-Hun;Choe, Chang-Yong;Cho, Yong-Il;Kang, Seog-Jin;Lee, Hyun-June;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Suh, Guk-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the calf death and analyse the causes of the mortality by based on medical records and autopsy findings during 10 years in a large dairy farm. Total of 1,361 calf born and 146 calf dead during the invested period. Mortality rate was 10.7% and showed the big difference by year-specific mortality from 2.8% (4 calves) to 19.2% (28 calves). The highest rate of mortality was 1 week age (18.5%, 27 calves) and followed by 2 week age (11.6%, 17 calves) and mortality of more old calf tended to be reduced. The death less than 4 weeks and 8 weeks of age of the entire mortality accounted for 41.1% (60/146 calves) and 70.0% (102/146 calves), respectively. Causes of calf death were digestive diseases (53.4%), respiratory diseases (17.1%), musculoskeletal disease (8.2%), and systemic disease (8.2%) in order. Specific causes of calf death was highest in enteritis (43.2%), followed by pneumonia (14.4%), sepsis (8.2%) and fractures (3.4%). Seasonally, most of calf death happened in winter (48.6%) and then fall (21.2%). This results showed that enteritis and pneumonia are the main reason of calf death but other reasons were involved in calf death on the based on autopsy finding. On going research relating factors of calf mortality is needed.

Humeral Hemimelia in a Holstein Calf (유우 송아지의 선천성 상완골 형성 부전)

  • 한동운
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.419-422
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    • 2003
  • Humeral hemimelia is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by deficiency of the humerus with relatively intact scapular. The holstein calf was healthy expecting the deformity of forelimb humerus. The examination of PCR and serum neutralizing test was carried about BVD, akabane virus, Ibaraki virus and Kasba virus in cattle. The results were all negative. Affected calf showed forelimb deformation. Other abnormalitis was not observed in brain, spinal cord, liver, kidney and other visceral organs. Amelia are very rare limb anomalies. We report on a Holstein calf with forelimb deficiencies. This case appears humeral anomalies with ulnar and radius aplasia in calf. The condition in these calves was considered the result of a recurrence of a genetic mutation affecting a putative hemimelia locus.