• Title, Summary, Keyword: Calf Growth

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Factor Analysis for the Foot and Calf Growth of Primary-School Children (초등학생(初等學生)의 발과 하퇴부(下腿部) 성장(成長)에 관(關) 요인분석(要因分析))

  • Park, Myoung-Ae
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 1999
  • For the purpose of investigating the factor of foot and calf growth of primary-school children who are fastgrowing during this period, a group of the 1st graders of primary-school had been the subject of this measurement in 1995 and thereafter they became the subject again in 1997 when they were the 3rd graders. Measurement was carried out in 30 items including height and weight and marthin-type measurer and Footprint were used for this measurement. As the result, in the part of calf, the measuring items of maximum calf circumference and knee circumference, and in the part of foot, the items of instep circumference, heel circumference, instep circumference, measured angle of big toe showed the highest growth. The average growth of length for 2 years appeared about 2cm and the parts of instep circumference, heel circumference had rapidly grown rather than in the part of foot circumference. Height growth of the part of toe was about 0.1 and in the factor analysis of foot measurement of 8-year and 10-year and children, the following findings appeared in both cases that height was related with the items of calf height and foot length and weight was related with calf circumference and breadth, foot circumference items.

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A Study on the Character for the Foot and Calf Growth of Primary School Children (초등학생의 발과 하퇴부 성장특성 연구)

  • Park, Myoung-Ae
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.163-168
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    • 2002
  • For the purpose of investigating the factor of foot and calf growth of primary-school children who are fast-growing during this period a group of the 1st graders of primary-school had been the subject of this measurement in 1995 and there after they became the subject again in 1997, 1999 when they were the 3th, 5th graders measurement was carried out in 30 items including status and weight and marthin-type measure and foot-print were used for this measurement as the result, stature is correlated with height items and length items of foot and calf weight is correlated with width and circumference items of foot and calf angle of the first toe showed the highest growth like 3rd graders, heel circumference had rapidly grown rather than in the part of foot circumference in the factor analysis df foot measurement of 10-year, the first, second factors, appeared the size of shoes, in case of 12-year the first factor with status appeared the size of shoes.

The Influence of Dam Weight, Body Condition and Udder Scores on Calf Birth Weight and Preweaning Growth Rates in Beef Cattle

  • Paputungan, U.;Makarechian, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.435-439
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    • 2000
  • Records of weight, age, body condition at calving and udder characteristics scores of 425 beef cows and birth weights and periodical weights of their offspring from birth to weaning were analyzed to study the effect of body weight, condition and udder characteristic scores of dams on birth weight and Preweaning growth of their offspring. Dam's body condition (fat reserve) at calving were scored on a scale of 1 to 5 (1=extremely thin and 5=extremely fat) and dam's udder characteristics were scored on a scale of 1 to 7 (l=udder well attached with small teats and 7=at least one quarters not functional). Dams were from three distinct breed groups and were mated in single sire mating groups within each breed group for 45 days. Within each breed group and year, the dams were classified into high, medium and low based on their weights at the time of parturition. The data were analysed using covariance analysis. In general, calves born to heavier dams were heavier at birth and had higher rate of Preweaning growth. The effect of dam's body condition score on the calf birth weight was not significant. However, cows with average body condition score of 2.5 or 3.0 gave birth to calves that had higher pre weaning growth rates up to weaning than those born to calves with higher body condition score. The udder characteristics score did not affect calf birth weight as expected; however, cows with udder score of 3 (udder well attached with large teats) produced calves with higher preweaning growth rate than those with smaller teats. Based on the results, it can be concluded that maintaining animals with average body condition and weight would result in more efficient calf production. In addition, cows with well attached udder and large teats would provide a better maternal environment for Preweaning growth rates of their calves.

Genetic Analysis of Direct and Maternal Effects for Calf Market and Carcass Weights in Japanese Black Cattle

  • Kitamura, C.;Yasuda, Y.;Kobayashi, T.;Nomura, T.;Shimada, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.843-845
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    • 1999
  • To evaluate direct and maternal effects on calf market weight (CMW) and carcass weight (CW) in Japanese Black cattle under an animal model, genetic parameters were estimated using 51,320 records of CMW and 11,944 records of CW, respectively. Direct and maternal heritabilities, and direct-maternal genetic correlation were estimated to be 0.22, 0.06 and 0.27 for CMW, and 0.23, 0.12 and -0.40 for CW, respectively. Correlation coefficient between maternal breeding values for CMW and CW was 0.521 for 157 sires appeared in both CMW and CW data sets. These results suggest that the maternal genetic effect on pre-weaning growth carries over to carcass weight. Maternal breeding values for both calf market weight and carcass weight could be used as the indicator traits of maternal ability in Japanese Black cattle.

Effect of Serum Type on Hybridoma Growth and Monoclonal Antibody Production (하이브리도마 세포증식과 단일클론항체 생산에 미치는 혈청 종류의 영향)

  • 전복환;박송용
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.253-265
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    • 1994
  • We have studied the effects of serum concentration and initial cell density on hybridoma cell growth and monoclonal antibody (MAb) production at various media supplemented with different types of serum. The types of serum were fetal bovine sera, newborn bovine calf sera, calf sera including supplemented calf sera, horse serum, and goat serum. The concentrations of each serum were 0.5, 1.25, 2.5, and 5% (v/v) and the inoculum densities were $5{\times}10^4, 1{\times}10^5, 2{\times}10^5,$ cells/ml. The hybridoma cell growth and anti-Hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) MAb production were found to be enhanced by increasing the serum concentration and by increasing inoculum density regardless of serum type. We found that test sera purchased from different companies show different effects on cell growth and MAb production, although they are the same type of serum.

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Efficiency of Calf Production from Twin-bearing Beef Cows on an Intensive Pasture System in Subtropical Australia

  • Hennessy, D.W.;Wilkins, J.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1735-1740
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    • 2005
  • Forty-two single-bearing and 42 twin-bearing mature Angus${\times}$Hereford cows were allocated, seven per cell to 3 replications of 2 stocking rates (3.2 cows/ha; medium stocking rate [MSR], and 3.8 cows/ha; high stocking rate [HSR]) to graze summer-active and winter-active pastures from late pregnancy to the weaning of their calves. Cow liveweights and growth of calves were recorded as well as estimates of pasture quantity and forage intake. Pasture quantity did not differ in the paddocks grazed by single- and twin-bearing cows during pregnancy, nor effectively did forage intake. Subsequently, intake was higher during mid-lactation especially with twin-rearing cows (25% higher than single-rearing cows at the MSR; 9% at the HSR). However, quantity of pasture decreased for twin-rearing cows and was less than that available to single-rearing cows as lactation progressed. Liveweights of twinrearing cows decreased by 16% from late pregnancy to weaning at the MSR, and by 14% at the HSR, compared to decreases of 1% for single-rearing cows. Twin calves were lighter at birth, had slower growth rates, and were lighter at weaning than single calves. In spite of weaning smaller calves twinning increased the output (kg of calf weaned) per cow and per ha, and increased the efficiency (kg calf weaned per unit of forage eaten by the cow) over single calf production by 46% at the MSR and by 58% at the HSR. Twinning also increased the marginal returns from investment in high input pastures required by the enterprise.

Factors Affecting High Mortality Rates of Dairy Replacement Calves and Heifers in the Tropics and Strategies for Their Reduction

  • Moran, John B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.1318-1328
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    • 2011
  • The tropics is not an ideal location for calf rearing as the high temperatures and humidities introduce many potential disease problems to milk fed calves. In addition, the type of dairy farming (generally poorly resourced small holder farming) and the general lack of awareness of the long term implications of poorly reared stock do not encourage farmers to pay close attention to their calf and heifer rearing systems. Surveys of calf rearing systems in Asia, tropical Africa and South America highlight the high calf and heifer mortalities. A range of 15 to 25% pre-weaning calf mortality is typical on many tropical dairy farms. It is often as high as 50%, indicating very poor calf management. This contrasts with US findings of less than 8% mortality from birth to 6 months while surveys of Australian farmers report only 3% losses. Simple extension programs on farms in Sri Lanka and Kenya have drastically reduced calf mortalities and improved pre-weaning growth rates. Improved management strategies leading to lower calving intervals, higher calving rates, reduced still born and pre-weaned calf mortalities and fewer non pregnant heifers can supply many more dairy herd replacements than currently occurs. Such strategies can increase the number of replacement heifer calves in the herd from 15 to over 35%, thus allowing farmers to increase their herd sizes through natural increases. Simple management procedures such as ensuring adequate intake of good quality colostrum within the first 12 hours of life, housing and good hygiene to minimise disease transfer, providing clean drinking water, developing appropriate feeding protocols to encourage early rumen development and paying closer attention to climate control and animal health can all lead to improved calf vigour and performance. Good record keeping is also important so farmers can more easily identify susceptible calves and quickly treat potential problems.

Production of a Normal Calf from Bovine Embryo Microinjected with Human Growth Hormone Gene (사람 성장호르몬 유전자가 미세주입된 체외수정란 유래의 송아지 생산)

  • 손동수;김선정;김일화;서국현;이광원;상병돈;박무균;이철상;한용만
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was carried out to develop the model system for mass production of biomedical and nutritional proteins (human proteins) through mamraary gland of the transgenic cattle produced by gene manipulation and embryological technologies. Human growth hormone gene fused with rat $\beta$-casein gene promoter was microinjected into pronuclei of one cell bovine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization. After microinjection, embryos were cultured in vitro for 6 or 7 days. Twenty embryos reaching to blastocysts were transferred to 10 beef recipients, each receiving two embryos. Recipients were diagnosed for pregnancy by rectal palpation at 76 days after embryo transfer. One of them was pregnant to term and produced a female calf weighing 21 kg at 280 days following embryo transfer. DNA was extracted from umbilical cord tissue and blood of calf born for confirming gene insertion. As determined by Southern hybridization, the transgene was not found.

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Effect of Feeding Direct-fed Microbial as an Alternative to Antibiotics for the Prophylaxis of Calf Diarrhea in Holstein Calves

  • Kim, Min-Kook;Lee, Hong-Gu;Park, Jeong-Ah;Kang, Sang-Kee;Choi, Yun-Jaie
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.643-649
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding direct-fed microbials (DFM) on the growth performance and prophylaxis of calf diarrhea during the pre-weaning period as an alternative to antibiotics. A multi-species DFM was formulated including three lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus salivarius Ls29, Pediococcus acidilactia Pa175, and L. plantarum Lp177), three Bacillus strains (B. subtilis T4, B. polymyxa T1 and SM2), one yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, and a nonpathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917. Lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus strains were selected based on the antibacterial activity against various animal pathogens, especially pathogenic E. coli using agar diffusion methods in vitro. Test and control groups were fed milk replacer and calf starter supplemented with DFM ($10^9$ cfu each of eight species/d/head, n = 29) or with antibiotics (0.1% neomycin sulfate in milk replacer and Colistin 0.08% and Oxyneo 110/110 0.1% in calf starter, n = 15), respectively. Overall fecal score and the incidence rate of diarrhea were reduced in the DFM group compared to the antibiotics one. About 40% of calves in antibiotic group suffered from diarrhea while in DFM group only 14% showed diarrhea. There was no difference in the average daily gain and feed efficiency of two groups. The hematological levels of calves were all within the normal range with no significant difference. In conclusion, the feeding of multispecies DFM during the pre-weaning period could reduce calf diarrhea and there was no difference in the growth performance between the groups, thus showing the potential as an alternative to antibiotics.

Effect of different fat and protein levels in calf ration on performance of Sahiwal calves

  • Sharma, Bharti;Nimje, Prapti;Tomar, S.K.;Dey, Dipak;Mondal, Santu;Kundu, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The current study was carried out to examine the response of different levels of fat and protein in calf starter on nutrient utilisation, nitrogen metabolism, weight gain, blood parameters, and immunity level in pre-ruminant calves. Methods: Twenty four calves (5 days old) were divided into six groups in a 2×3 factorial design, with two levels of fat (10% and 14%) and three levels of protein (18%, 21%, and 24%). The calves were kept in individual pens for 120 days and fed with whole milk (1/10th of body weight) and calf starter ad-libitum. Daily dry matter intake was recorded; whereas body weight was taken on fortnightly basis to calculate average daily gain. During the growth trial blood samples were collected at 30 days interval to estimate blood glucose, albumin, total protein, total leucocyte count, total immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin G levels. A metabolic trial of seven days was carried out to find out the digestibility of different nutrients. Results: The dry matter intake was reduced (p<0.05) with higher fat and protein levels whereas feed conversion efficiency was improved (p<0.05) with higher protein level. Different levels of fat and protein in calf ration did not affect average daily gain in calves. The dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein digestibility were significantly (p<0.01) higher with increased level of protein. The nitrogen retention was also significantly higher (p<0.05) at 24% protein level, similarly the total immunoglobulin was significantly (p<0.05) high in higher protein fed groups, showed better immunity. Conclusion: The present finding suggested that 10% fat and 18% protein level of calf starter could be used in Sahiwal calves for optimum performance in terms of weight gain and immunity.