• Title, Summary, Keyword: Campylobacter jejuni

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A study on the contamination level of pathogenic microorganisms in beef distribution stages (소고기의 유통 단계별 병원성 미생물 오염도에 관한 연구)

  • 박성도;김용환;고바라다;김철희;윤병철;김조균
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.117-126
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    • 2002
  • Contamination levels of pathogenic microorganisms in 145 cases of beef, which were distributed in Gwangju province, had been investigated in each distributed stage and also monitored by general bacterial count and E coli count index. General bacterial count of beef from the slaughterhouse was 10$^4$cfu/g less than the level of promotion(10 cfu/$\textrm{cm}^2$) and E coli count index was also under the level of 10$^2$cfu/$\textrm{cm}^2$ recommended level of the ministry of agriculture and forestry. Pathogenic microorganisms were detected from 23.2% of samples in the consumption stage, 12.5% in the slaughtering stage and 5.6% in the transporting and processing stage. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in the largest number and its ratio was 9.0%, listeria monocytogenes 5.5% and salmonella spp 1.4%. There were no samples that bacteria had been detected dually. E coli O157:H7 and campylobacter jejuni were not isolated. In raw and chilled beef, isolation rate of pathogenic microorganisms were 13.3% and 16.5% each. Especially in raw beef, L monocytogenes was. isolated in 3 samples among 30 cases (10%) and S aureus in one sample (3.3%). According to a scale of meat store, isolation rates of pathogenic microorganisms were different. It was 28.6% in the small-scale meat store and 16.7% in the large-scale meat store each. Four cases (16.7%) of S aureus were isolated in the large-scale meat store and seven cases (20.0%) of L monocytogenes and 2 cases (5.7%) of salmonella spp were isolated in the small-scale meat store. S aureus was isolated in two places among 10 feeding facilities of the elementary school. This result shows that the sanitation of elementary school feeding facilities is so poor and more careful policy consideration is needed. Eleven strains of S aureus isolated showed ${\beta}$-hemolysis on blood agar, 1 strain ${\alpha}$-hemolysis, and 1 strain ${\gamma}$-hemolysis. Isolated strains of L monocytogenes were reconfirmed in 560 bp by PCR. Conclusively, these results show that the sanitary condition in the stages of slaughtering, transportation-processing and consumption influences the degree of pathogenic microorganisms contamination in beef severely It is necessary to apply thoroughly hazard analysis critical control point in a process of beef distribution and also to develop rapid test methods for microorganism diagnosis. This effort is very important for the supply of safe and clean meat from farm to table and helpful for the improvement of public health.

Safety Research on Heavy Metals, Pesticide Residues and Foodborne Pathogens for Commercial Salted Cabbages (유통 절임배추의 중금속, 잔류농약 및 식중독 안전성 조사)

  • Jung, Sun-Ok;Jung, Ji-Hun;Kim, Sung-Dan;Lee, Hyun-Kyung;Park, Sung-Kyu;Lee, Byung-Hun;Lee, Jeong-Sook;Kim, Soo-Jin;Kim, Dong-Gyu;Yu, In-Sil;Jung, Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.783-789
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    • 2015
  • In recent years, consumers have become more interested in convenient lifestyles, leading to increased use of salted cabbages for preparation of kimchi. This study aimed to investigate the safety of heavy metals, pesticide residues, and foodborne pathogens in commercial salted cabbages in Seoul from August to November, 2014. The survey, which was conducted to determine whether or not salted cabbages were prepared under the highest sanitary conditions, showed that Seoulites are interested in purchasing hygienic and safe salted cabbages. The average amounts (range) of Pb and Cd found in 30 salted cabbage samples were 0.007 (0.000~0.063) mg/kg and 0.004 (0.000~0.012) mg/kg, respectively. The cabbages were analyzed for residues from 285 types of pesticides using the multiresidue method. Residues for pesticides were not detected. Major foodborne pathogens, specifically Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Norovirus, were also not detected.

Catalytic properties of wheat phytase that favorably degrades long-chain inorganic polyphosphate

  • An, Jeongmin;Cho, Jaiesoon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.127-131
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    • 2020
  • Objective: This study was conducted to determine catalytic properties of wheat phytase with exopolyphosphatase activity toward medium-chain and long-chain inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) substrates for comparative purpose. Methods: Exopolyphosphatase assay of wheat phytase toward polyP75 (medium-chain polyP with average 75 phosphate residues) and polyP1150 (long-chain polyP with average 1150 phosphate residues) was performed at pH 5.2 and pH 7.5. Its activity toward these substrates was investigated in the presence of Mg2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Mn2+, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Michaelis constant (Km) and maximum reaction velocity (Vmax) were determined from Lineweaver-Burk plot with polyP75 or polyP1150. Monophosphate esterase activity toward p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) was assayed in the presence of polyP75 or polyP1150. Results: Wheat phytase dephosphorylated polyP75 and polyP1150 at pH 7.5 more effectively than that at pH 5.2. Its exopolyphosphatase activity toward polyP75 at pH 5.2 was 1.4-fold higher than that toward polyP1150 whereas its activity toward polyP75 at pH 7.5 was 1.4-fold lower than that toward polyP1150. Regarding enzyme kinetics, Km for polyP75 was 1.4-fold lower than that for polyP1150 while Vmax for polyP1150 was 2-fold higher than that for polyP75. The presence of Mg2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Mn2+, or EDTA (1 or 5 mM) exhibited no inhibitory effect on its activity toward polyP75. Its activity toward polyP1150 was inhibited by 1 mM of Ni2+ or Co2+ and 5 mM of Ni2+, Co2+, or Mg2+. Ni2+ inhibited its activity toward polyP1150 the most strongly among tested additives. Both polyP75 and polyP1150 inhibited the monophosphate esterase activity of wheat phytase toward pNPP in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Wheat phytase with an unexpected exopolyphosphatase activity has potential as a therapeutic tool and a next-generational feed additive for controlling long-chain polyP-induced inappropriate inflammation from Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella typhimurium infection in public health and animal husbandry.

Analysis of Food Poisoning Outbreaks Occurred in Chungnam Korea, 2019 (2019년 충남지역에서 발생한 식중독 현황과 원인분석)

  • Lee, Hyunah;Nam, Hae-Sung;Choi, Jihye;Park, Seongmin;Park, Jongjin;Kim, Hyeonmin;Cheon, Younghee;Park, Junhyuk
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.184-191
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study was performed to analyze cases of food poisoning outbreaks reported in Chungcheongnamdo Province in 2019 and report it as effective data for preventing food poisoning in the future. Methods: Food poisoning outbreaks were analyzed to detect virus, bacteria, and protozoa according to the Manual for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens in Outbreaks to clarify the causes of food poisoning that occurred in Chungcheongnam-do Province in 2019. Results: Among the 79 cases of food poisoning outbreaks, 59 cases (74.7%) were in general restaurants, 15 cases (19.0%) in food service institutions, three cases at banquets, and two cases in take-out food. The 42 cases at general seafood restaurants made up the majority of food poisoning in Chungcheongnam-do. Food poisoning pathogens were shown in 13 cases (86.7%) out of the 15 cases at food service institutions, and 10 cases were related to Norovirus. Among the 79 cases, food-borne pathogens were identified in 35 cases of outbreaks, accounting for 44.3%. The confirmed pathogens were as follows: bacteria (24 cases), Norovirus (12 cases) and Kudoa septempunctata. (five cases). The food-borne bacteria were pathogenic E. coli (12 cases), Staphylococcus aureus (six cases), Salmonella spp. (two cases), Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (one case). Conclusions: To prevent food poisoning, it is necessary to analyze regional characteristics and environments and to hold a campaign for the prevention of food poisoning based on that analysis. In addition, when food poisoning occurs, the results of analyzing its cause and spread based on accurate epidemiological survey need to be shared.

Quantitative Evaluation of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Commercial Sangshik (시판 생식에서 식중독균의 정량적 평가)

  • Kwak Hyo-Sun;Whang In-Kyun;Park Jong-Seok;Kim Mi-Gyeung;Lee Kyun-Young;Gho Young-Ho;Bae Yoon-Young;Moon Sung-Yang;Byun Ju-Sun;Kwon Ki-Sung;Woo Gun-Jo
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to survey the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in Sangshik products and their raw materials far the purpose of ensuring safety of those products in market, and establishing microbial regulatory standard. From 2002 to 2004, a total of 191 Sangshik products were purchased from market or mail-order sales, and major foodborne pathogens; E. coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, E. coli O157:H7, Vibrio parahaemolyticus were tested. B. cereus, C. perfringens and E. coli were detected from 29 samples (15.2%), 21 samples (11.0%) and 1 sample (0.5%), respectively. But other tested bacteria were not detected. For the identification of contamination source, 53 Sangshik ingredients were collected from 9 different manufacture factories. The results were similar with the Sangshik products. Aerobic plate counts were ranging from $1.0X10^3cfu/g\;to\;1.5X10^8cfu/g$. B. cereus was detected from 13 samples (24.5%), and counted as less than 100 cfu/g. C. perfringens were detected from 2 samples (3.8%), and counted as less than 100 cfu/g. Other foodborne pathogens were not detected except for B. cereus and C. perfringens. From the results, it was revealed that potential of microbial hazard by Sangshik was relatively low. However, it would be suggested that hygienic management and controling be needed for the prevention of growing contaminated pathogens and cross contamination during process and sale due to improper storage and management.

Microbiological Quality of Raw and Cooked Foods in Middle and High School Food Service Establishments (서울시 일부 중.고등학교의 급식용 식재료 및 조리식품의 미생물학적 품질)

  • Kim, Myung-Hee;Shin, Weon-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.10
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    • pp.1343-1356
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    • 2008
  • The evaluation of microbiological quality for school food samples collected from 19 selected middle and high schools located in Seoul was undertaken. Eighty-nine food samples consisting of 38 non-pretreated vegetables, 13 pre-washed and cut vegetables, 9 meats and poultry, 3 fish and shellfish, 7 dried fish, and shellfish and 20 processed foods were collected. Aerobic plate count, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli (E. coli ) were detected using $Petrifilm^{TM}$, and the food-borne pathogens were screened by multiplex PCR with species-specific primer sets. Sequentially, the quantitative and confirmative test of the food-borne pathogens were carried out with the selective media and biochemical kits. The contamination of coliform counts was observed on the pre-washed vegetables ($3.4{\sim}4.3\;log\;CFU/g$) and meats ($2.2{\sim}4.3\;log\;CFU/g$). Also, the cooked foods were heavily contaminated with coliform, ranging from 1.0 to $5.5\;log\;CFU/g$. E. coli counts were found in 16 raw and cooked food samples, exceeding the microbiological standards for the guideline of safety management for school foods. Through PCR detection, B acillus cereus was detected in 32 raw and cooked foods, and quantitatively found in pre-washed carrot, radish, and pan-broiled dried shrimp and filefish ranging from $2.3{\sim}3.6\;log\;CFU/g$, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was detected on frozen pork sample and was confirmed with API kit. Campylobacter jejuni was found in 3 ready-to-eat type vegetables. Vibrio parahaemolyticus were found in 4 pre-washed vegetables and 2 cooked foods, indicating unsatisfactory quality based upon the microbiological standards of ready-to-eat vegetables and cooked foods by Korea Food and Drug Administration. Salmonella spp. was detected in frozen chicken sample and confirmed by API kit and latex antisera agglutination.

An Exploratory Study of REID Benefits for Apparel Retailing (의류소매업에서의 RFID 이점에 대한 탐색적 연구)

  • Kim, Hae-Jung;Kim, Eun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1697-1707
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    • 2006
  • Relentless advances in information technology are constantly transforming market dynamics of the retail industry. RFID is an emerging innovative technology that can reduce labor costs, improve inventory control and increase sales by effective business processes. Apparel retailers need to recognize the benefits of RFID and identify critical success factors. By focusing on apparel retailers, this study attempts (1) to identify the reality of RFID associated with benefits; and (2) to prospect the implementation of RFID in apparel retailing. We conducted a focus group interview with selected six panels who were experts of retail industry in the United States to obtain data regarding RFID attributes. Content analysis was used to generate related excerpts and classify 31 attributes of RFID benefits from the meaningful 173 responses. For experience of RFID, retailers were familiar with RFID technology and expressed the belief that RFID basically would support an existing retail system for speed to markets. However, retailers addressed the level of experience with RFID technology that they were still in the early adoption stage among few innovative companies. The content analysis identified five dimensions of RFID benefits for apparel retailing: Visibility and Velocity, Revenue Enhancement, Customer Service, Security, and Employee Productivity. This result lends support to the belief that RFID has a significant potential to streamline supply chain management, store operation and customer service for apparel retailing. This study provides intellectual and managerial implications far practitioners and researchers by postulating the effective use of RFID in the apparel retail industry.

Microbiological Quality and Potential Pathogen Monitoring for Powdered Infant Formulas from the Local Market (영유아용 분말 조제분유의 미생물 품질분석과 위해세균 모니터링)

  • Hwang, Ji-Yeon;Lee, Ji-Youn;Park, Jong-Hyun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.555-561
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    • 2008
  • Ninety-nine samples of powdered infant formula in a market were collected from the local market and their contaminations for total aerobic bacteria, coliform, FAO/WHO Category A, B, and C pathogens were analyzed. Total aerobic bacteria were detected in 92 of 99 samples (93%) at levels of $1.83{\pm}0.68\;Log\;MPN/g$. These levels were below legal levels specified for infant formulas except for one sample detected by 4.5 Log CFU/g. Coliform was detected in 12 of 99 samples (12%) at levels of $1.26{\pm}1.03\;Log\;MPN/g$ whereas non-detection was required according to the specification of coliform in infant formulas. Escherichia coli was detected in 1 of 99 samples by 0.48 Log MPN/g. Salmonella and Enterobacter sakazakii among Category A weren't detected in all the samples. Enterobacteriaceae, Category B group, were detected in 25 samples of total 99 samples (25%) by $0.83{\pm}1.37\;Log\;MPN/g$. Enterobacteriaceae identified by API 20E were Escherichia vulneris, Es. hermannii, Pantoea spp., Citrobacter koseri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, En. cloaceae. Bacillus cereus among Category C was highly detected in 29 of 99 samples (29%) at levels of $0.69{\pm}0.32\;Log\;MPN/g$ with the most probable number count method, which were below legal levels for the specification of B. cereus in infant formulas. Clostridium perfringens, E. coli O157, Staphyloccus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Campylobacter jejuni/coli were not detected. Contamination level of major pathogens was low and falls within the range of specification of infant formulas. However, Enterobacteriaceae and B.cereus showed the high prevalence and some Enterobacteriaceae causing disease were detected. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the potential pathogens continually and reduce them to improve the microbial quality of non-sterilized powdered infant formulas.

Study on microbiological safety of simple processed agricultural products (유통 단순가공 농산물의 위생지표세균 및 식중독균 오염실태 조사연구)

  • Sung, Gyunghye;Hwang, Inyeong;Park, So Hyun;Park, Sunhee;Kim, Byung Jun;Lee, Ju Hyun;Min, Sang Kee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.599-604
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to explore methods for efficient management of the quality and safety of simple processed agricultural products in Busan. We tested 258 samples of simple processed agricultural products for distribution of aerobic bacteria and coliforms, and identified food-borne pathogens. The average aerobic bacterial and coliforms counts were 7.1 and 4.1 log CFU/g in simple processed vegetables, 6.8 and 3.5 log CFU/g in dried vegetables, and 6.2 and 2.9 log CFU/g in simple processed fruits. Additionally Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in any samples. However, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and E. coli were detected in 41 samples (16.3%), 2 samples (0.8%), and 4 samples (1.6%), respectively. This analysis revealed that none of C. perfringens and E. coli isolates harbored pathogenic toxic genes. However, all of B. cereus isolates carried at least 1 toxin gene.

Change of Harmful Micnoorganisms in Pickling Process of Salted Cabbage According to Salting and Washing Conditions (배추김치의 절임공정 조건에 따른 위해미생물 변화)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Lee, Yu-Keun;Yang, Ji-Young
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.417-423
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    • 2011
  • Salted Cabbage products purchased from different companies at 4 different districts in South Korea were detected in this study. Cabbage and salt are the main materials for kimchi manufacture. The results of general bacteria contaminated in the samples were $1.4{\times}10^5$, $6.4{\times}10^5$, $1.7{\times}10^7$, $3.6{\times}10^7$ CFU/g in cabbage and $2.7{\times}10^3$ CFU/g in salt, respectively. The results of coliforms were detected as $2.4{\times}10^4$ CFU/g, and there was no Escherichia coli in any sample. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in cabbage as $9.9{\times}10^2$, $8.0{\times}10^1$, and $3.0{\times}10^3$ CFU/g, Bacillus cereus was also found in cabbage as $4.1{\times}10^3$ and $1.0{\times}10^1$ CFU/g. The results of Campylobacter jejuni and Vibrio paraheamolyticus were $2.4{\times}10^6$ and $1.0{\times}10^4$ CFU/g in cabbage, respectively. $1.0{\times}10^3$ CFU/g for Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in salt. In case of Listeria monocytogenes, the results were $1.5{\times}10^1$, $1.1{\times}10^2$, and $4.5{\times}10^1$ CFU/g in cabbage. Total batcteria ranged from $1.4{\times}10^1$ to $4.4{\times}10^5$ CFU/g were detected in salting solution, from $1.5{\times}10^4$ to $1.2{\times}10^8$ CFU/g in dehydrated salted-cabbage, from $9.4{\times}10^4{\sim}1.3{\times}10^8$ CFU/g in minced salted-cabbage. The results of E. coli in samples from different companies were different from one to anther. The results of the contamination of S. aureus and B. cereus showed positive in salting solution and dehydrated salted-cabbage at a portion of companies. V. paraheamolyticus was detected in salting solution. The contamination of Y. enterocolitica ranged from $9.5{\times}10^2$ to $1.8{\times}10^3$ CFU/g in salting solution, from $1.7{\times}10^1$ to $2.7{\times}10^2$ CFU/g in dehydrated salted-cabbage, from $1.2{\times}10^2$ to $1.3{\times}10^8$ CFU/g in minced salted-cabbage. The contamination of L. monocytogenes ranged from $8.0{\times}10^2$ to $1.7{\times}10^4$ CFU/g in salting solution, from $2.8{\times}10^2$ to $1.2{\times}10^4$ CFU/g in dehydrated salted-cabbage. During the manufacture processing of Kim chi, microorganisms were detected in cabbages salted in different concentrations of salt solution at 8%, 10%, 12% and 15% for 5-20 hours. As the results, $3.5{\times}10^5-1.7{\times}10^6$, $3.4{\times}10^5-2.5{\times}10^6$, $5.4{\times}10^5-2.3{\times}10^6$, $4.0{\times}10^5-2.3{\times}10^6$ CFU/g were detected for E. coli in samples at different treatment conditions. $1.9{\times}10^4-4.1{\times}10^4$, $4.1{\times}10^3-2.8{\times}10^4$, $1.5{\times}10^3-7.8{\times}10^3$, $2.2{\times}10^4-6.6{\times}10^4$ CFU/g were detected for S. aureus in samples at different treatment conditions. Salmonella typhimurium was detected in salted cabbage with various salt concentration after salting for 5 hrs, the result ranged from $2.5{\times}10^5$ to $3.8{\times}10^6$ CFU/g, and change of microorganism was the smallest in salted cabbage under the concentration of salting solution at 10% for 15 hours. The cabbage salted in 10% salting solution for 15 hours were washed with water for 2 and 3 times, with chlorine for 3 times, and with acetic acid for 3 times. E. coli was detected in the samples washed with water for 2 and 3 times, washed with chlorine for 3 times. The contamination of S. aureus was $3.0{\times}10^5$ CFU/g in the samples washed with water for 2 times, $5.6{\times}10^3$ CFU/g in the samples washed with acetic acid for 3 times, $3.6{\times}10^5$ CFU/g in the samples washed with water for 3 times and same amount in the samples washed with chlorine for 3 times. According to the results, the contamination of S. aureus was $5.6{\times}10^3$ CFU/g lower in samples washed with chlorine and acetic acid than that in samples washed with water. In case of S. typhimurium, it has been detected in samples washed with water and chlorine, $3.0{\times}10^1$ CFU/g as the lowest concentration among all the samples was measured in the samples washed with acetic acid for 3 times.