• Title, Summary, Keyword: Capability Reinforcement

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Repeated Loading Test of Shear-Critical Reinforced Concrete Beams with Headed Shear Reinforcement (헤디드 바를 전단철근으로 사용한 철근콘크리트 보의 전단거동에 관한 반복하중 실험)

  • Kim, Young-Hoon;Lee, Joo-Ha;Yoon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2006
  • The repeated loading responses of four shear-critical reinforced concrete beams with two different shear span-to-depth ratios, were studied. One series of beams was reinforced using pairs of bundled stirrups with $90^{\circ}$ standard hooks, haying free end extensions of $6d_b$. The companion beams contained shear reinforcement made with larger diameter headed bars anchored with 50mm diameter circular heads. A single headed bar had the same area as a pair of bundled stirrups and hence the two series were comparable. The test results indicate that beams containing headed bar stirrups have a superior performance to companion beams containing bundled standard stirrups with improved ductility, larger energy absorption and enhanced post-peak load carrying capability. Due to splitting of the concrete cover and local crushing, the hooks of the standard stirrups opened resulting in loss of anchorage. In contrast, the headed bar stirrups did not lose their anchorage and hence were able to develop strain hardening and also served to delay buckling of the flexural compression steel. Excellent load-deflection predictions were obtained by reducing the tension stiffening to account for repeated load effects.

An Evaluation of In-situ the Pullout Resistance of Chain Reinforcement (체인 보강재의 현장 인발저항력 평가)

  • Kim, Sang-Su;Yu, Chan;Lee, Bong-Jik;Shin, Bang-Woong
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.339-347
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    • 2002
  • An in-situ experiment was performed to evaluate the pullout resistance capacity of chains which is used as a reinforcement of reinforced earth wall. It was also considered that chain was combined with a bar or L-type steel angle by the transverse reinforcement member in the experiment. About 80 pullout tests were peformed with varying the lengths of chain(2.0m, 2.5m, and 3.0m), the combination of each transverse members(chain only, chain+bar, or chain+angle), and the vertical placement of reinforcements. In the case that uses a chain only and a chain combined with bar, the maximum displacement was about 150mm and load continuously increased to the ultimate tensile strength of chain, and then tension failure of chains occurred. But in the case of a chain combined with angle, the displacement decreased to about 100mm and so it was expected that this combination can constrain the displacement of chain. On the other hand, comparing the yielding pullout load measured in the field to that calculated by theoretical equation, it is shown that measured values are 1.2~3.0 times greater than those of calculated values according to the length of chain, normal vertical stress, and the combination of chain with transverse members. However, the difference in the increment of yielding pullout load between bar and angle is not clear but it appears almost the same increment. It is expected that chain can be safely used as reinforcements of reinforced earth wall, although a theoretical estimation of the pullout resistance capability of chain is too conservative.

Technological Development Trends for Underground Safety in Urban Construction (도심지 공사시 지하안전 확보를 위한 기술개발 동향)

  • Baek, Yong;Kim, Woo Seok
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 2017
  • Amid increasingly saturated ground space, development of underground space has been booming throughout the world and excavation has been underway near the structure above or under the ground level. But the ground subsidence caused by improper or poor construction technologies, underground water leakage, sudden changes of stratum and the problem with earth retaining system component has been emerged as hot social issue. To deal with such problems nationwide, establishment of preventive and proactive disaster management and rapid restoration system has been pushed now. In this study, collection of the data on technology development trend to secure the underground safety was made, taking into account of internal change elements (changing groundwater level, damage to underground utilities, etc) and external change elements (vehicle load, earthquake and ground excavation, etc) during excavation. Amid the growing need of ground behavior analysis, ground subsidence evaluation technology, safe excavation to prevent ground subsidence and reinforcement technology, improvement of rapid restoration technology in preparation for ground subsidence and development of independent capability, this study is intended to introduce the technology development in a bid to prevent the ground subsidence during excavation. It's categorized into prediction/evaluation technology, complex detect technology, waterproof reinforcement technology, rapid restoration technology and excavation technology which, in part, has been in process now.

Action Selection by Voting with Loaming Capability for a Behavior-based Control Approach (행동기반 제어방식을 위한 득점과 학습을 통한 행동선택기법)

  • Jeong, S.M.;Oh, S.R.;Yoon, D.Y.;You, B.J.;Chung, C.C.
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.163-168
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    • 2002
  • The voting algorithm for action selection performs self-improvement by Reinforcement learning algorithm in the dynamic environment. The proposed voting algorithm improves the navigation of the robot by adapting the eligibility of the behaviors and determining the Command Set Generator (CGS). The Navigator that using a proposed voting algorithm corresponds to the CGS for giving the weight values and taking the reward values. It is necessary to decide which Command Set control the mobile robot at given time and to select among the candidate actions. The Command Set was learnt online by means as Q-learning. Action Selector compares Q-values of Navigator with Heterogeneous behaviors. Finally, real-world experimentation was carried out. Results show the good performance for the selection on command set as well as the convergence of Q-value.

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Comparison of North Korea's Military Strategy before and after Nuclear Arming (핵무장 전.후 북한의 대남 군사전략 비교)

  • Nam, Man-Kwon
    • The Journal of Military Studies
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    • pp.173-202
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    • 2007
  • After successful nuclear tests Pakistan launched a more severe surprise attack toward India than before. It is highly possible that North Korea will adopt this Pakistan military strategy if it is armed with nuclear weapons. The North Korean forces armed, with nuclear bombs could make double its war capability through strengthening aggressive force structure and come into effect on blocking reinforcement of the US forces at the initial phase of war time. Therefore we may regard that Pyongyang's nuclear arming is a major one of various factors which increase possibility of waging a conventional warfare or a nuclear war. North Korea's high self-confidence after nuclear arming will heighten tension on the Korean Peninsula via aggressive military threat or terror toward South Korea, and endeavor to accomplish its political purpose via low-intensity conflicts. For instance, nuclear arming of the Pyongyang regime enforces the North Korean forces to invade the Northern Limit Line(NLL), provoke naval battles at the West Sea, and occupy one or two among the Five Islands at the West Sea. In that case, the South Korean forces will be faced with a serious dilemma. In order to recapture the islands, Seoul should be ready for escalating a war. However it is hard to imagine that South Korea fights with North Korea armed with nuclear weapons. This paper concludes that the Pyongyang regime after nuclear arming strongly tends to occupy superiority of military strategy and wage military provocations on the Korean Peninsula.

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An Analysis of Congestion Cost for Electric Power Transmission in Consideration of Uncertainty of Future Electric Power System (미래 전력 계통의 불확실성을 고려한 송전혼잡비용 분석)

  • Park, Sung Min;Kim, Sung Soo
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.63 no.3
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    • pp.131-137
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    • 2014
  • It is expected that there will be delay of scheduled transmission network reinforcement and huge investment of renewable energy resources in Korea. As transmission capacity expansion delayed, supplying power to Seoul metropolitan area will not be increased as scheduled. In addition, uncertain renewable energy out of Seoul metropolitan area can cause transmission congestion in the future power system. These two combining effects will make the difference in locational marginal prices(LMP) and congestion costs increase. In that sense, this paper will analyze how much the congestion costs for Korea power system are incurred in the future power system. Most of previous approaches to analyze the congestion costs for electric power system are based on the optimal power flow model which cannot deal with hourly variation of power system. However, this study attempted to perform the analysis using market simulation model(M-Core) which has the capability of analyzing the hourly power generation cost and power transmission capacity, and market prices by region. As a result, we can estimate the congestion costs of future power system considering the uncertainty of renewable energy and transmission capacity.

Software for biaxial cyclic analysis of reinforced concrete columns

  • Shirmohammadi, Fatemeh;Esmaeily, Asad
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.353-386
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    • 2016
  • Realistic assessment of the performance of reinforced concrete structural members like columns is needed for designing new structures or maintenance of the existing structural members. This assessment requires analytical capability of employing proper material models and cyclic rules and considering various load and displacement patterns. A computer application was developed to analyze the non-linear, cyclic flexural performance of reinforced concrete structural members under various types of loading paths including non-sequential variations in axial load and bi-axial cyclic load or displacement. Different monotonic material models as well as hysteresis rules, were implemented in a fiber-based moment-curvature and in turn force-deflection analysis, using proper assumptions on curvature distribution along the member, as in plastic-hinge models. Performance of the program was verified against analytical results by others, and accuracy of the analytical process and the implemented models were evaluated in comparison to the experimental results. The computer application can be used to predict the response of a member with an arbitrary cross section and various type of lateral and longitudinal reinforcement under different combinations of loading patterns in axial and bi-axial directions. On the other hand, the application can be used to examine analytical models and methods using proper experimental data.

Free vibration analysis of thick CGFR annular sector plates resting on elastic foundations

  • Tahouneh, Vahid
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.773-796
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    • 2014
  • This paper deals with free vibration analysis of continuous grading fiber reinforced (CGFR) and bi-directional FG annular sector plates on two-parameter elastic foundations under various boundary conditions, based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The plates with simply supported radial edges and arbitrary boundary conditions on their circular edges are considered. A semi-analytical approach composed of differential quadrature method (DQM) and series solution is adopted to solve the equations of motion. Some new results for the natural frequencies of the plate are prepared, which include the effects of elastic coefficients of foundation, boundary conditions, material and geometrical parameters. Results indicate that the non-dimensional natural frequency parameter of a functionally graded fiber volume fraction is larger than that of a discrete laminated and close to that of a 2-layer. It results that the CGFR plate attains natural frequency higher than those of traditional discretely laminated composite ones and this can be a benefit when higher stiffness of the plate is the goal and that is due to the reduction in spatial mismatch of material properties. Moreover, it is shown that a graded ceramic volume fraction in two directions has a higher capability to reduce the natural frequency than conventional one-dimensional functionally graded material. The multidirectional graded material can likely be designed according to the actual requirement and it is a potential alternative to the unidirectional functionally graded material. The new results can be used as benchmark solutions for future researches.

Dynamic bending behaviours of RC beams under monotonic loading with variable rates

  • Xiao, Shiyun;Li, Jianbo;Mo, Yi-Lung
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.339-350
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    • 2017
  • Dynamic behaviours of reinforced concrete (RC) bending beams subjected to monotonic loading with different loading rates were studied. A dynamic experiment was carried out with the electro-hydraulic servo system manufactured by MTS (Mechanical Testing and Simulation) Systems Corporation to study the effect of loading rates on the mechanical behaviours of RC beams. The monotonic displacement control loading, with loading rates of 0.1 mm/s, 0.5 mm/s, 1 mm/s, 5 mm/s and 10 mm/s, was imposed. According to the test results, the effects of loading rates on the failure model and load-displacement curve of RC beams were investigated. The influences of loading rates on the cracking, ultimate, yield and failure strengths and displacements, ductility and dissipated energy capability of RC beams were studied. Then, the three-dimensional finite element models of RC beams, with the rate-dependent DP (Drucker-Prager) model of concrete and three rate-dependent model of steel reinforcement, were described and verified using the experimental results. Finally, the dynamic mechanical behaviours and deformation behaviours of the numerical results were compared with those of the experimental results.

Elastodynamic and wave propagation analysis in a FG graphene platelets-reinforced nanocomposite cylinder using a modified nonlinear micromechanical model

  • Hosseini, Seyed Mahmoud;Zhang, Chuanzeng
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.255-271
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    • 2018
  • This paper deals with the transient dynamic analysis and elastic wave propagation in a functionally graded graphene platelets (FGGPLs)-reinforced composite thick hollow cylinder, which is subjected to shock loading. A micromechanical model based on the Halpin-Tsai model and rule of mixture is modified for nonlinear functionally graded distributions of graphene platelets (GPLs) in polymer matrix of composites. The governing equations are derived for an axisymmetric FGGPLs-reinforced composite cylinder with a finite length and then solved using a hybrid meshless method based on the generalized finite difference (GFD) and Newmark finite difference methods. A numerical time discretization is performed for the dynamic problem using the Newmark method. The dynamic behaviors of the displacements and stresses are obtained and discussed in detail using the modified micromechanical model and meshless GFD method. The effects of the reinforcement of the composite cylinder by GPLs on the elastic wave propagations in both displacement and stress fields are obtained for various parameters. It is concluded that the proposed micromechanical model and also the meshless GFD method have a high capability to simulate the composite structures under shock loadings, which are reinforced by FGGPLs. It is shown that the modified micromechanical model and solution technique based on the meshless GFD method are accurate. Also, the time histories of the field variables are shown for various parameters.