• Title, Summary, Keyword: Captive Breeding

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A Case Study of the Breeding Biology of the Oriental White Stork (Ciconia boyciana) in Captivity

  • Cheong, Seok-Wan;Park, Shi-Ryong;Sung, Ha-Cheol
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2006
  • The captive breeding biology of the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) was studied over 3 breeding periods. Both the male and female participated in nest building, but the male started to build the nest earlier and spent much time. Time used to build the nest was steadily increased to the egg laying. The copulations were observed $30{\pm}10.53$ (n=3) times in a breeding period. Both male and female incubated their eggs but the female spent more time than the male did. The chicks were hatched $32{\pm}1.29$ (n=6) days after egg laying. Not only the male but also the female took part in the rearing chicks. The male spent more time than the female as chicks grew. The results of this study are useful to assess the ecological soundness of the breeding pair and facilitate the breeding environment in captive breeding of the Oriental white stork.

Quantified Analyses of Musk Deer Farming in China: A Tool for Sustainable Musk Production and Ex situ Conservation

  • Meng, Xiuxiang;Gong, Baocao;Ma, Guang;Xiang, Leilei
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1473-1482
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    • 2011
  • Adult male musk deer (Moschus spp.) secrete musk, a widely used ingredient in traditional Asian medicine and the international perfume industry. Musk deer are endangered due to historic over-utilization of musk and habitat loss. Musk deer farming, provides an important way of conserving musk deer and ensuring a sustainable musk supply. For over 50 years musk deer farming has been conducted in China with the endangered Alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) the predominant farmed musk deer species. To date, few studies have examined the musk production of captive musk deer. This study analyzed musk-extraction data collected from 1997 to 2009 at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, Gansu, China. The musk-extraction ratio (MER) of captive male musk deer was 90.30% (n = 732), while the annual average musk extraction (AME) per animal was $7.90{\pm}0.17\;g$ with the range from 0.00 g to 34.20 g (n = 732). The origin of the deer had an influence on AME and MER production, with male wild-captured (WC) individuals recording higher values (AME, $8.76{\pm}0.27\;g$, n = 272; MER, 93.75%, n = 272) than those of captive breeding (CB) males (AME: $7.39{\pm}0.22\;g$, n = 460; MER: 88.26%, n = 460). The origin of an individual's parents, however, did not influence AME and MER. Age also influenced musk production with the MER of 1.5-year-old males being 87.5% with an average musk production of $8.27{\pm}0.47\;g$ (n = 96). The peak period for musk production was from 1.5 to 8.5 years of age. The results of our study demonstrate musk deer farming could work as an effective measure to protect musk deer and provide sustainable musk resources, however, the musk production including MER and AME could be improved through optimizing the managing and breeding system in endangered musk deer farming.

Movement patterns and home range of captive-bred Amur ratsnake (Elaphe schrenckii) juveniles in the natural habitat

  • Kim, Dae-In;Kim, Il-Hoon;Kim, Ja-Kyeong;Kim, Bin-Na;Park, Dae-Sik
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.41-50
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    • 2012
  • To determine the movement patterns, home range, and use of structural features of captive-bred one- or two-year-old Amur ratsnake (Elaphe schrenckii) juveniles in the natural habitat, we radio-tracked a total of 11 juvenile snakes in a mountain valley in Chiaksan National Park, South Korea, between August 21 and September 20, 2010 and between June 13 and July 13, 2011. During the first week of the release, most juveniles moved short distances, daily, but they increased their distances after the first week. The body weight of the juveniles was negatively related with the movement rate (dividing the number of movements by the number of relocations), which was positively related with the mean daily distances moved and the size of both a kernel 50% and 95% home range. During the study period, the juveniles moved daily, approximately 17 m, and the size of the minimum convex polygon and the 50% and 95% kernel home ranges were 1.8 ha, 0.4 ha, and 3.0 ha, respectively. The released captive-bred juveniles were more frequently confirmed underground or on the ground rather than on rocks or on trees. Our results suggest that the body condition of released individuals, the seasonal time of the release, and the existence of available prey and shelters in the habitat should be carefully considered when releasing captive-bred Amur ratsnake juveniles for the rehabilitation of field populations.

Changes of Estradiol, Progesterone and Vaginal Epithelial Cells of a Pseudopregnant Captive Coyote (Canis latrans) during Breeding Season

  • Yong, Hwan-Yul;Park, Jung-Eun;Son, Chun-Soo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.139-143
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    • 2009
  • Most captive canids and felids at Zoos in advanced countries have been examined enough to apply artificial reproductive techniques to them. We investigated reproductive hormones and vaginal epithelial cells of a 6-year-old, female coyote, hoping these data could eventually be extended to artificial insemination with frozen-thawed conspecific semen at Seoul Zoo. As a relative of pet dogs, coyote exhibited a similar appearance with only minor differences. In vaginal smear, an increase in the number of superficial cells suggests that the bitch has reached a state close to estrus. A sudden decrease of estradiol and increase of progesterone is considered as a preovulatory event. Vaginal epithelial cells and hormones might be useful for determining the optimal time of artificial insemination in coyotes' breeding.

Necrotic enteritis in a captive mute swan (Cygnus olor) in the breeding season

  • Lee, Hae Rim;Koo, Bon-Sang;Jeon, Eun-Ok;Han, Moo-Sung;Min, Kyung-Cheol;Lee, Seung Baek;Bae, Yeonji;Kim, Jung-Ho;Mo, In-Pil
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.137-141
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    • 2014
  • A captive mute swan (Cygnus olor) in the brooding period was found dead without any specific signs. On necropsy, the entire digestive tract was severely necrotized with loosely adherent pseudomembranes, and Clostridium perfringens (CP) colonies isolated from the intestinal contents were identified as CP type A by polymerase chain reaction. Microscopically, the intestine and the liver were necrotized and intralesional bacterial clusters were observed. In this case, there were no other mortalities, so the condition of a single bird, in particular, stress from incubation effort, could act as the predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis. In this study, we report a unique case of necrotic enteritis associated with incubation in a captive mute swan.

Successful Birth of Pups Produced by GnRH-induced Estrus and Natural Mating in Captive Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes)

  • Yong, Hwan-Yul;Bae, Bok-Soo;Kim, Seung-Dong;Lim, Yang-Mook;Ha, Yong-Hee;Oh, Chang-Sik;Kim, Myoung-Ho;Jo, Sin-Il;Yoo, Mi-Hyun;Jeong, Yu-Jeong;Ro, Sang-Chul
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.287-290
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    • 2010
  • On January 6, 2010, two months earlier than normal breeding season, a red fox vixen was implanted with synthetic GnRH analogue, Deslorelin. Blood was sampled every 2~3 days from the day of implant to identifying spermatozoa on stains of epithelial cells. Estradiol and progesterone were examined. Even though the vixen was in non-breeding season, she was mated by a male fox. Pregnancy was confirmed by canine pregnancy detection kit that detect relaxin released from placenta. Four healthy pups were born on March 9, 2010. This is the first report showing synthetic GnRH can activate ovarian function and lead to fertile estrus of red fox in non-breeding season.

Birth of a Siberian Tiger Cub from an Albino Mother Tiger with Help of eCG and hCG

  • Choo, Yoon-Jeong;Park, Myung-Soo;Han, Hyo-Dong;Ham, Gye-Sun;Park, Young-Sun;Kim, Gyeong-Sik;Park, Sun-Duk;Lim, Yang-Mook;Jung, So-Young;Yong, Hwan-Yul
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.215-217
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    • 2011
  • This is about the successful use of eCG and hCG for producing a Siberian tiger pup born from 10-year-old, primiparous, albino Siberian tiger. From February 2010 to July 2010, natural breeding had been tried three times with no conception. During this period of five months, estrus behaviors appeared to be typically normal and a lot of matings were observed. After consecutive failures, 1000 IU eCG (equine chorionic gonadotropin) were intramuscularly injected on the day showing estrus behavior, followed with an injection of 750 IU hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) 80 hours later. The tiger stopped recurrence of estrus, and a cub, weighed 780 gram, was born alive 104 days after hCG injection. This study is the first report showing the unique, successful use of exogenous hormones as one of artificial breeding programs in the long history of captive breeding of carnivorous zoo animals in Korea.

Seasonal Changes in the Basic Reproductive Physiology of the Endangered Reeves' Turtle (Mauremys reevesii) Based on Hibernation or Nonhibernation (멸종위기 종인 남생이(Mauremys reevesii)의 동면 여부에 따른 기초 번식생리의 계절적 변동)

  • Jung, Yu-Jeong;Kim, Il-Hun;Koo, Kyo-Soung;Song, Jae-Young;Kang, Shin-Geun;Park, Daesik
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.977-985
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    • 2016
  • The captive breeding program of the Reeve's turtle (Mauremys reevesii), which is designated as an endangered category II species by the Korean Ministry of Environment, has developed, but the reproductive physiology of the species is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated seasonal changes in the sex steroid levels, the number and size of follicles and eggs and male-female interactive behaviors of hibernated and non-hibernated turtles between November 2014 and October 2015. Plasma estradiol level in females increased from July and peaked in the period from August to October. Plasma testosterone level in males peaked between August and September and was the lowest in March, although there were some variations depending on the patterns of hibernation. Hibernated females had fully developed eggs between early May and middle July and laid eggs between early June and late July, but non-hibernated females had eggs between early April and early June and also between middle August and late November, and laid eggs in early June, mid-October, and early February. These results suggest that hibernation could be essential for normal follicular and egg developments. Male-female interactive behaviors including courtship intensified from late August and peaked in October and November. Our findings suggest that mating period of this species is directly related to increased steroid hormone levels, but follicular and egg developments in females are not. Our results could be very useful to the successful operation of captive rearing programs of the endangered Reeve' sturtles.

Estrus Cycles of the Female Tscherskia triton (Mammalia: Rodentia: Cricetidae) according to the Photoperiod (광주기에 따른 비단털쥐(Mammalia: Rodentia: Cricetidae) 암컷의 발정주기 변화)

  • Park, Jun-Ho;Ahn, Keun Jae;Oh, Hong-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.160-168
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    • 2017
  • Tscherskia triton is widely distributed in Northern China, Korea, and the adjacent areas of Russia. Except its distribution, reproduction, and growth development related to life history, reproductive cycle and reproductive organs of T. triton are rarely studied in Korea. The purpose of this study was characterized the estrous cycle of T. triton captured in Jeju Island in order to provide information to a better information of captive breeding of the species when long-day (16L : 8D) and short-day (8L : 16D) photoperiod. Then, histological study of the ovaries and uterus with five females in each photoperiod was performed. The duration of the estrus cycle was 4~5 days and it showed regular cycle pattern. Results of the vaginal cytology examination showed four characteristic phase of the estrous cycle in long-day photoperiod (16L : 8D): proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus. However, in short-day photoperiod, the diestrus phage of the estrus cycle was maintained from the $6^{th}$ to $12^{th}$ day. In the long-day photoperiod, females had many Graafian follicles and corpus luteums in large ovaries, and developed uterine glands in the thick endometrium. But they had some primary, secondary and tertiary follicles, and undeveloped uterine glands in the thin endometrium during short-day photoperiod. These results were identified difference of the estrus cycle and histological characteristics of reproductive tracts according to the photoperiod. These results are very important clues to the reproductive biology of T. triton, and it will be widely used as date for maintaining biodiversity.