• Title, Summary, Keyword: Caring

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Concept Analysis of Caring (돌봄의 개념분석)

  • 이병숙
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.337-344
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    • 1996
  • Caring is being rediscovered as a central and unifying concept of the nursing. Traditionally, nursing profession has emphasized spirit and activities of caring. But there is little efforts to study the caring phenomena scientifically and systematically in nursing, and then the concept of caring is still remained unclear and ambiguous. Changes of social, and health care environment are threatening the philosophy and practice of caring, so it is urgent to identify caring more scientifically and to rediscover the nature of nursing discipline. Knowledge of the caring is essential component for the development of nursing as a science and a profession. The first thing to study a concept is thought to be the analysis of the concept. So in this study, concept analysis of caring was performed to clarify the concept of caring as a basis for the study of caring afterward. The approach used for the concept analysis of caring was the approach presented by Walker and Avant. The defining(or critical) attributes of caring identified in this study were (1) a series of activities for helping others, (2) concern and devotion. (3) interpersonal relationship, and (4) scientific and systematic process. The identified antecedents of caring were (1) awareness of other's needs for help, and (2) moral and cognitive motivation for helping others. The identified consequences of caring were (1) healing, (2) satisfaction, and (3) growth. And the consequences of caring were revealed to both of the care giver and the care receiver. The empirical referents of caring could be the behaviors of interpersonal relationship through scientific and systematic process with concern and devotion for others.

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Development of a Measurement Tool of Caring to Evaluate Quality of Nursing Care (환자간호의 질 평가를 위한 돌봄(caring) 측정도구의 개발)

  • 이병숙
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.653-667
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    • 1996
  • It is important to find indicators of quality nursing care to establish the excellence of nursing practice and for the development of nursing as a profession. Caring is one of the indicators which can represent professional nursing care. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement tool of caring that could be used as an instrument for the evaluation of quality of nursing care. The Target population for the developed tool of caring is the adult patient. The mearsurement tool of caring was developed through the following steps. (1) A list of caring behaviors was made using qualitative researches on caring that has been done in Korea. (2) Caring behaviors in nurses were selected using the list of caring behaviors developed from Watson's 10 factors of caring. (3) Items for the measurement tool of caring were developed using the caring behaviors of nurses (4) Content validity of the developed items was evaluated by an expert panel. (5) The mearsurement tool of caring was developed after a pilot study (6) Internal consistency, and construct validity of the developed tool were verified. (7) The mearsurement tool of caring with the items verified for the internal consistency and construct validity was confirmed. As a result of the study, a mearsurement tool of caring, composed of 27 items with 3 factors, was developed. The Reliability coefficient of the tool was. 9578. The tool is a 5 point Likert scale. The factors of the tool and the number of items for each factor are, 1) accessibility and availablility, 15 items ; 2) emotional support and giving information, 8 items ; 3) providing a protective environment, 4 items.

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The Study on the Mediating Effect of Caring Empowerment in the Relationship between Caring Burden and Life Design of Caregivers of Disabled Children (장애자녀부모의 돌봄부담감과 라이프디자인의 영향관계에서 돌봄효능감의 매개효과 연구)

  • Lee, Yu-Ri
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.503-510
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to investigate the mediating effect of caring empowerment in the relationship between caring burden and life design. To get the results, a survey was conducted, targeting caregivers of disabled children and caring burden, caring empowerment, life design measures were used in the survey. Key outcomes of the analysis were as follows. First, it was verified that caring burden and caring empowerment, caring empowerment and life design had a direct relationship. Second, it was analyzed that caring empowerment had a full mediating effect in the relationship between caring burden and caring empowerment. Based in these results, comprehensive interventions for activating life design were proposed.

A Review of the Korean Nursing Research Literature with Focus on Quantitative Measurement of Caring (돌봄 측정 관련 국내 간호학 연구 문헌고찰: 양적 연구를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hee;Park, Young Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.155-169
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the quantitative research literature on measuring caring in order to identify overall trends in measuring caring. Methods: Fifty three papers were selected from four databases including RISS4U, DBpia, KISS, and Korea Med. Results: The number of measuring caring papers has increased since 2000. Approximately 60 % of the total papers were descriptive and correlative design researches with convenience sampling. Jean Waston's theory was the most popular conceptual framework, but much of the research tended to be conducted without any conceptual framework. In that kind of research, 'caring' terms were used without definition. The most frequently used term for the concept of caring was nurses' caring behaviors. Also, 'nurses' was one of the most popular subjects. Thirty six measuring caring instruments were used. Twenty were developed in foreign countries and translated into Korean. The others were developed originally in Korean. Interpersonal Caring Technique - Communication Skills Scale, based on the interpersonal process model, was the most frequently used tool. Among the translated instruments, Coates' Caring Efficacy Scale was the most popular. Some instruments were used without validation. Conclusion: These results provide basic data on measuring caring and indicate directions for further research. In particular, validation studies of measuring caring instruments are needed.

Influence of Nurse Manager and Peer Group Caring Behaviors as Perceived by Nurses on Intention to Retention (간호사가 지각하는 간호관리자의 돌봄-배려행위와 동료 간 돌봄-배려행위가 재직의도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kong, Moon Yeon;Kim, Jeong-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.191-200
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to identify the influence of nurse manager and peer group caring behaviors as perceived by nurses on intention to retention. Methods: The participants for this study were 229 nurses who had worked for over 6 months in general hospitals located in J province. Survey data were analyzed descriptive statistics and t-tests, ANOVAs with $Scheff{\acute{e}}^{\prime}s$ post-hoc testing, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and hierarchical regression analysis. Results: The scores for 'manager and peer group caring behaviors' and intention to retention were all at a moderate level, although the subjects perceived 'peer group caring behaviors' as higher compared to 'manager caring behaviors'. There were significant differences in 'manager caring behaviors' scores by suitability for present working department and employment status and in 'peer group caring behaviors' scores by suitability for present working department. The factors influencing nurses' intention to retention were religion, suitability for present department, clinical experience of over ten years, 'manager caring behaviors', and 'peer group caring behaviors' Conclusion: To improve nurses' intention to retention, it may be necessary to alter the transfer and arrangement strategies of their working environments to better consider nurses' aptitude and competence, and thereby increase both manager and peer group caring behaviors.

Existential Phenomenology and the Practice of Caring (실존적 현상학과 돌봄의 실천)

  • Kong, Byung Hye
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.138-145
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study was done to provide fundamental ontological understanding of caring and inquiring into the possibility of a caring practice in nursing based on existential phenomenology. Methods: According to Heidegger's existential phenomenology, caring has been interpreted as a fundamental ontological basis for caring practice in nursing. Further, based on Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology, the meaning of the lived experience of illness and the way of caring practice have been described from the aspect of the existential involvement in the embodied life world. Results: Heidegger's phenomenology provided ontological thinking about caring, which is understood in a basic way as the possibility of human existence and dwelling in oneself in the confrontation of the illness experience. Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology offered a meaning of human existence according to bodily intention and situated freedom in the life world. This perspective of embodiment enables nurses to understand bodily experiences of patients and recovery of their bodily capacity in responding to the situation in caring practice. Conclusion: Existential phenomenology gives insight into fundamental reflection for caring attitude and practice in nursing. Existential phenomenological nursing research can provide descriptions and meaning of the lived experience of illness and a way of coping with the crisis of human existence in caring practice.

Characteristics of Nursing and Caring Concepts Measured in Nursing Competencies or Caring Behaviors Tools (간호 역량 또는 돌봄 행위 측정도구를 통해서 살펴본 간호와 돌봄의 특성)

  • Park, Eun-Jun;Kim, Myung-Hae
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.480-495
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of the study was to identify characteristics of nursing and caring concepts measured by nursing competencies or caring behaviors tools for general nurses working in acute care hospitals. Methods: Five major nursing literature databases were used to identify the relevant tools. The study included 19 nursing competencies tools with a total of 843 measurement items and 12 caring behaviors tools with 334 items. According to the International Council of Nurses (ICN)'s Competencies Framework and 8Cs suggested by Roach (1987) and Pusari (1998), the measurement items were classified by two researchers independently first and in agreement finally. Results: Competency of 'key principles of care' including sub-areas of the ICN Framework was most commonly found: on average 49.3% of nursing competencies items and 91.9% of caring behaviors items. 97.0% of the caring behaviors items were classified into one of six Cs: competence (27.5%), confidence (21.3%), compassion (17.1%), commitment (16.5%), communication (9.9%), or conscience (4.8%). Conclusion: Nursing competencies tools were more likely to measure 'what to do' focusing on tasks, while caring behaviors tools were to measure 'how to do' focusing on nurses' attitudes or values. Nursing practices should be evaluated with both nursing competencies and caring behaviors tools, considering that nursing and caring were differently conceptualized in the quantitative tools.

Influencing Factors and Importance of Nurses' Caring Behaviors for Chronically Sick Elderly (노인 만성질환자 돌봄행위에 대한 간호사의 중요도 인지와 영향요인)

  • Kim, Chun-Gill
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.303-311
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of nurses' caring behaviors and to identify the factors influencing of nurses' caring behaviors. Methods: The participants were 404 nurses who were caring the chronically sick elderly in five H university hospitals. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires on the importance of caring behaviors, nursing professional value and job satisfaction. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS/WIN 16.0. Results: The average score for importance of nurses' caring behaviors was 3.38 and the 'professional knowledge and skill' factor was the highest level. The mean score of nursing professional value was 7.53 and job satisfaction, 3.18. Importance of nurses' caring behaviors had a significant positive correlation with nursing professional value, job satisfaction, nurse's age and work experience among demographic variables. Two significant variables influencing importance of nurses' caring behaviors were nursing professional value and job satisfaction. But characteristics of nurses did not influence. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that importance of nurses' caring behaviors can be improved by intervening factors affecting this importance. Based on the findings of this study, further nursing practice and nursing research for nurses caring the sick elderly should be focused on their nursing professional value and job satisfaction.

Exploring the Nature of Caring in Hwa-Byung - Transpersonal Caring-Healing Model - (화병에서의 돌봄의 본질 -Transpersonal Caring-Healing Model을 중심으로-)

  • Khim Soon-Yong;Lee Cho-Sik;Kong Byung-Hye;Shin Joo-Young
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.225-238
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    • 2005
  • Hwa-Byung(HB) has been categorized as a Korean culture-bound syndrome that is prevalent in married women of low socioeconomic status. Purpose: The Purpose of the study was to search for the essence of HB and a caring-healing process of HB. Then the research result discusses whether the Transpersonal Caring-Healing Model has been congruent with it. Method: Case examples resulted from in-depth telephone counseling over a period of time at the Women's Hot Line with a client who is a housewife with HB. The counseling content was analyzed through Giorgi's method of descriptive phenomenology. Result: The core meaning of the essence of HB was 'injustice'; and essential themes were 'lack of reciprocity', 'infidelity' 'suppressed aggression and powerlessness' and 'need for recognition'. The core meaning of the essence of the caring-healing process was 'caring-healing experience(maintaining a trust relationship)'; and essential themes were 'active listening', 'empathy' and 'forming a therapeutic relationship'. According to Watson, 'active listening', 'empathy' and 'forming a therapeutic relationship' were identified as intentionality, intersubjectivity and transpersonal. Conclusion: Transpersonal caring can release inner power and strength and help the person to gain a sense of inner harmony. Transpersonal caring is as important to healing as are conventional treatment approaches and even more powerful in the long run.

The Conceptualization of Caring Justice and an Evaluation of Long-Term Care Policy in Korea (돌봄정의(Caring Justice) 개념구성과 한국 장기요양정책의 평가)

  • Seok, Jae-Eun
    • 한국사회정책
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.57-91
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    • 2018
  • Despite the rapid growth of social care, understanding of care is segmental and caring is still marginalizing. The socialization of caring is actually a 'half-socialization' that is the result of injustice surrounding caring. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the problem of caring in terms of justice. In this paper, I discuss the limitations of social justice based on John Rawls 's social contract theory in the discussion of caring justice through feminists'writings on caring ethics. And then applying Nancy Fraser' s three scales of Justice-redistribution, recognition, and representation, the concept of caring justice has been newly constructed. The concept of caring is defined as a unified concept of caring including the aspect of the social rights of the care recipient as well as the labor rights of the care provider. Based on the analysis of care justice, we derive the ideal types of care policy and then evaluate the long-term care policy for the elderly, which is the central axis of Korean care policy. The results of this study are as follows: First, it is necessary to strengthen the labor rights of care providers especially for the socialization of care responsibilities and the proper allocation of social resources. Second, a service delivery system and care culture are needed to ensure the relational autonomy of care-receivers and care-givers for caring ethics and individualization of care. Third, the issue of care should be treated as the central agenda of politics in order to distribute care responsibility democratically and to distribute legitimate resources. This requires a paradigm shift from marginalization of care to mainstreaming of care. Ultimately, we should aim for a Caring Society.