• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cashmere Weight

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Estimates of Genetic Parameters and Genetic Trends for Production Traits of Inner Mongolian White Cashmere Goat

  • Bai, Junyan;Zhang, Qin;Li, Jinquan;Dao, Er-Ji;Jia, Xiaoping
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.13-18
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    • 2006
  • Two different animal models, which differ in whether or not taking maternal genetic effect into account, for estimating genetic parameters of cashmere weight, live body weight, cashmere thickness, staple length, fiber diameter, and fiber length in Inner Mongolia White Cashmere Goat were compared via likelihood ratio test. The results indicate that maternal genetic effect has significant influence on live body weight and cashmere thickness, but no significant influence on the other traits. Using models suitable for each trait, both genetic parameters and trends were analyzed with the MTDFREML program. Heritability estimates from single trait models for cashmere weight, live body weight, cashmere thickness, staple length, fiber diameter and fiber length were found to be 0.30, 0.07, 0.21, 0.29, 0.28 and 0.21, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates from two-trait models between live body weight and all other traits (-0.06~0.07) was negligible, as were those between fiber diameter and all other traits (-0.01~0.03) except cashmere thickness (0.19). Cashmere weight and staple length had moderate to low genetic correlations with other traits (-0.24~0.39 and -0.24~0.34, respectively) except for live body weight and fiber diameter. Cashmere thickness had a strong genetic correlation with fiber length (0.81), and low genetic correlation with other traits (0.19~0.34) except live body weight. Genetic trend analysis suggests that selection for cashmere weight was very effective, which has led to the slow genetic progress of cashmere thickness and fiber length due to their genetic correlations with cashmere weight. The selection for live body weight was not effective, which was consistent with its low inheritability.

Association of the KAP 8.1 Gene Polymorphisms with Fibre Traits in Inner Mongolian Cashmere Goats

  • Liu, Haiying;Yue, Chun-Wang;Zhang, Wei;Zhu, Xiaoping;Yang, Guiqin;Jia, Zhihai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1341-1347
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to investigate polymorphisms of keratin-associated protein 8.1 (KAP8.1) gene and its effect on fibre traits of Chinese Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats. The fibre traits data investigated were cashmere fibre diameter, combed cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and guard hair length. Five hundred and forty animals were used to detect polymorphisms in the complete coding sequence of the hircine KAP8.1 gene by means of PCR-SSCP. The results identified six genotypes, AA, BB, CC, AB, AC and BC, coded for by three different alleles A, B and C. Two SNPs in the coding region were confirmed by sequencing, which were T113G and G116C respectively. The relationships between the genotypes and cashmere fibre diameter, combed cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and guard hair length were analyzed. There were significant differences between the associations of the different genotypes with cashmere weight (p<0.01), cashmere length (p<0.05) and hair length (p<0.01). Cashmere fibre diameter was the only trait that was not associated with the genotypes. The animals of genotype AB and BB had the higher cashmere weight compared with the genotype AA. By further analysis, it appeared that the KAP8.1 genotype effects on fibre traits may be due to a mutation at the 113 locus. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the hircine KAP8.1 gene might be a potential molecular marker for cashmere weight in Cashmere goats.

DNA Polymorphism of Insulin-like Growth Factor-binding Protein-3 Gene and Its Association with Cashmere Traits in Cashmere Goats

  • Liu, Haiying;Liu, Chao;Yang, Guiqin;Li, Hui;Dai, Jin;Cong, Yuyan;Li, Xuejian
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1515-1520
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    • 2012
  • Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) gene is important for regulation of growth and development in mammals. The present investigation was carried out to study DNA polymorphism by PCR-RFLP of IGFBP-3 gene and its effect on fibre traits of Chinese Inner Mongolian cashmere goats. The fibre traits data investigated were cashmere fibre diameter, combed cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and guard hair length. Four hundred and forty-four animals were used to detect polymorphisms in the hircine IGFBP-3 gene. A 316-bp fragment of the IGFBP-3 gene in exon 2 was amplified and digested with HaeIII restriction enzyme. Three patterns of restriction fragments were observed in the populations. The frequency of AA, AB and BB genotypes was 0.58, 0.33 and 0.09 respectively. The allelic frequency of the A and B allele was 0.75 and 0.25 respectively. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a C>G transition in the exon 2 region of the IGFBP-3 gene resulting in R158G change which caused the polymorphism. Least squares analysis revealed a significant effect of genotypes on cashmere weight (p<0.0001), cashmere fibre length (p<0.001) and hair length (p<0.05) of the animals. The effect of genotypes on cashmere fibre diameter was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The animals of AB and BB genotypes showed higher cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and hair length than the animals possessing AA genotype. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the hircine IGFBP-3 gene might be a potential molecular marker for cashmere weight in cashmere goats.

Effect of the Polymorphisms of Keratin Associated Protein 8.2 Gene on Fibre Traits in Inner Mongolia Cashmere Goats

  • Liu, Haiying;Li, Ning;Jia, Cunling;Zhu, Xiaoping;Jia, Zhihai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.821-826
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    • 2007
  • The aim of the experiment was to detect polymorphisms in the keratin-associated protein 8.2 (KAP8.2) gene to determine associations between the genotype and fibre traits in Chinese Inner Mongolia cashmere goats. The fibre traits data investigated were cashmere fibre diameter, combed cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and guard hair length. Five hundred and forty-two animals were used to detect polymorphisms in the complete coding sequence of the hircine KAP8.2 gene by means of PCR-SSCP. The results identified six genotypes, AA, BB, DD, AB, AD and BD, coded for by three different alleles A, B and D. Two SNPs in the coding region were confirmed by sequencing, which were A214G and T218C respectively. The relationships between the genotypes and cashmere fibre diameter, combed cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and guard hair length were analyzed. There were significant differences (p<0.01) between the associations of the different genotypes with cashmere fibre diameter, cashmere weight and hair length. Cashmere length was the only trait that was not associated with the genotypes. The genotype AA (0.73) was found to be predominant in Inner Mongolia cashmere goats and the animals with this genotype had the thinnest cashmere fibre diameter compared with the other genotypes. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the hircine KAP8.2 gene may be a potential molecular marker for cashmere fibre diameter in cashmere goats.

Skin Deiodinase Profiles after Melatonin Manipulated in Chinese Inner Mongolia Cashmere Goats

  • Yue, Chunwang;Du, Lixin;Zhu, Xiaoping;Kong, Xianghao;Zhang, Wei;Jia, Zhihai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.1496-1502
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    • 2007
  • The roles of melatonin in the control of deiodinase (MD) activity in cashmere goat skin and associated cashmere fibre growth were investigated. Eighteen half-sib Chinese Inner Mongolia cashmere wethers were allocated randomly to two groups (n = 9/group). One group was implanted subcutaneously with melatonin (2 mg/kg BW) at three 2-monthly intervals while the other group served as a control. All goats were maintained under natural photoperiodic conditions and were grazed on natural pasture. The plasma melatonin concentration showed a significant difference (p<0.01) between the implant group (M) and the control group (C) but plasma $T_4$ (or $T_3$) showed no significant difference (p>0.05). The monodeiodinase type II (MDII) activity in skin tended to increase gradually from the summer solstice to November. During July and August, the activity of MDII for the M group was higher (p<0.05) than that of the C group; also during this period, there was a significant positive correlation between MDII activity of skin and cashmere fibre growth rate. The monodeiodinase type III (MDIII) activity and the ratio of MDIII and MDII tended to decrease from the summer solstice to November. The ratio of MDIII and MDII for the M group was lower (p<0.05) than that of the C group in July and August. The cashmere fibre growth rate of the M group was significantly greater than that of the C group in July (p<0.01), August (p<0.001) and September (p<0.05). The cashmere fibre diameter and guard hair and body weight were not influenced (p>0.05) by melatonin implantation. The results demonstrate that melatonin plays an important role in the regulation of skin MD activity. Simultaneously, the cashmere fibre elongation stimulated by melatonin may result from enhanced MDII activity during a period of two months after melatonin treatment.

Effects of Dietary Copper on Ruminal Fermentation, Nutrient Digestibility and Fibre Characteristics in Cashmere Goats

  • Zhang, Wei;Wang, Runlian;Zhu, Xiaoping;Kleemann, David O;Yue, Chungwang;Jia, Zhihai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1843-1848
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    • 2007
  • Thirty-six 1.5 year-old Inner Mongolian White Cashmere wether goats (body weight $28.14{\pm}1.33$ kg) were used to determine the effects of dietary copper (Cu) concentration on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and cashmere fibre characteristics. Wethers were fed a basal diet (containing 7.46 mg Cu/kg DM) that was supplemented with either 0 (control), 10, 20 or 30 mg Cu/kg DM. To ensure full consumption, animals were fed restrictedly with 0.75 kg feed (DM) in two equal allotments per day. The results indicated that: (1) supplemental 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the basal diet significantly (p<0.05) decreased ruminal fluid pH value and total VFA concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) increased on all Cu treatment groups. (2) Cu supplementation had no influence on DM intake and digestibility of DM, CP and ADF (p>0.05); however, NDF digestibility of groups supplemented with 10 and 20 mg Cu/kg DM were significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). Apparent absorption and retention of copper were decreased with increasing level of supplementation. (3) 20 mg Cu/kg DM treatment significantly (p<0.05) improved cashmere growth rate, but cashmere diameter was not affected by Cu supplementation (p>0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of cashmere goats with Cu at the rate of 10 to 20 mg/kg DM in the basal diet resulted in some changed rumen fermentation and was beneficial for NDF digestibility, while supplementation of 20 mg Cu/kg DM improved cashmere growth. Collectively, the optimal supplemental Cu level for cashmere goats during the fibre growing period was 20 mg/kg DM (a total dietary Cu level of 27.46 mg/kg DM).

Effects of photoperiod on nutrient digestibility, hair follicle activity and cashmere quality in Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats

  • Zhang, Chong Zhi;Sun, Hai Zhou;Li, Sheng Li;Sang, Dan;Zhang, Chun Hua;Jin, Lu;Antonini, Marco;Zhao, Cun Fa
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.541-547
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study investigated the effects of photoperiod on nutrient digestibility, hair follicle (HF) activity and cashmere quality in Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats. Methods: Twenty-four female (non-pregnant) Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats aged 1 to 1.5 years old with similar live weights (mean, $20.36{\pm}2.63kg$) were randomly allocated into two groups: a natural daily photoperiod group (NDPP group:10 to 16 h light, n = 12) and a short daily photoperiod group (SDPP group: 7 h light:17 h dark, n = 12). All the goats were housed in individual pens and fed the same diets from May 15 to October 15, 2015. The digestibility of crude protein (CP), dry matter (DM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were measured in different months, along with secondary hair follicle (SHF) activity, concentration of melatonin (MEL), and cashmere quality. Results: Although there was no significant difference in the live weights of goats between the SDPP and NDPP groups (p>0.05), the CP digestibility of goats in the SDPP group was significantly increased compared to the NDPP group in July, September, and October (p<0.05). For the DM and NDF digestibility of goats, a significant increase (p<0.05) was found during in September in the SDPP group. Furthermore, compared to the NDPP group, the SHF activity in July, the MEL concentration in July, and the cashmere fiber length and fiber weight in October were significantly increased in the SDPP group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The cashmere production of Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats was increased without obvious deleterious effects on the cashmere fibers in the SDPP group (metabolizable energy, 8.34 MJ/kg; CP, 11.16%; short daily photoperiod, 7 h light:17 h dark).

Insights into the genetic diversity of indigenous goats and their conservation priorities

  • Liu, Gang;Zhao, Qianjun;Lu, Jian;Sun, Feizhou;Han, Xu;Zhao, Junjin;Feng, Haiyong;Wang, Kejun;Liu, Chousheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.1501-1510
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    • 2019
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate genetic diversity of 26 Chinese indigenous goats by 30 microsatellite markers, and then to define conservation priorities to set up the protection programs according to the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic diversity. Methods: Twenty-six representative populations of Chinese indigenous goats, 1,351 total, were sampled from different geographic regions of China. Within-breed genetic diversity and marker polymorphism were estimated calculating the mean number of alleles, observed heterozygosities, expected heterozygosities, fixation index, effective number of alleles and allelic richness. Conservation priorities were analyzed by statistical methods. Results: A relatively high level of genetic diversity was found in twenty-four population; the exceptions were in the Daiyun and Fuqing goat populations. Within-breed kinship coefficient matrices identified seven highly inbred breeds which should be of concern. Of these, six breeds receive a negative contribution to heterozygosity when the method was based on proportional contribution to heterozygosity. Based on Weitzman or Piyasatian and Kinghorn methods, the breeds distant from others i.e. Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat, Chengdu Brown goat and Leizhou goat obtain a high ranking. Evidence from Caballero and Toro and Fabuel et al method prioritized Jining Gray goat, Liaoning Cashmere goat, and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat, which agree with results from Kinship-based methods. Conclusion: Conservation priorities were determined according to multiple methods. Our results suggest Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat (most methods), Jining Gray goat and Liaoning Cashmere goat (high contribution to heterozygosity and total diversity) should be prioritized based on most methods. Furthermore, Daiyun goat and Shannan White goat also should be prioritized based on consideration of effective population size. However, if one breed can continually survive under changing conditions, the straightforward approach would be to increase its utilization and attraction for production via mining breed germplasm characteristics.

Effect of Fungal Elimination on Bacteria and Protozoa Populations and Degradation of Straw Dry Matter in the Rumen of Sheep and Goats

  • Li, D.B.;Hou, X.Z.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.70-74
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    • 2007
  • An in vitro study was carried out to investigate the differences in rumen microbes and fiber degradation capacity between sheep and goats. Three local male sheep and three Inner Mongolia male cashmere goats (aged 1.5 to 2 years; weight 25.0 to 32.0 kg) were each fitted with a permanent rumen cannula used to provide rumen fluid. Cycloheximide was used to eliminate rumen anaerobic fungi. The results showed that the quantities of fungal zoospores in the culture fluid of the control group were significantly greater in the sheep than in the goats; however, bacteria and protozoa counts were significantly higher in goats than in sheep. The digestibility of straw dry matter did not differ significantly between the two species before elimination of fungi, but tended to be higher for sheep (55.4%) than for goats (53.3%). The results also indicated that bacteria counts increased significantly after elimination of anaerobic fungi; however, the digestibility of straw dry matter significantly decreased by 12.1% and 8.6% for sheep and goats respectively. This indicated that the anaerobic fungi of the rumen played an important role in degradation of fiber.

Seasonal Variations in Voluntary Intake and Apparent Digestibility of Forages in Goats Grazing on Introduced Leymus chinensis Pasture

  • Sun, Zewei;Wang, Zaisen;Zhong, Qingzhen;Zhou, Daowei
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.818-824
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    • 2014
  • The nutrient composition of pasture, voluntary intake and digestibility of diet ingested by goats grazing on an introduced Leymus chinensis pasture were measured across spring (May), summer (July), autumn (October) and winter (March). In each season, 12 Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats (6 wethers and 6 does with an average live weight of $22.2{\pm}1.3$ kg and $19.5{\pm}0.8$ kg, respectively) were used to graze on a 2 hectares size paddock. Diet selection was observed and the plant parts selected by grazing goats and whole plant L. chinensis were sampled simultaneously. The alkane pair $C_{32}:C_{33}$ and $C_{36}$ were used to estimate intake and digestibility, respectively. The results showed that the plant parts selected by goats had higher crude protein (CP) and lower acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than the whole plant, especially in the autumn and winter. The voluntary intake of dry matter (DM), CP, ADF, NDF, and metabolizable energy (ME) by goats was highest in summer (p<0.05). The goats ingested more CP, ME, and less ADF in spring than in autumn (p<0.05). The intakes of DM, CP, and ME were lowest in winter (p<0.05). There were significant differences in nutrient intake between wethers and does in each season, except for the ADF and ME intake per metabolic weight ($LW^{0.75}$). The nutrient digestibilities were higher in spring and summer, and decreased significantly during the autumn and winter (p<0.05). Goats, especially wethers, had a relative constant NDF digestibility across seasons, however, the apparent digestibility of CP in both wethers and does, decreased to negative values in winter. The grazing goats experienced relatively sufficient nutrients supply in spring and summer, and a severe deficiency of CP and ME in winter.