• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cattle by-product

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Effect of variation of Nitrogen Content by Cattle Feces on Aerobic Composting of Food Wastes (우분에 의한 질소함량의 변화가 음식물폐기물의 호기성 퇴비화에 미치는 영향)

  • 박석환;김종오
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.38-42
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    • 2000
  • This study was performed to define the effects of the cattle feces on aerobic composting of food wastes in vessel system. Weights of cattle feces added to food wastes of 3kg were 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50kg, respectively. Reactors were operated with stirring for 1 hour per day by 1rpm and aeration for 2 hours per day. When the weight of cattle feces was increased, the highest temperature of sample was increased, the duration period of higher temperature was elongated, and the fluctuatio of pH was severs. When the weight of cattle feces was decreased, the final density was increased. The more cattle feces were added, the more porosity was increased, C/N ratio, salinity and conductivity were decreased. There facts denotes that the addition of cattle feces increases the efficiency of composting process and the final product of composting, namely compost.

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Identification of Fel ursi and Cattle and Pig Bile Juices by speciesspecific PCR and PCR-RFLP (종 특이 PCR과 PCR-RFLP를 이용한 웅담과 기타 담류의 감별 방법)

  • Kwon, Ki-Rok;Baek, Seung-Il;Choi, Suk-Ho
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 2009
  • Objective : This study developed species-specific PCR and PCR-RFLP to detect the adulteration of Fel ursi products with cattle and pig bile juices. Methods : All the primers for PCR and PCR-RFLP in this study were designed based on nucleotide sequences of cytochrome b genes in the mitochondria. Results : The species-specific PCR amplified a DNA fragment of 214, 214, 295, and 167 bp from Fel ursi product, bear fur, cattle bile juice, and pig bile juice, respectively. The survey using the speciesspecific PCR indicated that some of commercial Fel ursi products were adulterated with cattle and pig bile juices. PCR-RFLP using the restriction endonucleases, HaeIII and HinfI enabled differentiation among Fel ursi product, cattle bile juice, and pig bile juice. Bear furs from two animals showed variations in PCR-RFLP patterns with HaeIII. Discussion : The detection methods of the species-specific PCR and PCR-RFLP could be useful in eliminating adulterated Fel ursi products from the market.

Effects of Various Additives for Spoilage Prevention on Brewers grain and Soymilk by-product (여러 가지 첨가제가 맥주박과 베지밀박의 부패방지에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, H.J.;Kim, H.S.;Jeon, B.S.;Kim, S.W.;Ki, K.S.;Cho, K.K.;Cho, J.S.;Lee, H.G.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.74-84
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was carried out to evaluate supplemental effects of various preservatives to preserve the Brewers grain and Soymilk from decay and degeneration. The NaCl, organic acid(Ca-propionate), microbial fermenter(H/MF inoculant), and methionine hydroxy analogue(MHA) were used as additives in order to compare preservability of brewers grain and soymilk by-product during 20 days at July to August. Most treatments were appeared rapid decay and degeneration as soften and covered with molds on surface from the early days of experiment. However, MHA treatments showed any change until 20 days of storage. In terms of pH and $NH_3-N$ contents, only MHA treatment showed a stable and low value. The other treatments including Control showed high values as time flowed or unstable states. In conclusion, when high moisture agricultural by-product was treated by over 5% of MHA, there was no significant physicochemical changes in long term preservation over 20 days at summer season.

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A survey for Pb, Cd and microbiological contamination from by-products of cattle in Incheon city (인천지역 소 부산물의 미생물 및 Pb, Cd 오염도 조사)

  • Nam, Ji-Hyeon;Joung, Yun-Joung;Yun, Ga-Ri;Hong, Seong-Hee;Ahn, Eun-Jung;Lee, Jung-Goo;Lee, Sung-Mo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal and microbiological hazards on by-products (liver, omasum, small intestines) of cattle. From April to October in 2011, one hundred and twenty samples were equally collected from slaughterhouse and meat by-product markets in Incheon city. The total bacteria counts and E. coli count were applied to assess the microbiological quality. Food borne bacteria including Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and E. coli O157:H7 were also determined. The results were obtained as follows: The undesirable grade (more than $10^5\;CFU/cm^2$) was detected in the by-product from 18.3% (slaughterhouse) and 23.3% (by-product markets). The frequency of generic E. coli (more than $10^2\;CFU/cm^2$) from the slaughterhouse was 20.0%, whereas that of the meat by-product markets was 26.7%. Of the samples from slaughterhouse, 3 (5.0%), 5 (8.3%), and 12 (20.0%) samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp, S. aureus, and C. perfringens, respectively. S. aureus and C. perfringens were also detected in 6 (10.0%) and 25 (41.7%) samples in the meat by-product markets, respectively. Nine of 11 S. aureus isolates harbored toxin gene. However, the cpe gene of C. perfringens was not detected among the 37 isolates. The detection rate was higher in August than in February, April and June. The levels of Cd and Pb in all the samples tended to be low (<0.2 mg/kg). This preliminary data could be used for legislation on the regulation and control of microorganism and heavy metal in by-products of cattle.

EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCT DIETS ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR TYPES OF CATTLE IN THE FEEDLOT

  • Dahlan, I.;Rahman-Haron, A.;Sukri, M.H.I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.455-459
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    • 1992
  • Five type of formulated diet from agricultural by-products (ABP) were fed to four breedtype of cattle in feedlot. The ABP used are palm kernel cake (PKC), palm press fibre (PPF), palm oil mill effluent (POME), cocoa pod (COP), coffee pulp (COF) and pineapple waste (PAP). The formulated diets are PS (52% PKC, 15% PPF and 30% POME), PF (57% PKC, 20% PPF and 20% POME), PA (2% PKC and 55% PAP), CO (42% PKC and 55% COP) and CF (67% PKC and 30% COF) with 1% urea, 1% NaCl and 1% vitamins premix. The cattle breedtypes are Kedah-Kelantan (KK), Brahman-KK (BK), Hereford-KK (HK) and Sahiwal-Friesian (SF). The result showed that breedtype significantly affect all the carcass characteristic except dressing percentage. Each breedtype has it's specific carcass characteristics. HK cattle gave high marbling, BK has high % of carcass bone, KK has high % of carcass meat and low % of carcass fat (lean meat type) and SF has high % of carcass fat. Diet-type significantly affect the deposition of fat in the carcass. High moisture diets (PA and CO) produced significantly higher % carcass bone, the lowest % carcass fat and the highest % carcass meat (65.3%). PF, CF, PA and CO diets produced 63.4%, 59.9%, 55.3% and 54.1% carcass meat respectively.

A Study on the Application of Natural Circulation -based Green Village Landscape Design-: The Case of Joongchon Village in Gimje-si (자원순환형 녹색마을 경관디자인 적용에 관한 연구 -김제시 중촌마을을 대상으로-)

  • Kim, Sang-Bum;Son, Ho-Gi;Lee, Chang-Hun;Rhee, Sang-Young
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.961-981
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    • 2011
  • This study selected Joongchon Village in Gimje-si as a target, in order to apply green village design regarding regional circumstances and features within the local government, in making green village as an efficient scheme in aspect of locality for 'Low Carbon, Green Growth'. Subsequently, we conducted survey and analysis. Natural circulation-based green village of Joongchon Village in Gimje-si is a low carbon green village, based upon eco-friendly cattle shed. Even though it is the fact that the initial costs of an eco-friendly cattle shed are rather high, it is the long-term low carbon green technology that can transform livestock night soils into resources, provide them to agricultural farms, independently supply energies from by-product, and produce energies additionally. Therefore, Joongchon Village in Gimje-si is the good example of green village, applying the design which actively utilizes discharged by-product from cattle shed, so natural circulation and energy production are able as an eco-friendly green technology.

Early Postmortem Processing Conditions on Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) Beef during Storage

  • Kim, B.C.;Rhee, M.S.;Ryu, Y.C.;Imm, J.Y.;Koh, K.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1763-1768
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    • 2001
  • The combined effects of low voltage electrical stimulation (ES) and early short-term temperature conditioning on meat quality of Hanwoo beef (Korean native cattle) during storage were investigated. Shear force was influenced by ES and aging. Combination of ES and the $30^{\circ}C$ conditioning resulted in higher myofibril fragmentation index and improved lightness. There was no substantial difference in drip loss among treatments but ES samples showed higher cooking loss than control. Negative effect on shelf-life was not found by early short-term high temperature conditioning. Therefore, the meat quality of Korean native cattle was effectively improved by the combination of ES and the $30^{\circ}C$ conditioning.

Association of SNP Marker in the Leptin Gene with Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Cattle

  • Shin, S.C.;Chung, E.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2007
  • Leptin is the hormone product of the obese gene and is synthesized and secreted predominantly by white adipocytes and relates to the feedback system that regulates long-term body fat weight and composition. Therefore, the leptin gene could be an excellent candidate gene controlling fat deposition, carcass traits and meat quality in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of 3 SNPs (A1127T and C1180T in exon 2 and C3100T in exon 3) in the bovine leptin gene with carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle. The C1180T SNP was associated with backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) (p<0.05). Animals with the genotype CC had higher BF than animals with TT genotype and higher MS compared with CT and TT genotypes. No significant associations were observed between the C3100T SNP and any carcass and meat quality traits analyzed. The effect of the A1127T SNP was not analyzed because the TT genotype was not detected and the AT genotype showed only 1.0% frequency. These results suggest that the C1180T SNP of the leptin gene may be useful as a genetic marker for carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle.

Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Leptin Gene in Hanwoo(Korean Cattle) (한우 Leptin 유전자의 단일 염기 다형성 분석)

  • Lee, J.-Min;Song, G.C.;Lee, J.Y.;Kim, Young-Bong
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.295-302
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    • 2007
  • Leptin, the product of the obese(ob) gene, is an adipocyte-derived hormone for the regulation of whole- body energy storage and energy usage. It has been reported that the homozygous mutations in the gene for leptin(LEP) induce obesity and reduce energy expenditure. In cattle, LEP has significant roles directly or indirectly related with phenotypes such as body weight and fat deposits, therefore SNPs of LEP have been considered important genetic marker to estimate carcass fat content in cattle. In this study, SNPs were screened in LEP(2,222 bp) between intron 1 to 3'-UTR from 24 independent Hanwoo(Korean cattle) by PCR and DNA sequencing. Total 25 SNPs were found and two nonsynonymous SNPs including T1163A(V19E) and G3256A(G132D) were newly detected only from Hanwoo. Among 20 SNPs previously reported in cattle, 16 SNPs were found in Hanwoo; however, the frequencies of some SNPs were significantly different between Hanwoo and western cattle breeds. The other 4 SNPs were not detected from Hanwoo. These Hanwoo specific SNP patterns in LEP will be used in development of molecular marker and application to genetic improvement of Hanwoo.

Characterization of MHC DRB3.2 Alleles of Crossbred Cattle by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

  • Paswan, Chandan;Bhushan, Bharat;Patra, B.N.;Kumar, Pushpendra;Sharma, Arjava;Dandapat, S.;Tomar, A.K.S.;Dutt, Triveni
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.1226-1230
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    • 2005
  • The present investigation was undertaken to study the genetic polymorphism of the DRB3 exon 2 in 75 crossbred cattle by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Five genotypes i.e. HaeIII-a, HaeIII-b, HaeIII-e, HaeIII-ab and HaeIII-ae were observed when the 284 bp PCR products were digested with HaeIII restriction enzyme. The corresponding frequencies of these patterns were 0.53, 0.04, 0.01, 0.38 and 0.04, respectively. Digestion with RsaI restriction enzyme resolved 24 different restriction patterns. The frequencies of these patterns ranged from 0.013 (RsaI-f, RsaI-k and RsaI-c/n) to 0.120 (RsaI-n). The results revealed that the crossbred cows belonged to the RsaI patterns namely b, k, l, a/l, d/s, l/n, l/o and m/n, whose corresponding frequencies were 0.027, 0.013, 0.040, 0.027, 0.040, 0.067, 0.027 and 0.067, respectively. Digestion of the 284 bp PCR product of DRB3.2 gene with PstI in the crossbred cattle did not reveal any restriction site. These results suggested the absence of the recognition site in some of the animals. These results also revealed that the crossbred cows studied were in homozygous as well as heterozygous condition. On the basis of the above results it can be concluded that the DRB3.2 gene was found to be highly polymorphic in the crossbred cattle population.