• Title, Summary, Keyword: Channel Types

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Numerical analysis of channel connectors under fire and a comparison of performance with different types of shear connectors subjected to fire

  • Shahabi, S.E.M.;Ramli Sulong, N.H.;Shariati, M.;Mohammadhassani, M.;Shah, S.N.R.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.651-669
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    • 2016
  • The behavior of shear connectors plays a significant role in maintaining the required strength of a composite beam in normal and hazardous conditions. Various types of shear connectors are available and being utilized in the construction industry according to their use. Channel connectors are a suitable replacement for conventional shear connectors. These connectors have been tested under different types of loading at ambient temperature; however, the behavior of these connectors at elevated temperatures has not been studied. This investigation proposes a numerical analysis approach to estimate the behavior of channel connectors under fire and compare it with the numerical analysis performed in headed stud and Perfobond shear connectors subjected to fire. This paper first reviews the mechanism of various types of shear connectors and then proposes a non-linear thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model of channel shear connectors embedded in high-strength concrete (HSC) subjected to fire. Initially, an accurate nonlinear FE model of the specimens tested at ambient temperature was developed to investigate the strength of the channel-type connectors embedded in an HSC slab. The outcomes were verified with the experimental study performed on the testing of channel connectors at ambient temperature by Shariati et al. (2012). The FE model at ambient temperature was extended to identify the behavior of channel connectors subjected to fire. A comparative study is performed to evaluate the performance of channel connectors against headed stud and Perfobond shear connectors. The channel connectors were found to be a more economical and easy-to-apply alternative to conventional shear connectors.

Transmit Antenna Selection for Dual Polarized Channel Using Singular Value Decision

  • Lee Sang-yub;Mun Cheol;Yook Jong-gwan
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.30 no.9A
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    • pp.788-794
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, we focus on the potential of dual polarized antennas in mobile system. thus, this paper designs exact dual polarized channel with Spatial Channel Model (SCM) and investigates the performance for certain environment. Using proposed the channel model; we know estimates of the channel capacity as a function of cross polarization discrimination (XPD) and spatial fading correlation. It is important that the MIMO channel matrix consists of Kronecker product dividable spatial and polarized channel. Through the channel characteristics, we propose an algorithm for the adaptation of transmit antenna configuration to time varying propagation environments. The optimal active transmit antenna subset is determined with equal power allocated to the active transmit antennas, assuming no feedback information on types of the selected antennas. We first consider a heuristic decision strategy in which the optimal active transmit antenna subset and its system capacity are determined such that the transmission data rate is maximized among all possible types. This paper then proposes singular values decision procedure consisting of Kronecker product with spatial and polarize channel. This method of singular value decision, which the first channel environments is determined using singular values of spatial channel part which is made of environment parameters and distance between antennas. level of correlation. Then we will select antenna which have various polarization type. After spatial channel structure is decided, we contact polarization types which have considerable cases It is note that the proposed algorithms and analysis of dual polarized channel using SCM (Spatial Channel Model) optimize channel capacity and reduce the number of transmit antenna selection compare to heuristic method which has considerable 100 cases.

Service Failure, Service Recovery Activity and Satisfaction with Online Shopping Channel of Apparel Products (온라인 의류쇼핑에서 서비스 실패 경험 후 쇼핑채널의 회복노력에 따른 채널만족도)

  • Kang, Eun Jung;Lee, Kyu-Hye
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.115-125
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    • 2013
  • Unexpected consumer dissatisfaction emerges through rapid growth and expansion of on-line shopping channel. This research focused on the fashion online retail channels' negative aspect caused by service failure which possibly disappointed consumers. We also tried to seek for appropriate service recovery types based on frequently offered recovery types on-line. Data from college students were analyzed. Results indicate that fitting problem, insufficient information, product defect, inventory problem and slow delivery were the main service failure types in apparel e-shopping. Regression analysis identified that among these types, insufficient information, product defect, and slow delivery had significant influence on channel satisfaction after post recovery effort. Results also confirmed significant relationships between channel satisfaction and channel switching. Consumers perceived benefit level causes overall channel satisfaction level to rise while perceived risk leads to lower level of channel satisfaction. Choosing desirable service recovery activities in each service failure situations is necessary in order to raise consumer's channel satisfaction in online apparel shopping.

The Effects of Word-of-Mouth Channel Types on Product Attitude (구전정보 채널유형이 소비자 제품태도에 미치는 영향)

  • Yu, Jiaohui;Park, Yoonseo;Kim, Yongsik
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.707-723
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to focus on the effects of different channel types of Word-of-Mouth on the product attitude. Additionally, the product involvement and gender are considered as moderating variables. The results of this study show that different word-of-mouth channel types have different effects on the product attitude, that is, off-line has more influence than on-line does. Also the product involvement moderates the relationship between the channel types of word-of-mouth and the product attitude, while the gender does not. The results imply that while building the word-of-mouth marketing strategy, companies should not only pay attention to the on-line media channel, but lay importance on the off-line communication channel.

Improvement and Performance Evaluation of the Traffic Channel Management of the Radio Network Controller in IMT-2000 Network (IMT-2000 망에서 제어국의 트래픽 채널 관리 방식의 개선 및 성능 평가)

  • Ryu, Byung-Han;Ahn, Jee-Hwan;Baek, Jang-Hyun
    • IE interfaces
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.311-321
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    • 2003
  • We propose the improved channel assignment and management methods for an efficient use of traffic channel resource for supporting 12.2 Kbps, 64 Kbps, and 384 Kbps traffic with the different quality of service(QoS) in the radio network controller(RNC) in asynchronous IMT-2000 system. We consider two types of traffic channel block assignments for utilizing the traffic channel efficiently; the Completely Shared(CS) channel assignment and the Partially Dedicated and Partially Shared(PDPS) channel assignment. The former is that all traffic channel blocks are completely shared with all traffic types. The latter is that some traffic channel block is independently assigned to each traffic type and the other blocks are completely shared with some traffic type. We also propose the traffic channel management method which consists of the block and task management step, for efficiently assigning, releasing, and managing the channel resource. Finally, we evaluate the performance through various numerical examples when applying our proposed channel block assignment and resource management methods.

제조업 유통경로관리 특성과 개선방향

  • 박윤재
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.65-81
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    • 1996
  • Despite the impressive economic growth over the past several decades, Korea's distribution sector has remained quite underdeveloped. Until recently, management of the marketing channels also has been staying at an unsophisticated level. The Korean marketing channel system is largely characterized by 1) undifferentiated channel types among the competing manufacturers, 2) dominance by the manufacturers over the other channel members, 3) high level of conflicts among the channel members, 4) inefficient marketing information system, and 5) lack of managers properly trained in channel operation and management. Currently, major change factors emerged and has begun to directly affect the Korean marketing channel system. The most salient changes surrounding the Korean marketing channel system are 1) complete opening of the marketing channels for the foreigners, 2) emergence and spread of new types of channels 3) adoption of advanced information technology by the various channel members, 4) increase in flexibility in production and supply systems, 5) shift of power toward the retailers away from the manufacturers, 6) growing trend for cooperation and alliance among the traditional marketing institutions. To these changes the manufacturers have been reacting, rather than proacting, mostly using defensive measures. The proactive measures that are recommended on behalf of the manufacturers include 1) installation of the strategic channel management system, 2) development of the skills for efficient interorganization management, 3) investing in efficient system for marketing information and logistics management, 4) more efficient management of brands, and 5) maintenance of price-competitiveness.

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Efficient Dynamic Channel Assignment Scheme for Cellular Mobile Systems (이동통신시스템의 성능 개선을 위한 동적채널할당체계)

  • Chang, Kun-Nyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.173-182
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    • 1997
  • In this paper, an efficient dynamic channel assignment scheme is suggested, which consists of two types of channel allocation strategies : ordinary channel allocation strategy and channel reallocation strategy. An analysis on the handoff probabilities of handoff and new calls is also performed, and using the analyzed handoff probability, the presented scheme is compared with other existing schemes in terms of three types of blocking probabilities- new call blocking probability, handoff call blocking probability, and network blocking probability (incomplete service probability). Simulation results show that the presented scheme significantly reduces those blocking probabilities over the existing schemes. Furthermore, the scheme has much smaller number of reallocation than other schemes.

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Impact Analysis of Different Form on Drainability at River Confluence Area (하천합류부 구조에 따른 배수능력 해석)

  • An, ShanFu;Chen, Guoxin;Chun, Do-Seok;Jee, Hong-Kee
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.624-627
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    • 2007
  • There are many channel confluences existing in natural river systems, where the hydraulics are very complex because of the interactive between tributary and main river The RMA-2 model Is applied in this paper to model the confluence between Uksu Chun subriver and Nam Chun main river. Based on three types of assumed confluence forms, the model resuits present the hydraulics at channel confluence can be divided into several zones including a zone of separation immediately downstream of the junction branch channel, a maximum and minimum velocity region at upstream and downstream in the confluent channel, and a shear plane developed between the two combing flows at downstream of confluent channel. And the different types of confluent forms performs a very high effect on drainability of tributary, so it is very necessary to design a reasonable confluent forms.

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Evaluation of Cooling Capability of Hot Press Forming Die with Thermal CFD Simulation (열유동 해석을 통한 핫프레스 포밍 금형의 냉각 성능 평가)

  • Lee, K.;Lee, J.J.;Suh, C.H.
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.242-247
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    • 2016
  • CFD simulation with FlowVision® is used to evaluate the capability of cooling channel in hot press forming dies. Two different types of cooling channels, dry drilled and pocket types are considered for comparison. Two different approaches for simulating cooling channel are considered. One is single-phase velocity calculation for coolant only and the other is multiphase thermal and velocity calculation for die, blank and coolant all together. Both approaches show better cooling performance in pocket type cooling channel. Also both approaches show their own effectiveness in designing cooling channel of hot press forming dies.

Identification of Three Types of Voltage Dependent $Ca^{2+}$-Channels in Mouse Follicular Oocytes

  • Bae, In-Ha;Yoon, Sook-Young;Yoon, Yong-Dal;Kim, Moon-Kyoo;Kim, Hae-Kwon
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 1999
  • The immunocytochemical method was used to identify the existence of voltage-dependent $Ca^{2+}$-channels in mouse follicular oocytes. Three types of voltage-dependent $Ca^{2+}$-channels were shown to exist in the follicular oocytes for the first time, the P/Q-type $Ca^{2+}$-channel, the N-type $Ca^{2+}$-channel, and the L-type $Ca^{2+}$-channel. Among proven $Ca^{2+}$-channels distributions of the P/Q-type $Ca^{2+}$-channel and L-type $Ca^{2+}$-channel showed localized staining (clustered pattern) on the oolemma. The distribution of the P/Q-type $Ca^{2+}$-channel showed all localized staining, and the range of localized staining was from 1 to 8 in staining intensity. As the staining intensity increased from 1 to 8, the number of localized staining decreased. The L-type $Ca^{2+}$-channel are homogeneously stained (29.4%-54.2%), while some of them (around 28.7%-44.1%) showed localized staining on the oolemma. However, the rest of them showed no staining at all (17.1%- 26.5%). On the contrary, the N-type $Ca^{2+}$-channel showed mostly homogeneous staining, while nonstaining oocytes were around 33.8%. The rest showed localized staining (10%). However, staining intensity was much weaker than those of the P/Q-type and L-type $Ca^{2+}$-channel. In fact, the N-type $Ca^{2+}$-channel has been known to exist only in neurons (from ectoderm origin), but it is unknown how the N-type $Ca^{2+}$-channel exists in the follicular oocytes (from mesoderm origin). Further studies are needed to examine the expression of $Ca^{2+}$-channels during the developmental stages of the oocytes.

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