• Title, Summary, Keyword: Character

Search Result 7,606, Processing Time 0.072 seconds

A Study on the Utilization and Symbolizes of the Joseon Dynasty Flowering Plant (조선시대 화훼식물의 이용과 상징성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seung-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.32 no.2
    • /
    • pp.134-147
    • /
    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is, focusing on the ancient paintings and literatures, by examining Flowering Plants and drawing their cultivating methods, to provide a ground of utilizing them on the modern landscaping. In the scope and method of this study, 766 pieces of ancient paintings(6 garden paintings and 760 folk paintings) which were available and had value as literatures, and 8 of ancient literatures were intensively examined. Main results extracted from them are as follows. First, the most frequently used Flowering Plants in Joseon Dynasty were Prunus mume, pbyllostachys, Nelumbo nucifera, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Musa basjoo, Rosa spp., Rhododendron mucronulatum, Paeonia lactiflora, which appeared 11 times to 16 times in total. Next frequently(4 times to 8 times) used Flowering Plants were Gardenia jasminoides, Punica granatum(8 times), Dianthus chinensis, Vitis vinifera(7 times), Orchidaceae, Syringa velutina, Impatiens balsamina, Hemerocallis fulva, Celosia cristata, Hibiscus Syriacus, Rhododendron indicum(6 times), Rhododendron, Rhododendron obutusum, Acorus calamus, Althaea rosea, Kerria japonica, Citrus junos(5 times), Hibiscus mutabilis, Lychnis cognata, Calendula officnalis, Begonia rex., Helianthus annuus, Papaver spp., Narcissus tazetta, Daphne odora, Hosta plantaginea(4 times). Second, usage of the Flowering Plants in Joseon Dynasty can be divided into character building and horticulture for pleasure through positive, scientific approach attempt. It suggests that there might have been classes in the use of them and we can estimate which plants were particularly preferred. Third, in the symbolicity of the usage of Flowering Plants, it can be divided into three parts: The case of representing integrity, gentleman, honesty and nobility and the thought of loyalty and filial piety under the influence of Confucianism. The case of representing Taoism's thought of hermit and perennial youth and long life. The case of representing wish on wealth and prosperity. So if we make a good use of it, we may draw a meaning of cultivation of Flowering Plants from it. This is your target audience or the good luck to all he plants is aimed at, you can see the occurred. Fourth, the Joseon Dynasty was the use of flowering plants are the line of rain wanted to be more consistent with the spirit world. This is shown as a symbol of their ancestors. Joseon Dynasty was used, resulting in a kind of flowering plant and is not a subjective judgement criteria A psychological approach to the side when interpreting the Joseon Dynasty flowering plants to take advantage of the landscape of the area will widen in scope.

Inorganic-organic nano-hybrid; Preparation of Nano-sized TiO$_2$ Paste Trapped OMC Nano-emulsion and it's Application for Cosmetics (OMC Nano-emulsion을 포집하고 있는 Nano-TiO$_2$-Paste의 합성과 화장품의 응용)

  • Byung Gyu, Park;Jong Heon, Kim;Jin Hee, Im;Kyoung Chul, Lee
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.181-187
    • /
    • 2004
  • Preparations of mesoporous materials using various templates and their applicability have been intensively investigated for many years. We studied on synthesizing mesoporous Ti02 with pores in which sensitive compounds having weak physico-chemical properties such as thermal or UV irradiation and low solubility in solvent are trapped. Prior to trapping OMC in the pores of mesoporous titania, OMC was nano-emulsified in O/W system using Lecithin. Thereafter the OMC was trapped in the pores of mesoporous titania using sol-gel method. Main focus of this work is to prepare OMC-trapped mesoporous titania and to trace the stability and solubility of nano-emulsified OMC in the pores of mesoporous titania, and compared with that of mesoporous silica. OMC-trapped mesoporous Inorganic-Organic hybrid titania showed higher factors in sun protecting and a skin penetration phenomenon was reduced.

Protection of UV-derived Skin Cell Damage and Anti-irritation Effect of Juniperus chinensis Xylem Extract (향나무추출물의 광손상으로부터 피부세포 보호와 자극완화 효과에 대한 연구)

  • 김진화;박성민;심관섭;이범천;표형배
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
    • /
    • v.30 no.1
    • /
    • pp.63-71
    • /
    • 2004
  • The human skin is constantly exposed to environmental irritants such as ultraviolet, smoke, chemicals. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by these environmental facts play critical roles in cellular damage. These irritants are in themselves damaging to the skin structure but they also participate the immensely complex inflammatory reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the skin cell protective effect of Juniperus chinensis xylem extract on the UV and SLS-induced skin cell damages. We tested free radical and superoxide scavenging effect in vitro. We found that Juniperus chinensis xylem extracts had potent radical scavenging effect by 98% at 100 $\mu\textrm{g}$/mL. Fluorometric assays of the proteolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase-l(MMP-1, collagenase) were performed using fluorescent collagen substrates. UV A induced MMP-1 synthesis and activity were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gelatin-based zymography in skin fibroblasts. The extract of Juniperus chinensis showed strong inhibitory effect on MMP-1 activities by 97% at 100 $\mu\textrm{g}$/mL and suppressed the UVA induced expression of MMP-1 by 79% at 25 $\mu\textrm{g}$/mL. This extract also showed strong inhibition on MMP-2 activity in UVA irradiated fibroblast by zymography. We also examined anti-inflammatory effects by the determination test of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin 6 in HaCaT keratinocytes. In this test Juniperus chinensis decreased expression of interleukin 6 about 30%. Expression of prostaglandin E$_2$, (PGE$_2$) after UVB irradiation was measured by competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using PGE$_2$ monoclonal antibody. At the concentrations of 5-50 $\mu\textrm{g}$/mL of the extracts, the production of PGE$_2$ by HaCaT keratinocytes (24 hours after 10 mJ/$\textrm{cm}^2$ UVB irradiation) was significantly inhibited in culture supernatants (p〈0.05). The viability of cultured HaCaT keratinocytes was significantly reduced at the doses of above 10 mJ/$\textrm{cm}^2$ of UVB irradiation, but the presence of these extracts improved cell viability comparing to control after UVB irradiation. We also investigated the protective effect of this extract in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritant skin reactions from 24 hour exposure. Twice a day application of the extract for reducing local inflammation in human skin was done. Irritant reactions were assessed by various aspects of skin condition, that is, erythema (skin color reflectance) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). After 5 days the extract was found to reduce SLS-induced skin erythema and improve barrier regeneration when compared to untreated symmetrical test site. In conclusion, our results suggest that Juniperus chinensis can be effectively used for the prevention of UV and SLS-induced adverse skin reactions such as radical production, inflammation and skin cell damage.

Water Purification by Inorganic Ion Absorption Character of Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) (물상추의 무기이온 흡수 특성을 이용한 수질정화)

  • Lee, Sung Chun;Lee, Jeong Sik
    • FLOWER RESEARCH JOURNAL
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of water quality remediation and the inorganic ion removal characteristics by floating plant; water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) in a batch reactor. Water lettuce can be used to remove N and P and other inorganic nutrients, by consuming them in the form of plant nutrient. The highest nutrient absorption of water lettuce was $112.5meL^{-1}\;N$ in Sonneveld-2S, $56.6meL^{-1}\;N$ in Sonneveld-1S, $31.8meL^{-1}\;N$ in sewage and P value was also the highest in Sonneveld-2S as $15.6meL^{-1}$ and in sewage as $5.0meL^{-1}$. These results indicated that using water lettuce held some promise in the context of purification of eutrophication. Also water lettuce had a preference for absorption N. Under Sonneveld-2S treatment, nitrogen percentage was the highest in plant tissue due to the highest concentration of nitrogen and removal by water lettuce. Under sewage, percentage of total N in both plant parts was high. Both above and underground parts, P percentage was less than N. It might be due to the fact that the absorption amount of P was less than N by water lettuce. It meaned that the ability of N removal by water lettuce was higher than that of P, relatively. In summary, these results show that the use of this plant was a viable option.

Effect of Starvation on Some Parameters in Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (Sauvage and Dabry): A Review (버들치, Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (Sauvage and Dabry) 기아시 일부형질에서의 효과: 개관)

  • Park In-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
    • /
    • v.22 no.3
    • /
    • pp.351-368
    • /
    • 2004
  • Following the previous experiments, a starvation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of feeding and starvation on the histological and biochemical changes, the morphormetric changes in the sectioned body and the morphometric changes in Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (Sauvage and Dabry). The influence of starvation on nutritional conditions of the histological changes of hepatocyte and intestinal epithelium as hepatosmatic index (HSI), protein, RNA and DNA concentrations of liver in R. oxycephalus was tested. Although the starved group showed higher concentrations of protein, DNA and RNA than the fed group, food deprivation resulted in a decrease in the HSI, hepatocyte nucleus size and nuclear height of the intestinal epithelium. The RNA - DNA ratio appears to be a useful index of nutritional status in R. oxycephalus and may be useful for determining if R. oxycephalus is in a period of rapid or slow growth at the time of sampling. Additionally, the data have been interpreted in detail and some biologically important relationships discussed. The effects of starvation on the morphometrical changes in sectioned body traits, condition factor, viscera index and dressing percentage were determined for evaluating nutritional conditions of R. oxycephalus. Starvation for nine weeks resulted in a decrease in most sectioned traits as well as in condition factor and viscera index (P<0.05). These findings suggest that nutritional parameters used in this study appear to be a useful index for nutritional status in this species. The data has been interpreted in detail and some important body sectioned values of interest to commercial growers discussed. A 75-day study was conducted to determine the effect of starvation on classical and truss parameters in R. oxycephalus. Truss dimensions of almost the entire head and trunk region as well as the abdomen were increased significantly through feeding or starvation (P<0.05). Truss dimensions of the caudal region generally decreased through feeding or starvation, particularly those dimensions at the hind part of the trunk. There were some significant decreases in classical dimensions of the head region during feeding, in relation to body depth characteristics in the trunk and caudal region during starvation, whereas there was only one decreasing classical dimension in the caudal region during feeding. The results of this study indicate that application of the truss network as a character set enforces classical coverage across the body form, discrimination among experimental groups thus being enhanced. Considering that the dimension of the lower part of the head and some truss and classical dimensions were least affected by feeding and starvation, these dimensions may then be useful as a taxonomical indicator to discriminate the species of Rhynchocypris sp. The value of trunk region dimensions with a large component of body depth in R. oxycephalus is most likely to be compromised by variability related to differences in feeding regimes of fish in different habitats.

Evaluation of Nutritional Health Camp in Obese Elementary Students (일부 비만 초등학생을 위한 건강영양캠프의 효과 평가)

  • Jun, Ye-Sook;Lee, Ji-Eun;Lee, Yong-Sook;Bae, Yun-Jung;Kim, Mi-Hyun;Lee, Yoon-Shin;Kim, Ae-Jung;Sung, Chung-Ja;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.79-87
    • /
    • 2007
  • An evaluation of the influence of nutritional health camp for in obese elementary students was assessed. Anthropometric measurement, 24-hour recall of dietary intake, MMTIC(Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children) and questionnaire response(nutritional knowledge, nutritional attitude, and self-satisfaction) was documented in 43 obese elementary students(29 boys and 14 girls). The mean age of the elementary students was 11.2 years. The mean height, body weight and obesity index was 144.7 cm, 55.4 kg and 41.0% in boys, and 136.1 cm, 45.2 kg, 40.0% in girls. The mean energy intake was 1,522.4 kcal in boys and 1,494.9 kcal in girls. The subjects taking less than estimated average requirement(EAR) for vitamin ${B_2}$, folate, vitamin C and calcium was over 70%. A considerable number of students(65.1%) showed U band(undetermined character). The students demonstrated a propensity towards increased average nutritional knowledge and self-satisfaction after attending the nutritional health camp. In addition, a significant increase in average nutritional attitude was observed(p<0.001). The results of this study suggest that nutritional health camp positively influenced the nutritional attitude of elementary students.

'Nokyang', Whole Crop Forage Barley Cultivar with the Stay-Green Character, Resistance to Viral Disease and High-Yielding (내병 다수 후기녹체성 청보리 신품종 '녹양')

  • Park, Tae-Il;Oh, Young-Jin;Park, Hyoung-Ho;Park, Jong-Chul;Cho, Sang-Kyun;Noh, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Dae-Wook;Song, Tae-Hwa;Chae, Hyun-Seok;Jeung, Jae-Hyun;Hong, Ki-Heung;Bae, Jeong-Suk;Huh, Jae-Young;Ku, Ja-Hwan;Park, Ki-Hun;Han, Ouk-Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.35 no.1
    • /
    • pp.57-62
    • /
    • 2015
  • "Nokyang" (Hordeum vulgare L.), a new whole-crop silage barley cultivar, was developed by the breeding team at the Department of Rice and Winter Cereal Crop, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA, Korea in 2012. It was derived from combining "Nagyoung" and breeding line "SB77368-B-145". Among the combinations made in 2001, a promising line, "SB01T2017", showed good characteristics in terms of potential forage yield in the yield trial at Iksan from 2007 to 2009. In 2009, the promising line was designated as "Iksan457" and placed in regional yield trials at six locations around Korea for three years from 2010 to 2012, and was released under the name of "Nokyang." It has the growth habit of a group III creeping plant type, with a light-green leaf and common spike. Its average heading and maturing dates were on May 6 and June 4, respectively, which were later than cultivar "Youngyang." "Nokyang" also showed strong winter hardiness, and a resistance to shattering and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) similar to those of the check cultivar. The best thing among the traits of one is a new good quality with the plant green at the latter growing period. The average forage dry matter (DM) yields in the regional yield trial were about 12.8 and 11.5 MT $ha^{-1}$ in upland and paddy field, respectively, which were higher than those of the check cultivar, by 7% and 2%, respectively. This cultivar would be suitable for an area of the Korean peninsula where the daily minimum temperature in January is above $-8^{\circ}C$.

The Effects of Salt Levels and Drying Period on Physicochemical and Sensory Parameters of Dry-cured Ham Ripened in Controlled Condition (소금과 건조기간이 발효실에서 제조된 건염햄의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Seong, Pil-Nam;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Kang, Geun-Ho;Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Park, Beom-Young;Jeong, Da-Woon;Kim, Byeong-Kyeong;Jung, Jae-Hong;Jeong, Seok-Geun;Kim, Dong-Hoon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
    • /
    • v.31 no.6
    • /
    • pp.914-920
    • /
    • 2011
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of salt and drying period on the physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry-cured ham ripened in a controlled condition. In this study, three treatments were performed: High salt group (HS), salted with 7 g $kg^{-1}salt$ (w/w); Middle salt group (MS), 5 g $kg^{-1}salt$ and; Low salt group (LS), 3 g $kg^{-1}salt$. Three conditions of drying period were applied including 180, 270 and 360 d at $19^{\circ}C$ and 65% relative humidity, and the physicochemical character and sensory properties of M. biceps femoris were investigated. pH and water activity were decreased with increasing drying period, and the pH of LS was higher than that of other treatments (p<0.05). When increasing the drying period, the hardness of HS was steadily raised for 360 d, whereas LS and MS hardened between 180 and 270 d (p<0.05), and there was no significant difference after 270 d. Cohesiveness, glumness and chewiness had a positive relationship with the drying period. Also, springiness, glumness and chewiness showed a positive relationship with salt level. Chroma and hue value were improved by increasing the salt level. As the drying period increased, the rate of hardness and flavor intensity was increased. In general, this research can be used as essential information for the mass production of dry cured ham.

A Comparative Study on the Removals of 1-Naphthol by Natural Manganese Oxides and Birnessite (천연망간산화물과 버네사이트에 의한 1-Naphthol의 제거 특성 비교)

  • Lee, Doo-Hee;Harn, Yoon-I;Kang, Ki-Hoon;Shin, Hyun-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.31 no.4
    • /
    • pp.278-286
    • /
    • 2009
  • In this study, four natural Mn oxides ($NMO_1-NMO_4$) was characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and their removal efficiency for 1-naphthol (1-NP) in aqueous phase, using batch reactor, was investigated. The results were compared with one another and a synthetic manganese oxide, birnessite. The NMOs have a various Mn minerals including pyrolusite (${\beta}-MnO_2$), cryptomeltane (${\alpha}-MnO_2$) as well as birnessite (${\delta}-MnO_2$) depending on their sources, which results in different removal efficiencies (removals, kinetics) and reaction types (sorption or oxidative-transformation). The comparative study showed that $NMO_1$ (electrolytic Mn oxide) have a higher removal efficiency for 1-NP via oxidative-transformation compared to birnessite. The 1-NP removals by NMOs were followed by pseudo-first order reaction, and the surface area-normalized specific rate constants ($K_{surf},\;L/m^2$ min) determined were in order of $NMO_1(3.31{\times}10^{-3})$>${\delta}-MnO_2(1.48{\times}10^{-3}){\fallingdotseq}NMO_3(1.46{\times}10^{-3})$>$NMO_2(0.83{\times}10^{-3})$>$NMO_4(0.67{\times}10^{-3})$. From the solvent extraction experiments with the Mn oxide precipitates after reaction, it was observed that the oxidative-transformation rates of 1-NP were in order of $NMO_1{\fallingdotseq}{\delta}-MnO_2$>$NMO_3$>$NMO_4{\gg}NMO_2$ and the analysis of HPLC chromatogram and UV-Vis. absorption ratios ($A_{2/4}$, $A_{2/6}$) on the supernatant confirmed that the reaction products were oligomers formed by oxidative-coupling reaction. Results from this study proved that natural Mn oxide (except $NMO_2$) used in this experiment can be effectively applied for the removal of naphthols in aqueous phase, and the removal efficiencies are depending on the surface characters of the Mn oxides.

Quality Evaluation of Domestic and Foreign Extruded Pellets and Moist Pellet Based on Biochemical Analyses for Juvenile Olive Flounder, Parazichthys Olivaceus (시판용 넙치(치어)사료의 성분 비교분석을 통한 품질평가)

  • 최세민;한경민;왕소길;이승형;배승철
    • Journal of Aquaculture
    • /
    • v.17 no.2
    • /
    • pp.144-150
    • /
    • 2004
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the parameters such as nutrient requirements, POY, AnV, Totox, VBN, total plate count, dietary fatty acids and amino acids composition, that are not included in the registered standard composition items required by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, of a moist pellet (MP), three domestic extruded pellets (DEP-1, DEP-2, DEP-3), and two foreign extruded pellets (FEP-1, FEP-2) that are utilized by domestic flounder farms at present. The crude protein was added in excess of the dietary protein requirement in 6 kinds of feeds. When considering the proper PH ratio, it is obvious that protein was added in excess, especially in MP and FEP-2. Crude fat was also added in excess, especially in FEP-1. MP contained a higher dietary phosphorus content than formulated feeds, surpassing the dietary phosphorus requirement and greatly increasing the possibility for causing water pollution. The oxidation of fatty acid and decomposition of protein in MP were higher than in formulated feeds, and may also cause problems on fish farms. Also, it is difficult to store and manage MP, Among the fatty acids, EPA and DHA contents in MP were higher than those in formulated feeds. It is necessary to conduct further studies of EPA and DHA contents in formulated feeds. Lysine content in MP and FEP-2 could meet the dietary lysine requirement of flounder, however, the possibility of insufficient lysine content in the other formulated feeds was high and we considered that extra supplementation was necessary. Therefore, it is necessary to set up quality control standards according to fish species and sizes while considering the specific character of aquatic formulated feeds to restore the confidence of feed companies and aquaculturists to these feeds. This may be an opportunity to make an earlier change from MP to formulated feeds.