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『황제내경소문(黃帝內經素問)·칠편대론(七篇大論)』 왕빙 주본(注本)을 통(通)한 운기학설(運氣學說) 관(關)한 연구(硏究)

  • Kim, Gi-Uk;Park, Hyeon-Guk
    • The Journal of Dong Guk Oriental Medicine
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    • v.4
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    • pp.109-140
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    • 1995
  • As we considered in the main subjects, investigations on the theory of 'Doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣學說)' through 'Wang Bing's Commentary(王氷 注本)' of 'The seven great chapters in The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic Su Wen' ("黃帝內經素問 七篇大論") are as follows. (1) In The seven great chapters("七篇大論")' Wang Bing supplement theory and in the academic aspects as a interpreter, judging from 'forget(亡)' character. expressed in the 'The missing chapters("素問遺篇")', 'Bonbyung-ron("本病論")' and 'Jabeob-ron(刺法論)', 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")' must be supplementary work by Wang Bing. Besides, he quoted such forty books as medical books, taoist books, confucianist books, miscellaneous books, etc in the commentary and the contents quoted in the 'Su Wen(素問)' and 'Ling Shu("靈樞")' scripture nearly occupy in the book. As a method of interpreting scripiure as scripture, he edited the order of 'Internal Classic("內經")' ascended from the ancient time and when he compensated for commentary, with exhaustive scholarly mind and by observing the natural phenomena practically and writing the pathology and the methods of treatment. We knew that the book is combined with the study of 'Doctrine on five elements motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣學說)' (2) When we compare, analyze the similar phrase of 'The seven great chapters in The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic Su Wen'("黃帝內經素問ㆍ七篇大論") through 'Wang Bing's Commentary(王氷 注本)', he tells abouts organized 'five elements(五行)' and 'heaven's regularly movement(天道運行)' rather than 'Emyangengsangdae-ron("陰陽應象大論")' in 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")'. Also the 'Ohanunhangdae-ron("五運行大論")' because the repeated sentences with 'Emyangengsangdae-ron("陰陽應象大論")' is long they are omitted. And in the 'Youkmijidae-ron("六微旨大論")', 'Cheonjin ideology(天眞四象)' based on the 'Sanggocheonjin- ron("上古天眞論")', 'Sagijosindae-ron("四氣調神大論")' is written and in the 'Gigoupyondae-ron("氣交變大論")', the syndrome and symptom are explained in detail rather than 'Janggibeobsi-ron("藏氣法時論")', 'Okgijinjang-ron ("玉機眞藏論")' and in the 'Osangieongdae-ron("五常政大論")', the concept of 'five element(五行)' of the 'Gemgwejineon-ron("金櫃眞言論")' is expanded to 'the five elements' motion concept(五運槪念)' and in the 'Youkwonjeonggidae-ron("六元正紀大論")', explanations of 'The five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣)' function are mentioned mainly and instead systematic pathology is not revealed rather than 'Emyangengsangdae-ron("陰陽應象大論")'. And in the 'Jijinyodae-ron("至眞要大論")', explanations of the change of atmosphere which correspond to treatment principle by 'The three Yin and Yang(三陰三陽)' as a progressed concepts are revealed. Therefore there are much similarity between the phrase of 'Emyangengsangdae-ron("陰陽應象大論")' and 'chapters of addition(補缺之篇)'. Generally, the doctrine which 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")' are added by Wang Bing(王氷) is supported because there are more profound concepts rather than the other chapter in 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")'. (3) When we study Wang Bing's(王氷) 'Pattern on five elements motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣格局)' in 'The seven great chapter("七篇大論")', in the 'Cheonwongi-dae-ron("天元紀大論")', With 'Cheonjin ideology(天眞思想)' and the concepts of 'Owang(旺)'${\cdot}$'Sang(相)'${\cdot}$'Sa(死)'${\cdot}$'Su(囚)'${\cdot}$'Hu(休)' and 'Cheonbu(天符)'${\cdot}$'Sehwoi(歲會)' are measured time-spacially to the concept of 'Three Sum(三合)' the concept of 'Taeulcheonbu(太乙天符)' is explained. In the 'Ounhangdae-ron("五運行大論")', 'The calender Signs five Sum(天干五合)' is compared to the concepts of 'couples(夫婦)', 'weak-strong(柔强)' and in the 'Youkmijidae-ron("六微旨大論")', 'the relationship of obedience and disobedience(順逆關係)' which conform to the 'energy status(氣位)' change and 'monarch-minister(君相)' position is mentioned. In the 'Gikyobyeondae-ron("氣交變大論")', the concept of 'Sang-duk(相得)', 'Pyungsang(平常)' is emphasized but concrete measurement is mentioned. In the 'Osangieongdae-ron("五常政大論")', the detailed explanation with twenty three 'systemic of the five elements' motion(五運體系)' form and 'rountine-contrary treatment(正治. 反治)' with 'chill-fever-warm-cold(寒${\cdot}$${\cdot}$${\cdot}$凉)' are mentioned according to the 'analyse and differentiate pathological conditions in accordance with the eight principal syndromes(八綱辨證)'. In the 'Youkwonjeonggidae-ron("六元正紀大論")', Wang Bing of doesn't mention the concepts of 'Jungwun(中運)' that is seen in the original classic. In the new corrective edition, as the concepts of 'Jungwun, Dongcheonbu, Dongsehae and Taeulcheonbu(中運, 同天符, 同歲會, 太乙天符)' is appeared, Wang Bing seems to only use the concepts of 'Daewun, Juwun, and Gaekwun(大運, 主運, 客運)'. In the 'Jijinyodaeron("至眞要大論")', Wang Bing added detailed commentary to pathology and treatment doctrine by explaining the numerous appearances of 'Sebo, sufficiency, deficiency(歲步, 有餘, 不足)' and in the relation of 'victory-defeat(勝復)', he argued clearly that it is not mechanical estimation. (4) When we observe the Wang Bing's originality on the study of 'the theory of Doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣學說)', he emphasized 'The idea of Jeongindogi and Health preserving(全眞導氣${\cdot}$養生思想)' by adding 'Wang Bing's Commentary(王氷 注本)' of 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")' and explained clearly 'The theory of Doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣學說)' and simpled and expanded the meaning of 'man, as a microcosm, is connected with the macrocosm(天人相應)' and with 'Atmosphere theory(大氣論)' also explained the meaning of 'rising and falling mechanism(升降氣機)'. In the sentence of 'By examining the pathology, take care of your health(審察病機 無失氣宜)'. he explained the meaning of pathology of 'heart-kidney-water-fire(心腎水火)' and suggested the doctrine and management of prescription. In the estimation and treatment, by suggesting 'asthenia and sthenia(虛實)' two method's estimation, 'contrary treatment(反治)' and treatment principals of 'falling heart fire tonifyng kidney water(降心火益腎水)', 'two class of chill and fever(寒熱二綱)' were demonstrated. There are 'inside and outside in the illness and so inner and outer in the treatment(病有中外 治有表囊)'. This sentence suggests concertedly. 'two class of superfies and interior(表囊二綱)' conforming to the position of disease. Therefore Wang Bing as an excellent theorist and introduced 'Cheoniin ideology(天眞思想)' as a clinician and realized the medical science. With these accomplishes mainly written in 'The theory of Doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣學說)' of 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")', he interpreted the ancient medical scriptures and expanded the meaning of scriptures and conclusively contributed to the development of the study 'Korean Oriental Medicine(韓醫學)'.

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A Study on the Clinical Statistics of Oriental Medicine Service in the Health Center (보건소내(保健所內) 한방의료(漢方醫療)에 대(對)한 임상통계연구(臨床統計硏究) (전주시(全州市) 완산구(完山區) 보건소(保健所) 중심으로))

  • Song, Beom-Yong;Yuk, Tae-Han
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.40-57
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    • 1997
  • The Background and Purpose It is done the study on the public health care of oriental medicine and improvement of its system recently, I think that these effect a good health care for a people through the public health care of oriental medicine. Since Woosuk university and Chonju-Wansan health center had taken upon the oriental medicine service in the health center in 1995, we have public favor from the local population. So in other to a study on the clinical statistics of oriental medicine service in the health center, I investigated general character, style of diseases, effect of treatments and the like for a paitents received oriental medicine treatments in there. Objective and Methods This study researched into clinical statistics for paitents received oriental medicine treatments in the Chonju-Wansan health center during one year period from January 4 1996 to December 26 1996. The number of object was 238 case of 234 persons. Results and Conclusions Analyzing these 234 persons, the proportion of males to females was 1 to 6.8. As for the distribution of age, the ages of 61 to 70 occupied 34.62 per cent in the ages of 51 to 90 occupied 88.89 per cent in the whole paitons. Therefor female was very highly more than male and paitents were for the most part, old ages(51years old and over). Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue disease of 238 case occupied 82.77 per cent. were the greatest proportion. At the duration of disease, 1 year to 5 years occupied 32.35 per cent, was the highest The grade Ⅲ was the most of the sign of paitents at first visit, it occupied 55.88 per cent. The good(++) and over effect of treatments occupied 62.18 per cent, the fair(+) and over effect of treatments occupied 78.99 per cent. As for the duration of treatment, the case of 2 times to 5 times visit occupied 34.03 per cent, was the highest. And the case of 2 times to 10 times visit was 4 times as good effect as the case of only one visit. By medication of treatment, O-Juk-San(五積散) occupied 32.21 per cent, was the greatest proportion, and Pal-Mj-Hoan(八味丸) occupied the second greatest proportion. Therefor the most of paitents had the chronic diseases and was diagnosed Sin-Yang-He(腎陽虛). The average 22.58 persons received acupuctural treatment a day, the average 0.58 persons received the moxibustion a day, the average 2.28 persons received venesection (bloodletting) a day. And others treatment performed physical therapy and the like. The case received treatment of the oriental and western medicine at the same time. marked 21 persons among 30 persons and had a good effect by 70 per cent. The average 26.95 persons received treatment of oriental medicine a day, the average 3.9 persons received the first medical examination a day.

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An Analysis of Morphological Variation in Abies koreana Wilson and A. nephrolepis (Traut.) Maxim. of Korea (Pinaceae) and Their Phylogenetic Problems (한국산(韓國産) 분비나무와 구상나무의 형질분석(形質分析)과 종간유연관계(種間類緣關係))

  • Chang, Chin-Sung;Jeon, Jeong Ill;Hyun, Jung Oh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.86 no.3
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    • pp.378-390
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    • 1997
  • Ten total populations of Korean fir (Abies koreana Wilson) and Manshurian fir [A. nephrolepis (Traut.) Maxim.] were sampled from south Korea to investigate patterns of intraspecific variation in these species and to evaluate a recognition of the two species. Principal components analysis and cluster analysis were performed both on seed-cone data and on needle morphology data. The characters that contributed most to the separation between A. koreana and A. nephrolepis along three principal components axis were leaf width, length of seed, width of seed wing, length of seed wing, cone width, width of scale, and length of bract tip, but these characters were not diagnostic because of overlap in reality. Therefore, all these characters were not reliable in distinguishing these two taxa including bract position (exerted and recurved vs. exerted and straight). The individuals of A. koreana from Mt. Chi-ri appeared quite unique probably on account of its larger cone size and longer scale tip, while those from Mt. Hal-la of A. koreana were generally distinct from others in terms of their larger seed and seed wing and longer scale width. The Mt. Duk-yu specimens of A. korecana appeared somewhat smaller but more data were needed due to the small sampling size. Generally, the gradual clinal geographic trends made evident by the position of resin ducts in leaves of A. koreana can be detected. The southern populations, Mt. Hal-la (an insular population) were generally distinct from the northern populations (Mt. Chi-ri, Mt. Ga-ya and Mt. Duk-yu) in terms of their position of resin duct (medial, within mesophyll vs marginal, close to epidermis : 100% vs 75 or 50%). Although no sharp boundary separating these two species could be detected based on cone and needle morphology, the observed clinal pattern was distinct in northern populations of A. koreana and southern population of A. nephrnlepis. In a preceding study of the flavonoids variation of 20 species in eastern Asia, flavanone (5-deoxyflavanone) was found to be characteristic of A. faxoniana Rehder et Wilson, A. georgei Orr of China and A. koreana of Korea. A. faxoniana, which is assumed to be primitive species, has position of resin duct relative to both the medial and the marginal, while A. georgei and A. koreana are identified by marginal position of resin duct. With respect of foliar flavonoids chemistry, A. koreana was distinct from A. nephrolepis : the southmost samples (Mt. Hal-la and Mt. Chi-ri) contained additional flavonoids derivatives (mainly flavanone) that were not found in the northmost samples of A. nephrolepis except a few individuals from Mts. Seo-rak and Tae-bak populations of Kwang-won province. The presence of A. koreana type flavonoids in two Chinese species suggested that position of resin duct may be a phyletic character. Abies koreana including two Chinese taxa, exhibited the most elaborate and specialized flavonoids profile within the Abies in eastern Asia. Contrary to our initial expectations, the apparent intermediates between A. nephrolepis and A. koreana in Duk-yu and Ga-ya mountains were found. The pattern of variation on position of resin duct and flavonoids chemistry in these populations of A. kareana suggested that genetic interchange or natural hybridization had occurred between these two species. The evidence needed to resolve the status of this taxon is still inconclusive in our opinion until intermediate individuals from Mts. Duk-yu and Ga-ya show indication of hybridization between the two species.

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The Validation Study of the Questionnaire for Sasang Constitution Classification (the 2nd edition revised in 1995) - In the field of profile analysis (사상체질분류검사지(四象體質分類檢査紙)(QSCC)II에 대(對)한 타당화(妥當化) 연구(硏究) -각(各) 체질집단(體質集團)의 군집별(群集別) Profile 분석(分析)을 중심(中心)으로-)

  • Lee, Jung-Chan;Go, Byeong-Hui;Song, Il-Byeong
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.247-294
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    • 1996
  • By means of the statistical data which has been collected with newly revised QSCC made use of the outpatient group examined at Kyung-Hee Medical Center and an open ordinary person group, the author proceeded statistical analysis for the validation study of the revised questionnaire itself. First, check the accurate discrimination rate by performing discriminant analysis on the statistical data of the patient group. And next, sought T-score by applying the norms gained in process of standadization of the open ordinary person group to the Sasang scale score of the outpatient group and investigated the distinctive feature between the subpopulations which was devided in the process of multivarite cluster analysis. The result was summarized as follows ; 1. The validity of the questionnaire was established through the fact that the accurate discrimination rate the ratio between predicted group and actual group was figured out 70.08%. 2. At the profile analysis the response to the relevant scale showed notable upward tendency in each constitutional group and therefore it seems to be pertinent in the field of constitutional discrimination. 3. In the observation of the power of expression through the profile analysis of each constitutional group the Soyang group demonstrated the most remarkable outcome, the Soeum group was the most inferior and the Taieum group revealed a sort of dual property. 4. What is called the group of seceder out of three subpopulation of each constitutional group distinguished definitely from the contrasted groups at the point of the distinctive profile feature and the content is like following description. (1) The seceder group of Soyang-in showed considerably passive disposition differently from general character of ordinary Soyang group and an appearance attracting the attention is that they demonstrated comparatively higher response at Soeum scale (2) The seceder group of Taieum-in gained low scores in general that informed the passive disposition of the group and the other way of the general property of Taieum group which showed accompanied ascension in Taiyang-Taieum scales they demonstrated sharply declined score at Taiyang scale (3) The seceder group of Soeum-in demonstrated distinctive property similar to the profile feature of Soyang group and it notifies that the passive property of Soeum group was diluted for the most part. According to the above result, the validity of newly revised questionnaire has been proven successfully and the property of seceder groups could be noticed to some degree through the profile analysis on the course of this study. The result of this study is expected to use as a research materials to produce next edition of the questionnaire and it is regarded that further inquisition about the difference between the seceder group and the contrasted group is required for the promotion of the questionnaire as it refered several times in the contents of the main discourse.

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The study on the entry of dental technicians in the public health center for a manpower supply and demand plane (Centering around a denture insurance policy in 2012) (인력수급 대책을 위한 치과기공사의 보건지소 진출에 관한 연구 - 2012년 틀니보험화 정책을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Jong-Do;Kim, Jeong-Sook;Park, Kwang-Sig
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Dental Technology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.417-433
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study evaluated the manpower planning of dental technicians. Methods: Methods : Survey was conducted regarding subject's general characteristics, characteristics of dental technician's occupational view and working conditions, and reason to enter into branches of the public health enter. The survey sample consisted of 323 dental technicians (221 male/ 102 female). Survey was conducted for one month from August 1 to September 1 in 2010. Following results were obtained. Results: 1. Regarding general characteristics of the subjects, there was a slight male predilection with 68.4%. Subjects in their 40s occupied the highest proportion of 32.2%. Majority of subjects worked in the big cities (71.5%). Favored working places were dental laboratory (57.6%) and dental hospital or dental clinic (19.5%). Although no position is available in the public sector such as public health center or health care civil servant, 9.3% preferred working in the public health center. Public sector is more favored than 2-year technical colleges or dental supply and equipment companies. In respect to education, 57% of the subjects graduated college. 67.8% were married. Subjects who specialize in the porcelain or all-ceramic were 57.9%. With regard to current position, head of the dental laboratory was most common. 2. Following occupation characteristics were found. Economic reason took the highest proportion when deciding their occupation (39.9%) followed by gaining social experience (36.5%). Majority of the subjects (76.5%) wanted to work as dental technicians until their retirement. 71.5% pursuit to become a manager of the dental laboratory. 76.1% agreed on opening a dental technician position in the public health center. Regarding an authority to lead developing the dental technician position in the public sector, majority of the subject chose ministry of health and welfare (35.6%) and Korean dental technologist association (34.7%). Employment (average, 30%) and turnover rate (average, 36.5%) of dental technology college graduates ranged from 40% to 60%. Most important factors for the employment were practical experience (41.2%) and competency (34.4%). With regard to job satisfaction, so-so as 46.7% and satisfactory was 42.7% 3. In respect to the reason for opening a position in the public health center, 'It is needed to continue denture rogram for elderly patients' obtained the highest score (4.14 point). 'Institutional devices are required to open a position for dental technicians as a public healthcare provider' received high score (4.11 point). 4. Concerning the working conditions, 'professional knowledge is required' received the highest score (4.23) followed by 'too short maternity and parental leave' (4.21). 5. Relationship between general characteristics of the subjects and favor of working in the public health center was investigated. Significant differences were found according to the current and favored working area, favored occupation, education level, marital status, and specialty. Working in the public health center was favored by following subjects: working in mid- or small-sized cities (4.16 point, p<0.05); PhD degree-holder (4.59 point, p<0.01). 6. Among general characteristics of the subjects, significant difference of working conditions was found in the following factors: gender; working areas; favored working areas; favored working positions, and education level. Majority of subjects favored working in big cities and currently work in big cities although satisfaction was comparatively low (3.75 score). 7. Future plan to work in public health center was evaluated according to occupational characteristics. Subject's intention to work in the public healthcare center was significantly affected by opening of dental technician position, leading authority, average turnover rate, and factors affecting employment. Working in the public health care center was favored by the following subjects: Dental technicians who actively supported opening of the dental technician position (4.34 point, p<0.001); subjects who thought the Korean dental technologist association is responsible for the opening of positions in the public sector (4.26 point, p<0.001); and subjects who thought that attitude and character are important for the employment (p<0.001). 8. Concerning difference of working conditions according to the occupational characteristics, significant difference was demonstrated by factors such as a reason to choose to be a dental technician, work plan, pursuing position, responsible authority, average employment rate, and job satisfaction. High standard of working conditions was required in subjects who selected to be a dental technician for the leisure time after work (s.05 point, p<0.01), who planted to work until their marriage (4.25 point, p<0.001), and who pursuit to be a manager (3.98, p<0.05). 9. In respect to influence of general characteristics on the advancement to public health centers, the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.068 and age affected the working condition with significant difference according to the pvalue. 10. Regarding influence of general characteristics on the advancement to public health centers, the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.335 and work plan, opening of dental technician position in the public sector, and responsible authority had significant influence over the subject's intention to work in the public health center according to the p-value. 11. With regard to the influence of general characteristics on the advancement to public health centers, the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.091 and reason to choose to be a dental technician, work plan, and responsible authority significantly affected subject's working conditions. Conclusion: Korean society is becoming a super-aged society according to several statistics. As aged population is rapidly increasing, national health insurance plans to cover denture for senior citizen over 75 years old from 2012. Therefore, dental technicians are urgently needed in the public health centers all over the nation. Many subjects in this study planed to work until their retirement and recognized dental technician's expertise. Ministry of health and welfare and Korean dental technologist association should co-operate each other to prepare foundation and institutional devices for dental technicians to advance into the public health center. This will improve oral health of the population. This study showed urgency of medical facilities and services which meets increasing number of aged population and welfare of the population.

Korea's Street Processions and Traditional Performing Arts (한국의 가두행렬(街頭行列)과 전통연희)

  • Jeon, KyungWook
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.18
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    • pp.513-557
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    • 2009
  • The procession depicted in Goguryeo's ancient tomb mural consists of guards, honor guards, music band, and performing artists. Since this coincides with the royal processions of Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties, the relationship of its impact can be examined. The performing arts appearing in such street procession were mostly sanakbaekhui. During the Goryeo Dynasty, the king visited Bongeunsa templ when the lotus lantern festival was celebrated. At such time, on the left and right sides of the road travelled by the king were installed mountains made of lanterns and trees made of lanterns. The procession was quite large in scale and was accompanied by colorful music and performances. In the narye ceremony of the Goryeo Dynasty, as in China, street procession and performing arts took place. The jisinbarbgi performed by a peasant band in early January is a custom of narye. A new character appears in the royal narye during the first half of the Joseon period. Therefore the features of narye transforming according to the changes of the times can be examined. In the Joseon Dynasty's procession of a king returning to the palace, the royal band in front and behind the carriage of the king played marching music, and led by a sanbung this street procession headed toward the palace. Various performances also took place during this time. The samilyuga and munhuiyeon were festivals of the yangban class(nobility). Those who passed the state examination hired musicians and performers and paraded around town in Seoul for three days to celebrate the auspicious outcome for their family and to show off their family's power. In the Joseon's dongje and eupchijeui ceremonies, street processions were carried out with a shrine deity image or symbolic flag at the head. The dongje in a Korean village, combined with jisinbarbgi, incorporated a procession with the flags ymbolizing the guardian deity of the village at the head, and this went from house to house. The procession of suyeongyaru had the publicity impact of a mask play performance, and by creating a sense of unity among the participants, heightened the celebratory atmosphere. At the core of the bukcheonggun toseongri gwanweonnori was as treet procession imitating the traveling of high government officials. The toseong gwanweonnori has the folk religion function of praying for safe human living and abundance of grains for the village, the entertainment function of having fun and joy through street processions and various performances, and the social function of creating unity and harmony among the residents. In all the aforementioned events, the street procession had a large role in creating a celebratory atmosphere, and the performance of traditional performing arts in the middle of the procession or after the procession enabled the participants to feel united. The participants of the street procession felt cultural pride and self-confidence through the various events and they were able to have the opportunity to show off and proudly display their abilities.

Variation of Leaf Characters in Cultivating and Wild Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Germplasm (콩 재배종과 야생종 유전자원의 엽 형질 변이)

  • Jong, Seung-Keun;Kim, Hong-Sig
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 2009
  • Although leaf characters are important in soybean [Glycin max (L.) Merr.] breeding and development of cultural methods, very little information has been reported. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and analyze the relationships among leaf characters and suggest possible classification criteria for cultivating and wild (Glycin soja Sieb. & Zucc.) soybeans. Total of 94 cultivating and 91 wild soybean accessions from the Soybean Germplasm Laboratory of Chungbuk National University were used for this study. Central leaflet of the second leaf from the top of the plant was selected to measure leaf characters. Average leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf shape index (LSI) of cultivating and wild soybeans were 12.3$\pm$1.25 cm and 6.6$\pm$1.35 cm, 6.8$\pm$1.241 cm and 2.9$\pm$0.92 cm, 55.6$\pm$15.75 $cm^2$ and 14.3$\pm$7.83 $cm^2$, and 1.9$\pm$0.38 and 2.4$\pm$0.53, respectively. Based on LSI, three categories of leaf shape, i.e., oval, ovate and lanceolate, were defined as LIS$\leq$2.0, LSI 2.1~3.0 and 3.1$\leq$LSI, respectively. Percentage of oval, ovate and lanceolate leaf types among cultivating and wild soybean accessions were 78.7%, 17.0% and 4.3 %, and 40%, 15.4% and 4.4%, respectively. Based on leaf length, three categories for cultivating, i.e. short leaf ($\leq$11.0 cm), intermediate (11.1~13.0 cm), and long (13.1 cm$\leq$), and four categories, i.e. short ($\leq$5.0 cm), intermediate (5.1~7.0 cm), long (7.0~9.0 cm), and very long (9.1 cm$\leq$) for wild soybeans were defined. Short, intermediate and long leaf types were about 1/3, 1/2 and 1/6, respectively, in cultivating soybeans, and 15.4%, 40.7% and 39.5%, plus 4.4% of very long leaf type in wild soybean. Cultivating and wild soybeans had leaf thickness, leaf area ratio (LAR), angle and petiol length of 0.25$\pm$0.054 mm and 0.14$\pm$0.032 mm, 40.1$\pm$8.22 and 53.7$\pm$12.02, $37.6{\pm}5.89^{\circ}$ and $54.6{\pm}10.77^{\circ}$, and 23.9$\pm$5.89 cm and 5.9$\pm$2.33 cm, respectively. There were highly significant positive correlations between leaf length and leaf width, and negative correlation between LSI and leaf width both in cultivating and wild soybeans. Although leaf area showed significant correlations with leaf length, leaf width and LIS in cultivating soybeans, wild soybeans showed no significant relationships among these characters. In general, soybeans with oval, ovate and lanceolate leaves were significantly different in leaf width and thickness. Cultivating soybean with oval leaf had greater leaf area, while wild soybeans with oval or ovate leaf had longer petiol than with lanceolate leaf.

The Relationship between Trust, Trustworthiness, and Repeat Purchase Intentions: A Multidimensional Approach (신뢰대상의 다차원적 접근법에 의한 신뢰와 재구매 의도와의 관계)

  • Lee, Soo-Hyung;Park, Mi-Ryong
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 2008
  • Trust is central to human relationships, at all times and places. The importance of trust is fundamental in all areas of human life, not only in the area of business administration. 2,500 years ago in China, Confucius taught that the foundation of politics was the trust of the people, more important even than military strength or the supply of food. Shakespeare's play, "Much Ado about Nothing' is about trust and deception. These days, trust and transparency in a commercial organization's business culture form the basis of the 'social capital' by which that organization increases its productivity. A successful company raises productivity by the accumulation of social capital, derived from a trust relationship between business partners, and between the company and consumers. Trust is the crucial factor. At the national level, building trust determines a nation's competitiveness. For a company, long term trust relationships with customers are essential for its survival in a business environment of rapid change. Such relationships, based on trust, are important assets to ensure a company's competitive advantage, and need to be organic to that company's business culture. Because of this importance, trust relationships have been studied in diverse areas within business administration, and especially within marketing, where they form the basis of a successful relationship between producer and consumer. However, what has been lacking is a unified definition of trust. Research has been conducted on the basis of various definitions and models. The majority of researchers have not considered the multidimensional character of the concept of trust until now. Approaches based on a one dimensional model have undermined the value of research results. Furthermore, researchers have only considered trust and trustworthiness as a single component. The majority of research has explored the consequences of perceived trust for outcomes such as loyalty or cooperation, but has neglected the effects of trustworthiness upon the mechanisms of consumer trust. This study focuses on the dimension of trust from such a perspective. It seeks to verify the effect of trust on customer intentions by breaking it down into three separate components: 1) the salesperson, 2) the product/service, and 3) the company. The purposes of this paper are as follows: Firstly, we review the multidimensional nature of trust objects: the salesperson, the product/service, and the company. Secondly, we analyze the relationship between multidimensional trust and trustworthiness. Thirdly, we analyze the connection between trust and repeat purchase intentions for the maintenance of long term relationships. For these purposes the author has developed several hypotheses as follows: H1-1: The competence of a salesperson is positively associated with the trust given by the consumer to the salesperson. H1-2: The benevolence of a salesperson is positively associated with the trust given by the consumer to the salesperson. H2-1: The competence of product/service is positively associated with the trust given by the consumer to the product/service. H2-2: The benevolence of product/service is positively associated with the trust given by the consumer to the product/service. H3-1: The reputation of a company is positively associated with the trust given by the consumer to the company. H3-2: The physical environment of a company is positively associated with the trust given by the consumer to the company. H4-1: Trust in a salesperson is positively associated with repeat purchase intentions. H4-2: Trust in a product/service is positively associated with repeat purchase intentions. H4-3: Trust in a company is positively associated with repeat purchase intentions. The data was compiled from 366 questionnaires. 500 questionnaires were collected, but some of the data was considered unsuitable and inappropriate. The subjects of the survey were male and female customers purchasing products at department stores in Seoul, Daegu and Gyeongbuk. It was carried out between Oct. 25 and 29, 2007. The data was analyzed by frequency analysis using SPSS 12.0 and structural equation modeling using LISREL 8.7. The result of the overall model analysis is as follows: Chi-Square=445.497, d.f.=185, p-value=0.0, GFI=.901, RMSEA=.0617, NNFI=.986, NFI=.981, CFI=.989, AGFI=.864, RMR=.0872. The results of the overall model analysis were coherent. It was found that trust is a multi-dimensional construct, that each of the dimensions of trust are meaningful influences on customer's repurchase intention. Trust in a company may be the most relevant, while trust in a product/service and a salesperson may be less relevant to repurchase intentions. The effective factors in determining trust in a salesperson and a company's product/service were found to be competence and benevolence. Factors in determining trust in a company were its reputation and physical environment, and the relationship of each effective trust factor has been verified in this research. As a result, it was found that competence and benevolence have a meaningful influence on trust in a salesperson and in product/service. It was also found that a company's reputation influences the overall trust in the company significantly but a company's physical environment does not have much effect.

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Musical Analysis of Jindo Dasiraegi music for the Scene of Performing Arts Contents (연희현장에서의 올바른 활용을 위한 진도다시래기 음악분석)

  • Han, Seung Seok;Nam, Cho Long
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.25
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    • pp.253-289
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    • 2012
  • Dasiraegi is a traditional funeral rite performance of Jindo located in the South Jeolla Province of South Korea. With its unique stylistic structure including various dances, songs and witty dialogues, and a storyline depicting the birth of a new life in the wake of death, embodying the Buddhism belief that life and death is interconnected; it attracted great interest from performance organizers and performers who were desperately seeking new contents that can be put on stage as a performance. It is needless to say previous research on Dasiraegi had been most valuable in its recreation as it analyzed the performance from a wide range of perspectives. Despite its contributions, the previous researches were mainly academic focusing on: the symbolic meanings of the performance, basic introduction to the components of the performance such as script, lyrics, witty dialogue, appearance (costume and make-up), stage properties, rhythm, dance and etc., lacking accurate representation of the most crucial element of the performance which is sori (song). For this reason, the study analyzes the music of Dasiraegi and presents its musical characteristics along with its scores to provide practical support for performers who are active in the field. Out of all the numbers in Dasiraegi, this study analyzed all of Geosa-nori and Sadang-nori, the funeral dirge (mourning chant) sung as the performers come on stage and Gasangjae-nori, because among the five proceedings of the funeral rite they were the most commonly performed. There are a plethora of performance recordings to choose from, however, this study chose Jindo Dasiraegi, an album released by E&E Media. The album offers high quality recordings of performances, but more importantly, it is easy to obtain and utilize for performers who want to learn the Dasiraegi based on the script provided in this study. The musical analysis discovered a number of interesting findings. Firstly, most of the songs in Dasiraegi use a typical Yukjabaegi-tori which applies the Mi scale frequently containing cut-off (breaking) sounds. Although, Southern Kyoung-tori which applies the Sol scale was used, it was only in limited parts and was musically incomplete. Secondly, there was no musical affinity between Ssitgim-gut and Dasiraegi albeit both are for funeral rites. The fundamental difference in character and function of Ssitgim-gut and Dasiraegi may be the reason behind this lack of affinity, as Ssitgim-gut is sung to guide the deceased to heaven by comforting him/her, whereas, Dasiaregi is sung to reinvigorate the lives of the living. Lastly, traces of musical grammar found in Pansori are present in the earlier part of Dasiraegi. This may be attributed to the master artist (Designee of Important Intangible Cultural Heritage), who was instrumental in the restoration and hand-down of Dasiaregi, and his experience in a Changgeuk company. The performer's experience with Changgeuk may have induced the alterations in Dasiraegi, causing it to deviate from its original form. On the other hand, it expanded the performative bais by enhancing the performance aspect of Dasiraegi allowing it to be utilized as contents for Performing Arts. It would be meaningful to see this study utilized to benefit future performance artists, taking Dasiraegi as their inspiration, which overcomes the loss of death and invigorates the vibrancy of life.

EU's Space Code of Conduct: Right Step Forward (EU의 우주행동강령의 의미와 평가)

  • Park, Won-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.211-241
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    • 2012
  • The Draft International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities officially proposed by the European Union on the occasion of the 55th Session of the United Nations Peaceful Uses of the Outer Space last June 2012 in Vienna, Austria is to fill the lacunae of the relevant norms to be applied to the human activities in the outer space and thus has the merit our attention. The missing elements of the norms span from the prohibition of an arms race, safety and security of the space objects including the measures to reduce the space debris to the exchange of information of space activities among space-faring nations. The EU's initiatives, when implemented, cover or will eventually prepare for the forum to deal with such issues of interests of the international community. The EU's initiatives begun at the end of 2008 included the unofficial contacts with major space powers including in particular the USA of which position is believed to have been reflected in the Draft with the aim to have it adopted in 2013. Although the Code is made up of soft law rather than hard law for the subscribing countries, the USA seems to be afraid of the eventuality whereby its strategic advantages in the outer space will be affected by the prohibiting norms, possibly to be pursued by the Code from its current non-binding character, of placing weapons in the outer space. It is with this trepidation that the USA has been opposing to the adoption of the United Nations Assembly Resolutions on the prevention of an arms race in the outer space (PAROS) and in the same context to the setting-up of a working group on the arms race in the outer space in the frame of the Conference on Disarmament. China and Russia who together put forward a draft Treaty on Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space and of the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects (PPWT) in 2008 would not feel comfortable either because the EU initiatives will steal the lime light. Consequently their reactions are understandably passive towards the Draft Code while the reaction of the USA to the PPWT was a clear cut "No". With the above background, the future of the EU Code is uncertain. Nevertheless, the purpose of the Code to reduce the space debris, to allow exchange of the information on the space activities, and to protect the space objects through safety and security, all to maximize the principle of the peaceful use and exploration of the outer space is the laudable efforts on the part of EU. When the detailed negotiations will be held, some problems including the cost to be incurred by setting up an office for the clerical works could be discussed for both efficient and economic mechanism. For example, the new clerical works envisaged in the Draft Code could be discharged by the current UN OOSA (Office for Outer Space Affairs) with minimal additional resources. The EU's initiatives are another meaningful contribution following one due to it in adopting the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 to the UNFCCC (UN Framework Convention on the Climate Change) and deserve the praise from the thoughtful international community.

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