• Title, Summary, Keyword: Charge repulsion mechanism

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Study of Driving and Thermal Stability of Anode-type Ion Beam Source by Charge Repulsion Mechanism

  • Huh, Yunsung;Hwang, Yunseok;Kim, Jeha
    • Applied Science and Convergence Technology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2018
  • We fabricated an anode-type ion beam source and studied its driving characteristics of the initial extraction of ions using two driving mechanisms: a diffusion phenomenon and a charge repulsion phenomenon. For specimen exposed to the ion beam in two methods, the surface impurity element was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Upon Ar gas injection for plasma generation the ion beam source was operated for 48 hours. We found a Fe 2p peak 5.4 at. % in the initial ions by the diffusion mechanism while no indication of Fe in the ions released in the charge repulsion mechanism. As for a long operation of 200 min, the temperature of ion beam sources was measured to increase at the rate of ${\sim}0.1^{\circ}C/min$ and kept at the initial value of $27^{\circ}C$ for driving by diffusion and charge repulsion mechanism, respectively. In this study, we confirmed that the ion beam source driven by the charge repulsion mechanism was very efficient for a long operation as proved by little electrode damage and thermal stability.

Characteristics of Critical Pressure for a Beam Shape of the Anode Type ion Beam Source

  • Huh, Yunsung;Hwang, Yunseok;Kim, Jeha
    • Applied Science and Convergence Technology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.61-65
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    • 2018
  • We studied the critical pressure characteristics of an anode type ion beam source driven by both charge repulsion and diffusion mechanism. The critical pressure $P_{crit}$ of the diffusion type ion beam source was linearly decreased from 2.5 mTorr to 0.5 mTorr when the gas injection was varied in 3~10 sccm, while the $P_{crit}$ of the charge repulsion ion beam source was remained at 3.5 mTorr. At the gas injection of 10 sccm, the range of having normal beam shape in the charge repulsion ion beam source was about 6.4 times wider than that in the diffusion type ion beam source. An impurity of Fe 2p (KE = 776.68 eV) of 12.88 at. % was observed from the glass surface treated with the abnormal beam of the charge repulsion type ion beam source. The body temperature of the diffusion type ion beam source was observed to increase rapidly at the rate of $1.9^{\circ}C/min$ for 30 minutes and to vary slowly at the rate of $0.1^{\circ}C/min$ for 200 minutes for an abnormal beam and normal beam, respectively.

Study of ion beam shaping of an anode-type ion source coupled with a Whenelt mask

  • Huh, Yunsung;Hwang, Yunseok;Kim, Jeha
    • Applied Science and Convergence Technology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.66-70
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    • 2018
  • We fabricated an anode-type ion source driven by a charge repulsion mechanism and investigated its beam shape controlled by a Whenelt mask integrated at the front face of the source. The ion beam shape was observed to vary by changing the geometry of the Whenelt mask. As the angle of inclination of the Whenelt mask was varied from $40^{\circ}$ to $60^{\circ}$, the etched area at a thin film was reduced from 20 mm to 7.5 mm at the working distance of 286 mm, and the light transmittance through the etched surface was increased from 78% to 80%, respectively. In addition, for the step height difference, ${\Delta}$ between the inner mask and the outer mask of ${\Delta}=0$, -1 mm, and +1 mm, we observed the ion beam shape was formed to be collimated, diverged, and focused, respectively. The focal length of the focused beam was 269 mm. We approved experimentally a simple way of controlling the electric field of the ion beam by changing the geometry of the Whenelt mask such that the initial direction of the ion beam in the plasma region was manipulated effectively.

Comparison of Flocculation Characteristics of Humic Acid by Inorganic and Organic Coagulants: Effects of pH and Ionic Strength

  • Xu Mei-Lan;Lee Min-Gyu;Kam Sang-Kyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.723-737
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    • 2005
  • The effects of pH (5, 7 and 9) and ionic strength of different salts on the flocculation characteristics of humic acid by inorganic (alum, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with degree of neutralization, r=(OH/Al) of 1.7) and organic (cationic polyelectrolyte) coagulants, have been examined using a simple continuous optical technique, coupled with measurements of zeta potential. The results are compared mainly by the mechanisms of its destabilization and subsequent removal. The destabilization and subsequent removal of humic acid by PAC and cationic polyelectrolyte occur by a simple charge neutralization, regardless of pH of the solution. However, the mechanism of those by alum is greatly dependent on pH and coagulant dosage, i.e., both mechanisms of charge neutralization at lower dosages and sweep flocculation at higher dosages at pH 5, by sweep flocculation mechanism at pH 7, and little flocculation because of electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged humic acid and aluminum species at pH 9. The ionic strength also affects those greatly, mainly based on the charge of salts, and so is more evident for the salts of highly charged cationic species, such as $CaCl_2$ and $MgCI_2.$ However, it is found that the salts have no effect on those at the optimum dosage for alum acting by the mechanism of sweep flocculation at pH 7, regardless of their charge.

Measuring Zetapotential of Microbubbles in DAF (용존공기부상법(容存空氣浮上法)(DAF)에서 미세기포(微細氣泡)의 제타전위측정(電位測定))

  • Dock Ko, Seok;Han, Moo Young;Park, Chung Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 1998
  • Dissolved Air flotation (DAF) has become increasingly important in the field of drinking water treatment, however, the research to investigate the mechanism of collision between bubble and particle has been limited. The electrostatic repulsion forces between them are critical to collide with each other. Zetapotential of bubble and particle show their electrostatic condition. In this research, a setup to measure the zetapotential of rising microbubble is made using electrophoresis method and measured ZP of bubble in our Lab. The results show the effect of pH on zetapotential of bubble. The findings from this research are compared with other results. It will he helpful to understand and explain the mechanism of collisions between bubble and particle on different conditions of bubble charge in DAF process.

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Aminolysis of Y- Substituted Phenyl Benzenesulfonates in MeCN: Effect of Medium on Reactivity and Reaction Mechanism

  • Kim, Chae-Won;Lee, Jae-In;Um, Ik-Hwan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.spc8
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    • pp.2955-2959
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    • 2011
  • Second-order rate constants for nucleophilic substitution reactions of 2,4-dinitrophenyl benzenesulfonate 1a with a series of alicyclic secondary amines in MeCN have been measured spectrophotometrically and compared with those reported previously for the corresponding reactions performed in aqueous medium to investigate the effect of medium on reactivity and reaction mechanism. The amines employed in this study are found to be more reactive in the aprotic solvent than in $H_2O$. The reactions of 1a in MeCN result in a linear Br${\o}$nsted-type plot with ${\beta}_{nuc}$ = 0.58, which contrasts to the curved Br${\o}$nsted-type plot reported previously for the corresponding reactions performed in the aqueous medium (i.e., ${\beta}_2$ = 0.86 and ${\beta}_1$ = 0.38). Accordingly, it has been concluded that the reaction mechanism changes from a stepwise mechanism to a concerted pathway upon changing the medium from $H_2O$ to MeCN. Reactions of Y-substituted phenyl benzenesulfonates 1a-c with piperidine in MeCN result in a linear Br${\o}$nsted-type plot with ${\beta}_{lg}$ = -1.31, indicating that expulsion of the leaving group is significantly more advanced than bond formation in the transition state. The trigonal bipyramidal intermediate ($TBPy^{\pm}$) proposed previously for the reactions in $H_2O$ would be highly unstable in MeCN due to strong repulsion between the negative charge in $TBPy^{\pm}$ and the negative dipole end of MeCN. Thus, destabilization of $TBPy^{\pm}$ in MeCN has been concluded to change the reaction mechanism from a stepwise mechanism to a concerted pathway.

Michael-type Reactions of 1-(X-substituted phenyl)-2-propyn-1-ones with Alicyclic Secondary Amines in MeCN and H2O: Effect of Medium on Reactivity and Transition-State Structure

  • Kim, Song-I;Hwang, So-Jeong;Park, Yoon-Min;Um, Ik-Hwan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1199-1203
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    • 2010
  • Second-order rate constants ($k_N$) have been measured spectrophotometrically for Michael-type reactions of 1-(X-substituted phenyl)-2-propyn-1-ones (2a-f) with a series of alicyclic secondary amines in MeCN at $25.0{\pm}0.1^{\circ}C$. The $k_N$ value increases as the incoming amine becomes more basic and the substituent X changes form an electron-donating group (EDG) to an electron-withdrawing group (EWG). The Br${\o}$nsted-type plots are linear with ${\beta}_{nuc}$ = 0.48 - 0.51. The Hammett plots for the reactions of 2a-f exhibit poor correlations but the corresponding Yukawa-Tsuno plots result in much better linear correlations with ${\rho}$ = 1.57 and r = 0.46 for the reactions with piperidine while ${\rho}$ = 1.72 and r = 0.39 for those with morpholine. The amines employed in this study are less reactive in MeCN than in water for reactions with substrates possessing an EDG, although they are ca. 8 pKa units more basic in the aprotic solvent. This indicates that the transition state (TS) is significantly more destabilized than the ground state (GS) in the aprotic solvent. It has been concluded that the reactions proceed through a stepwise mechanism with a partially charged TS, since such TS would be destabilized in the aprotic solvent due to the electronic repulsion between the negative-dipole end of MeCN and the negative charge of the TS. The fact that primary deuterium kinetic effect is absent supports a stepwise mechanism in which proton transfer occurs after the rate-determining step.

Study on Hindered Diffusion of Single Polyelectrolyte Chain in Micro-Pores by Employing Brownian Dynamics Simulations (브라운 동력학 시뮬레이션에 의한 미세기공에서 단일한 다가전해질 사슬의 제한확산 연구)

  • 전명석;곽현욱
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.207-215
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    • 2002
  • The hindered diffusion in confined spaces is an important phenomenon to understand in a micro-scale the filtration mechanism determined by the particle motion in membrane pores. Compared to the case of spherical colloids, both the theoretical investigations and the experiments on the hindered diffusion of polyelectrolytes is actually more difficult, due to lots of relevant parameters resulting from the complicated conformational properties of the polyelectrolyte chain. We have successfully performed the Brownian dynamics simulations upon a single polyeiectrolyte confined in a slit-like pore, where a coarse-grained bead-spring model incorporated with Debye-Huckel interaction is properly adopted. For the given sizes of both the polyelectrolyte and the pore width, the hindered diffusion coefficient decreases as the solution ionic concentration decreases. It is evident that a charge effect of the pore wall enhances the hindered diffusion of polyelectrolyte. Simulation results allow us to make sense of the diffusive transport through the micro-pore, which is restricted by the influences of the steric hindrance of polyelectrolytes as well as the electrostatic repulsion between the polyelectrolytes and pore wall.

Effect of Alkali Metal Ions on Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of 4-Nitrophenyl X-Substituted Benzoates with Alkali Metal Ethoxides in Anhydrous Ethanol

  • Seo, Jin-A;Kim, Song-I;Hong, Yeon-Ju;Um, Ik-Hwan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 2010
  • Pseudo-first-order rate constants ($k_{obsd}$) have been measured spectrophotometrically for nucleophilic substitution reactions of 4-nitrophenyl benzoate (5a), 4-nitrophenyl 4-methoxybenzoate (5b), and 4-nitrophenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (5c) with alkali metal ethoxides, $EtO^-M^+$ ($M^+=Li^+$, $Na^+$ and $K^+$) in anhydrous ethanol (EtOH) at $25.0{\pm}0.1^{\circ}C$. The plots of $k_{obsd}$ vs. [$EtO^-M^+$] exhibit upward curvatures in all cases, indicating that $M^+$ ions catalyze the reactions and ionpaired $EtO^-M^+$ species are more reactive than dissociated $EtO^-$. Second-order rate constants for reactions with dissociated $EtO^-$ and ion-paired $EtO^-M^+$ (i.e., $k_{EtO^-}$ and $k_{EtO^-M^+}$, respectively) have been calculated from ion-pair treatment for the reactions of 5a and 5b. However, such ion-pair treatment has failed to determine $k_{EtO^-}$ and $k_{EtO^-M^+}$ values for the reactions of 5c. It has been concluded that reactions of 5a and 5b are catalyzed by one metal ion, which increases electrophilicity of the reaction center through coordination on the carbonyl oxygen. In contrast, reactions of 5c have been suggested to involve two metal ions, i.e., the one coordinated on the carbonyl oxygen increases the electrophilicity of the reaction center while the other one associated on the phenoxy oxygen decreases the charge repulsion between the anionic reagents (i.e., $EtO^-$ and deprotonated 5c). It has been found that the rate equation derived from the mechanism involving two metal ions fits nicely to the kinetic results obtained for the reactions of 5c.

Rejection rate and mechanisms of drugs in drinking water by nanofiltration technology

  • Ge, Sijie;Feng, Li;Zhang, Liqiu;Xu, Qiang;Yang, Yifei;Wang, Ziyuan;Kim, Ki-Hyun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.329-338
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    • 2017
  • Nanofiltration (NF) technology is a membrane-based separation process, which has been pervasively used as the high-effective technology for drinking water treatment. In this study, a kind of composite polyamide NF thin film is selected to investigate the removal efficiencies and mechanisms of 14 trace drugs, which are commonly and frequently detected in the drinking water. The results show that the removal efficiencies of most drugs are quite high, indicating the NF is an effective technology to improve the quality of drinking water. The removal efficiencies of carbamazepine, acetaminophen, estradiol, antipyrine and isopropyl-antipyrine in ultrapure water are $78.8{\pm}0.8%$, $16.4{\pm}0.5%$, $65.4{\pm}1.8%$, $71.1{\pm}1.5%$ and $89.8{\pm}0.38%$, respectively. Their rejection rates increase with the increasing of their three-dimensional sizes, which indicates that the steric exclusion plays a significant role in removal of these five drugs. The adsorption of estradiol with the strongest hydrophobicity has been studied, which indicates that adsorption is not negligible in terms of removing this kind of hydrophobic neutral drugs by NF technology. The removal efficiencies of indomethacin, diclofenac, naproxen, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, clofibric acid, sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin and bezafibrate in ultrapure water are $81{\pm}0.3%$, $86.3{\pm}0.5%$, $85.7{\pm}0.4%$, $93.3{\pm}0.3%$, $86.6{\pm}2.5%$, $90.6{\pm}0.4%$, $59.7{\pm}1.7%$, $80.3{\pm}1.4%$ and $80{\pm}0.5%$, respectively. For these nine drugs, their rejection rates are better than the above five drugs because they are negatively charged in ultrapure water. Meanwhile, the membrane surface presents the negative charge. Therefore, both electrostatic repulsion and steric exclusion are indispensable in removing these negatively charged drugs. This study provides helpful and scientific support of a highly effective water treatment method for removing drugs pollutants from drinking water.