• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chi-square distribution

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Likelihood ratio in estimating Chi-square parameter

  • Rahman, Mezbahur
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.587-592
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    • 2009
  • The most frequent use of the chi-square distribution is in the area of goodness-of-t of a distribution. The likelihood ratio test is a commonly used test statistic as the maximum likelihood estimate in statistical inferences. The recently revised versions of the likelihood ratio test statistics are used in estimating the parameter in the chi-square distribution. The estimates are compared with the commonly used method of moments and the maximum likelihood estimate.

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Distribution of a Sum of Weighted Noncentral Chi-Square Variables

  • Heo, Sun-Yeong;Chang, Duk-Joon
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.429-440
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    • 2006
  • In statistical computing, it is often for researchers to need the distribution of a weighted sum of noncentral chi-square variables. In this case, it is very limited to know its exact distribution. There are many works to contribute to this topic, e.g. Imhof (1961) and Solomon-Stephens (1977). Imhof's method gives good approximation to the true distribution, but it is not easy to apply even though we consider the development of computer technology Solomon-Stephens's three moment chi-square approximation is relatively easy and accurate to apply. However, they skipped many details, and their simulation is limited to a weighed sum of central chi-square random variables. This paper gives details on Solomon-Stephens's method. We also extend their simulation to the weighted sum of non-central chi-square distribution. We evaluated approximated powers for homogeneous test and compared them with the true powers. Solomon-Stephens's method shows very good approximation for the case.

A Rao-Robson Chi-Square Test for Multivariate Normality Based on the Mahalanobis Distances

  • Park, Cheolyong
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.385-392
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    • 2000
  • Many tests for multivariate normality are based on the spherical coordinates of the scaled residuals of multivariate observations. Moore and Stubblebine's (1981) Pearson chi-square test is based on the radii of the scaled residuals, or equivalently the sample Mahalanobis distances of the observations from the sample mean vector. The chi-square statistic does not have a limiting chi-square distribution since the unknown parameters are estimated from ungrouped data. We will derive a simple closed form of the Rao-Robson chi-square test statistic and provide a self-contained proof that it has a limiting chi-square distribution. We then provide an illustrative example of application to a real data with a simulation study to show the accuracy in finite sample of the limiting distribution.

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On an Approximation to the Distribution of Product of Independent Beta Variates

  • Hea Jung Kim
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 1994
  • A Chi-square approximation to the distribution of product of independent Beta variates denoted by U is developed. The distribution is commonly used as a test criterion for the general linear hypothesis about the multivariate linear models. The approximation is obtained by fitting a logarithmic function of U to a Chi-square variate in terms of the first three moments. It is compared with the well known approximations due to Box(1949), Rao(1948), and Mudholkar and Trivedi(1980). It is found that the Chi-square approximation compares favorably with the other three approximations.

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Comparison of Rigorous Design Procedure with Approximate Design Procedure for Variable Sampling Plans Indexed by Quality Loss

  • Ishii, Yoma;Arizono, Ikuo;Tomohiro, Ryosuke;Takemoto, Yasuhiko
    • Industrial Engineering and Management Systems
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 2016
  • Traditional acceptance sampling plans have focused on the proportion of nonconforming items as an attribute criterion for quality. In today's modern quality management under high quality production environments, the reduction of the deviation from a target value in a quality characteristic has become the most important purpose. In consequence, various inspection plans for the purpose of reducing the deviation from the target value in the quality characteristic have been investigated. In this case, a concept of the quality loss evaluated by the deviation from the target value has been accepted as the variable evaluation criterion of quality. Further, some quality measures based on the quality loss have been devised; e.g. the process loss and the process capability index. Then, as one of inspection plans based on the quality loss, the rigorous design procedure for the variable sampling plan having desired operating characteristics (VS-OC plan) indexed by the quality loss has been proposed by Yen and Chang in 2009. By the way, since the estimator of the quality loss obeys the non-central chi-square distribution, the rigorous design procedure for the VS-OC plan indexed by the quality loss is complicated. In particular, the rigorous design procedure for the VS-OC plan requires a large number of the repetitive and complicated numerical calculation about the non-central chi-square distribution. On the other hand, an approximate design procedure for the VS-OC plan has been proposed before the proposal of the above rigorous design procedure. The approximate design procedure for the VS-OC plan has been constructed by combining Patnaik approximation relating the non-central chi-square distribution to the central chi-square distribution and Wilson-Hilferty approximation relating the central chi-square distribution to the standard normal distribution. Then, the approximate design procedure has been devised as a convenient procedure without complicated and repetitive numerical calculations. In this study, through some comparisons between the rigorous and approximate design procedures, the applicability of the approximate design procedure has been confirmed.

SOME RESULTS RELATED TO DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF CHI-SQUARE TYPE RANDOM VARIABLES WITH RANDOM DEGREES OF FREEDOM

  • Hung, Tran Loc;Thanh, Tran Thien;Vu, Bui Quang
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.509-522
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    • 2008
  • The main aim of this paper is to present some results related to asymptotic behavior of distribution functions of random variables of chi-square type $X^2_N={\Sigma}^N_{i=1}\;X^2_i$ with degrees of freedom N, where N is a positive integer-valued random variable independent on all standard normally distributed random variables $X_i$. Two ways for computing the distribution functions of chi-square type random variables with random degrees of freedom are considered. Moreover, some tables concerning considered distribution functions are demonstrated in Appendix.

Power Exponential Distributions

  • Zheng, Shimin;Bae, Sejong;Bartolucci, Alfred A.;Singh, Karan P.
    • International Journal of Reliability and Applications
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.97-111
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    • 2003
  • By applying Theorem 2.6.4 (Fang and Zhang, 1990, p.66) the dispersion matrix of a multivariate power exponential (MPE) distribution is derived. It is shown that the MPE and the gamma distributions are related and thus the MPE and chi-square distributions are related. By extending Fang and Xu's Theorem (1987) from the normal distribution to the Univariate Power Exponential (UPE) distribution an explicit expression is derived for calculating the probability of an UPE random variable over an interval. A representation of the characteristic function (c.f.) for an UPE distribution is given. Based on the MPE distribution the probability density functions of the generalized non-central chi-square, the generalized non-central t, and the generalized non-central F distributions are derived.

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The Role of Negative Binomial Sampling In Determining the Distribution of Minimum Chi-Square

  • Hamdy H.I.;Bentil Daniel E.;Son M.S.
    • International Journal of Contents
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2007
  • The distributions of the minimum correlated F-variable arises in many applied statistical problems including simultaneous analysis of variance (SANOVA), equality of variance, selection and ranking populations, and reliability analysis. In this paper, negative binomial sampling technique is employed to derive the distributions of the minimum of chi-square variables and hence the distributions of the minimum correlated F-variables. The work presented in this paper is divided in two parts. The first part is devoted to develop some combinatorial identities arised from the negative binomial sampling. These identities are constructed and justified to serve important purpose, when we deal with these distributions or their characteristics. Other important results including cumulants and moments of these distributions are also given in somewhat simple forms. Second, the distributions of minimum, chisquare variable and hence the distribution of the minimum correlated F-variables are then derived within the negative binomial sampling framework. Although, multinomial theory applied to order statistics and standard transformation techniques can be used to derive these distributions, the negative binomial sampling approach provides more information regarding the nature of the relationship between the sampling vehicle and the probability distributions of these functions of chi-square variables. We also provide an algorithm to compute the percentage points of the distributions. The computation methods we adopted are exact and no interpolations are involved.

A Comparative Study on the Infinite NHPP Software Reliability Model Following Chi-Square Distribution with Lifetime Distribution Dependent on Degrees of Freedom (수명분포가 자유도에 의존한 카이제곱분포를 따르는 무한고장 NHPP 소프트웨어 신뢰성 모형에 관한 비교연구)

  • Kim, Hee-Cheul;Kim, Jae-Wook
    • The Journal of Korea Institute of Information, Electronics, and Communication Technology
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.372-379
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    • 2017
  • Software reliability factor during the software development process is elementary. Case of the infinite failure NHPP for identifying software failure, the occurrence rates per fault (hazard function) have the characteristic point that is constant, increases and decreases. In this paper, we propose a reliability model using the chi - square distribution which depends on the degree of freedom that represents the application efficiency of software reliability. Algorithm to estimate the parameters used to the maximum likelihood estimator and bisection method, a model selection based on the mean square error (MSE) and coefficient of determination($R^2$), for the sake of the efficient model, were employed. For the reliability model using the proposed degree of freedom of the chi - square distribution, the failure analysis using the actual failure interval data was applied. Fault data analysis is compared with the intensity function using the degree of freedom of the chi - square distribution. For the insurance about the reliability of a data, the Laplace trend test was employed. In this study, the chi-square distribution model depends on the degree of freedom, is also efficient about reliability because have the coefficient of determination is 90% or more, in the ground of the basic model, can used as a applied model. From this paper, the software development designer must be applied life distribution by the applied basic knowledge of the software to confirm failure modes which may be applied.

A Study on the Watermarking Methods with Chi-Square Distribution (카이 자승 분포를 이용한 워터마킹기법의 연구)

  • 강환일;김갑일;한승수
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
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    • pp.5-9
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, we propose the new audio watermarking method and can be used on line processing. Instead of the wavelet transform, we use the integer wavelet transform for the reduction of the computational load. The watermark associated with the chi-square distribution is inserted into the signal on the integer wavelet domain. When extracting the watermark, the spread spectrum methods are used with the coefficients associated with the covariance sequence. We show that the chi-square distribution is a good tool for the spread spectrum method on the wavelet domain. This watermarking technique may be used for the control of the electrical product which can be controlled with the hidden signals and can be moved according to the audible signals simultaneously.

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