• Title/Summary/Keyword: Chlorogenic acid

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Simulateous Determination for the Contents of Caffeine and Chlorogenic Acid in Coffee Beans (원두커피내 카페인 및 클로로겐산 함량 평가를 위한 동시분석법)

  • Shin, Jeoung Hwa;Ahn, Yun Gyong
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 2013
  • Caffeine is an alkaloid of the methylxanthine family known as a central nervous system stimulant, temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness in humans. There is a recommended upper limits of caffeine for health because a high dose can cause negative effects. Chlorogenic acid is a natural polyphenol compound known to have an antioxidant activity. In this study, the contents of caffeine and chlorogenic acid in coffee beans from different origins(Costa Rica, Indonesia, Vietnam) were determined by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS). The experiment offers more selectivity and sensitivity for those compounds compared with conventional methods such as UV/VIS spectrophotometry. The average concentrations of caffeine and chlorogenic acid in coffee beans origined in Costa Rica were 15.05 mg/g and 5.33 mg/g respectively. In the case of coffee beans origined in Indonesia, the average concentrations were 13.10 mg/g for caffeine and 3.75 mg/g for chlorogenic acid. Vietnamese coffee showed that the average concentrations were 17.79 mg/g for caffeine and 1.12 mg/g for chlorogenic acid. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the contents of caffeine and chlorogenic acid in various coffee beans in order to evaluate dietary intake.

Inhibitory Effect of Chlorogenic Acid on Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation Induced by Cu ion

  • Jeon, Eun-Raye;Karki, Rajendra;Kim, Dong-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.519-525
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    • 2010
  • Chlorogenic acid, formed of an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, which is naturally abundant in many plant species, was used as a model O-dihydoxy phenolic compound. In the previous study, we have reported that the isolated constituent from Apocynum venetum leaves has an inhibitory effect on $Cu^{2+}$-induced oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Among them, chlorogenic acid showed the most potent anti-LDL oxidative activity than other compounds. For the reason, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the chlorogenic acid on $Cu^{2+}$-induced oxidative modification of LDL, monitored a lag time in the conjugated-diene formation and TBARS formation, and measured TNBS free amino acid group, and form cell formation in vitro system. The TBARS- and diene- formation were strongly inhibited by chlorogenic acid ($0{\sim}100\;{\mu}g/ml$) with dose dependent manner. On the other hand, TNBS reactive lysine amino groups on LDL oxidation were protected by chlorogenic acid- treated cell group. Therefore, chlorogenic acid inhibited to cholesterol accumulation in the isolated peritoneal macrophage.

Synthesis of Chlorogenic Acid and p-Coumaroyl Shikimates from Glucose Using Engineered Escherichia coli

  • Cha, Mi Na;Kim, Hyeon Jeong;Kim, Bong Gyu;Ahn, Joong-Hoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1109-1117
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    • 2014
  • Chlorogenic acid and hydroxylcinnamoyl shikimates are major dietary phenolics as well as antioxidants, with recently discovered biological, activities including protection against chemotheraphy side effects and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Certain fruits and vegetables produce these compounds, although a microbial system can also be utilized for synthesis of chlorogenic acid and hydroxylcinnamoyl shikimates. In this study, we engineered Escherichia coli to produce chlorogenic acid and p-coumaroyl shikimates from glucose. For the synthesis of chlorogenic acid, two E. coli strains were used; one strain for the synthesis of caffeic acid from glucose and the other strain for the synthesis of chlorogenic acid from caffeic acid and quinic acid. The final yield of chlorogenic acid using this approach was approximately 78 mg/l. To synthesize p-coumaroyl shikimates, wild-type E. coli as well as several mutants were tested. Mutant E. coli carrying deletions in three genes (tyrR, pheA, and aroL) produced 236 mg/l of p-coumaroyl shikimates.

The Spermatogenic Effect of Yacon Extract and Its Constituents and Their Inhibition Effect of Testosterone Metabolism

  • Park, Jeong Sook;Han, Kun
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 2013
  • We screened the pharmacological effects of a 50% ethanol extract of Yacon tubers and leaves on spermatogenesis in rats. As a result, we found that Yacon tuber extracts increased sperm number and serum testosterone level in rats. It has been reported that the crude extract of Yacon tubers and leaves contain phenolic acids, such as, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid by HPLC/MS analysis. We were interested in the contributions made by phenolic acid, particularly chlorogenic acid of Yacon tuber extract to the spermatogenic activity. After administering Yacon tuber extract or chlorogenic acid to rats for 5 weeks, numbers of sperm in epididymis were increased by 34% and 20%, respectively. We also administered ferulic acid, which has been reported to be a metabolite of chlorogenic acid and a constituent of Yacon tuber extract to investigate its spermatogenic activity in rats. Yacon tuber extract and ferulic acid increased sperm numbers by 43% and 37%, respectively. And, Yacon tuber extract, and chlorogenic acid showed significantly inhibition effect of testoeterone degradation in rat liver homogenate. We considered that the spermatogenic effect of Yacon tuber extract might be related to phenolic compounds and their inhibitory effect of testosterone degradation. Yacon showed the possibility as ameliorable agents of infertility by sperm deficiency and late onset hypogonadism syndrome with low level of testosterone.

Spectrophotometric Assay for Determination of Chlorogenic Acid Using Green Pigment Formation and Quantitative Analysis of Chlorogenic Acid in Blueberry Leaf (녹색반응을 이용한 클로로겐산의 함량측정을 위한 흡광도 분석법과 블루베리 잎에 함유된 클로로 겐산의 함량분석)

  • Chung, Dong-Min;Chung, Young-Chul;Chun, Hyo-Kon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.610-612
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    • 2011
  • We developed a spectrophotometric assay for the quantitative determination of chlorogenic acid based on the formation of green pigment at $50^{\circ}C$ under glycine and alkaline conditions in 96-well plates. The formation of green pigment was linear with a series of chlorogenic acid concentration (0-$300\;{\mu}M$). Using this method, the content of chlorogenic acid (12.42 mg/g dry weight) in the leaves of blueberry was quantified. This method is high-throughput, cost-effective, rapid, and easy to perform.

Effect of Potato Polyphenolics on Lipid Peroxidation in Rats (감나 폴리페놀이 흰쥐의 생체내 지질과산화에 미치는 영향)

  • 조영수;차재영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.1131-1136
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    • 1999
  • The total contents of polyphenolics in potatoes measured by Folin Denis method were 42~76mg/100g in fresh weight. A major phenolic component contained in potato polyphenolics was identified as chlorogenic acid(3.6~15mg/100g in fresh weight). The antioxidative effects of potato polyphenolics and chlorogenic acid on the lipid peroxidation of liver microsome were studied in vivo and in vitro systems by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) and the content of urine 8 hydroxy deoxyguanosine(OHdG). The TBARS contents of liver showed an increase in the cholesterol diet compared to those in the normal diet. This trend, however, was minimized when potato polyphenolics and chlorogenic acid were supplemented in the cholesterol diet. On the other hands, urinary 8 OHdG contents showed a marked increase with the supplementation of potato polyphenolics in the cholesterol diet. However, there was a trend of marked decrease by the supplementation of chlorogenic acid. In vitro study, potato poly phenolics and chlorogenic acid effectively inhibited the formation of TBARS in liver microsomal system in a dose dependent manners. These results suggest that potato polyphenolics exerts an antioxidative activity in cholesterol fed rat liver.

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The Contents of Chlorogenic acid and Eleutheroside E in Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms (가시오갈피나무의 Eleutheroside E 및 Chlorogenic acid 성분함량(成分含量))

  • Ahn, Jin Kwon;Lee, Wi Young;Oh, Sung Jin;Park, Yen Heon;Hur, Seong Doo;Choi, Myung Suk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.89 no.2
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    • pp.216-222
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    • 2000
  • Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms is a tree species that has been traditionally used as a source for oriental folk medicine. It is known to contain both Eeleutheroside E and chlorogenic acid. These two compounds are believed to be effective elements in the tree. In the present study, we analyzed the levels of the two compounds from the plants collected from various locations in Korea to find out whether environment affected the quantity of both compounds in the tissue. When the plants growing in their natural habitats and those growing in plantations were compared, the level of the two compounds showed different pattern. In the case of chlorogenic acid in roots, the plants growing in plantations are found to contain higher levels than did those from natural habitats. On the other hand, higher levels of eleutheroside E were found in the plants from natural habitats. However, when the compounds in the stems were compared, the plants growing in the natural habitats contained higher level in both compounds than did those from plantations. Although the level of both compounds in the leaf tissue varied with the places from which they were originated, it appeared to be less than that found in roots or stems. There exists a tendency that the level of eleutheroside E showed a positive correlation with the diameter of both roots and stems of the plants.

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Immunomodulatory effects of chlorogenic acid and ethyl acetate fraction from Lonicera japonica on cytokine gene expression profiles in spleen and thymus (Chlorogenic acid 및 인동등 ethyl acetate 분획의 비장 및 흉선 세포에서의 유전자 발현 분석을 통한 면역조절효과)

  • Ha, Tae-Kwang;Lee, Young-Cheol
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2011
  • Objective : Lonicera japonica contains anti complementary polysaccharides and polyphenolic compound. Among these polyphenolic substances, chlorogenic acid is the major active component of this plant. However, the immunological mechanisms for these activities, have not been elucidated, nor the active components. To clarify immunomodulatory effects of those we examined the relationship between the activity of CD8+ T cell-mediated lysis and the frequency of cytokine profiles in spleen, thymus (especially IFN-${\gamma}$, IL-4, GM-CSF etc.) expressing CD8+ T cells activated by IL-2. Methods : To study immunomodulatory effects ethyl acetate fraction from Lonicera japonica, chlorogenic acid on cytokine gene expression from spleen, thymus cells, RT-PCR was performed after quantitative normalization for each gene by a densitometry using ${\beta}$-actin gene expression. A modified standard $^{51}Cr$-release assay was used to measure cytotoxic activities of cytotoxic T cells. Spleen, thymus cells from NOD mice were stained with CD3, CD4, CD44, CD69 in staining buffer and analyzed by two color flow cytometry. Results : We showed that ethyl acetate fraction from Lonicera japonica in combination with IL-2 resulted in a significant enhancement of PCR products for IFN-${\gamma}$, IL-4, IL-10, GM-CSF, IL-6 and cytotoxtic CD8+ T cell proportion in spleen and thymus T cells in NOD mice. This suggests that IFN-${\gamma}$, IL-6 like IL-4 may be acting as a regulatory rather than proinflammatory cytokine. Conclusions : In conclusion, based on the results of the present study which showed that ethyl acetate fraction from Lonicera japonica and chlorogenic acid upregulating cytokine gene expression in spleen and thymus, we are tempted to speculate that some of the therapeutic efficacies such as anti-diabetic activity of Lonicera japonica are due to the immunomodulatory its ethylacetate fraction and chlorogenic acid.

Effect of Chlorogenic Acid on the Concentrations of Serum and Hepatic Lipid in Rats (클로로겐산이 콜레스테롤 투여 흰쥐의 지질 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Cha, Jae-Young;Kim, Dae-Jin;Cho, Young-Su
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.153-157
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    • 2000
  • Effect of chlorogenic acid, one of polyphenolic compounds, on the concentrations of lipid in serum and hepatic lipid, serum glucose, and urinary protein in Sprague Dawley rats for 14 days was investigated. The concentration of serum total cholesterol was increased in the cholesterol group compared with the control group, while it was decreased in the cholesterol+chlorogenic acid group. The concentrations of hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol were increased in the cholesterol group, while these were not altered by the supplementation of chlorogenic acid. The concentrations of serum glucose and urinary protein were higher in the cholesterol+chlorogenic acid group than the control and the cholesterol groups. These results suggest that chlorogenic acid exerts a hypocholesterolemic effect in the rats fed cholesterol.

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Scavenging Effects of Hydroxycinnamic acids on Paraquat Induced Hepatotoxicity (II) (Paraquat 유도 간독성에 대한 Hydroxycinnamic acid계 화합물의 독성 경감 효과 (II))

  • 최병기;오은정
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 1999
  • Antioxidative and scavenging effects were investigated by using two hyaroxycinnamic acids (caffeetannins). such as caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, on oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity that induced by paraquat. The results are summerized as follows: 1. To assess radical scavenging ability, reduction concentration (IC$\sub$50/) of 1.1 diphenyl-2-dipicrylhydrazine (DPPH) were measured. IC$\sub$50/ values of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid were 29.7 ${\pm}$0.6 ${\mu}$M and 26.0${\pm}$0.5 ${\mu}$M respectively. Their radical scavenging activities showed concentration-dependent manner. 2. In H$_2$O$_2$-induced hemolysis assay to rat blood, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid led to different effects, whose hemolysis inhibition ratios at 100 ${\mu}$M were 45.2${\pm}$7.1% and 11.6${\pm}$3.1% respectively 3. In hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system producing superoxide anion, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid showed different inhibitory activities of xanthine oxidase showing 36.8${\pm}$4.3% and 5.4${\pm}$2.3% respectively. 4. To microsomal NADPH dependent cytochrome p-450 reductase in rat liver, paraquat consumed NADPH at a dose-dependent manner from 0 to 1 ${\mu}$M paraquat concentration. Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid blocked NADPH consumption rates at concentration-dependent manner and inhibition ratios at 100 ${\mu}$M were 67.6% and 59.2% respectively. 5. Administration (30mg/kg, iv) of paraquat to rats caused the marked elevation of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lipid peroxides (LPO) in the serum and lipid peroxides in the microsome as compared to the control group. Serum GOT, GPT, LDH, ALP and LPO and liver microsomal LPO were reduced significantly by caffeic acid (50mg/kg), chlorogenic acid (25mg/kg) and silymarin (150 mg/kg) as compared to the paraquat group. From these results, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid exerted their antioxidative agents by removing reactive oxygen substance (ROS) and scavenging effects by inhibiting ROS generating enzyme. As a general, two hydroxyeinnamic acids showed the useful compounds for scavenger and reducer on the paraquat induced hepatotoxicity.

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