• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chromium(III) complex

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Separation and analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) using 8-hydroxyquinoline complexation of Cr(III) (8-Hydroxyquinoline을 이용한 크롬 3가 및 6가의 분리 및 분석)

  • Lim, Heon-Sung;Lee, Sueg-Geun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.246-250
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    • 2007
  • The quantitative determination of chromium(VI) by separation from chromium(III) complex of 8-hydroxyquinoline using solvent extraction has been studied. The reaction conditions for chromium(III) complex of 8-hydroxyquinoline and the solvent extraction of complex were investigated in detail. The chromium(III) complex was extracted with organic solvent (n-hexane) and residual chromium(VI) was determined by ICP-AES in aqueous layer. This technique is quantitative in the pH range of 8-9 and the limitations such as interfering ions were discussed.

Structural and Spectral Characterization of a Chromium(III) Picolinate Complex: Introducing a New Redox Reaction

  • Hakimi, Mohammad
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.57 no.6
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    • pp.721-725
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    • 2013
  • Reaction between 2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (Hpic) and $K_3[Cr(O_2)_4]$ give complex $[Cr(pic)_3].H_2O$ (1) which is characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, Raman) and X-ray crystallography. In the crystal structure of 1, chromium atom with coordinated by three nitrogen and three oxygen atoms has a distorted octahedral geometry. Also a water molecule is incorporated in crystal network. Each water molecule acts as hydrogen bond bridging and connects two adjacent complexes by two $O-H{\cdots}O$ hydrogen bonds.

Effetcs of Hexavalent Chromium on the Mitochondrial Electron Transport System in Mouse Liver (생쥐 간세포 Mitochondria의 전자전달계에 미치는 Chromium(VI)의 영향)

  • Boo, Moon-Jong;Yoo, Chang-Kyu;Choe, Rim-Soon
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.29-46
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    • 1987
  • To study hexavalent chromium effects on mitochondrial electron transport, the activities of electron transport enzymes and conformational change of mitochondria treated with $40{\mu}M$ of sodium dichromate ($Na_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}\;2H_{2}O$) were investigated. And so were those of liver mitochondria isolated from mouse intraperitoneally injected with sodium dichromate, 40mg per kg body weight. On both treatment with chromium(VI), the activities of electron transfer enzymes (Complex I and IV) were increased to some extent and the ultrastructural transformation of mitochondria from a condensed to an orthodox conformation was inhibited under State IV respiration. These results represent' inhibitory effect of hexavalent chromium on electron transport without inhibiting electron transfer enzymes (Complex I and IV) in mitochondria. On intraperitoneal treatment with hexavalent chromium as sodium dichromate and trivalent chromium as chromic chloride, containing 37.5 mg of chromium per kg body weight, respectively, the activities of electron transfer enzymes of liver isolated from mouse with chromium(VI) was reduced, but that with chromium(III) was not affected. And with chromium(VI), all mice after 12 hours of treatment died, only after 6 hours survived. With chromium(III), however, all survived. This indicates that hexavalent chromium is more toxic than trivalent chromiumin mouse liver.

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Photocatalytic Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium Induced by Photolysis of Ferric/tartrate Complex

  • Feng, Xianghua;Ding, Shimin;Zhang, Lixian
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.11
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    • pp.3691-3695
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    • 2012
  • Photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in ferric-tartrate system under irradiation of visible light was investigated. Effects of light resources, initial pH value and initial concentration of various reactants on Cr(VI) photocatalytic reduction were studied. Photoreaction kinetics was discussed and a possible photochemical pathway was proposed. The results indicate that Fe(III)-tartrate system is able to rapidly and effectively photocatalytically reduce Cr(VI) utilizing visible light. Initial pH variations resulte in the concentration changes of Fe(III)-tartrate complex in this system, and pH at 3.0 is optimal for Cr(VI) photocatalytic reduction. Efficiency of Cr(VI) photocatalytic reduction increases with increasing initial concentrations of Cr(VI), Fe(III) and tartrate. Kinetics analysis indicates that initial Fe(III) concentration affects Cr(VI) photoreduction most significantly.

Syntheses and Characterization of Cr(III)-Hydrogensalicylato and -Hydroxonitrophenolato Tetraaza Macrocyclic Complexes

  • Byun, Jong-Chul;Yoon, Chang-Hoon;Mun, Dae-Hun;Kim, Ki-Ju;Park, Yu-Chul
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.687-693
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    • 2006
  • Chromium(III) complexes, cis-[Cr([14]-decane)$(HOC _6H _4COO) _2$]$ClO _4$ I and cis-[Cr([14]-decane)(OH) $(OC _6H _4NO _2)$]$ClO _4{\cdot}H _2O$ II ([14]-decane = rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-teraazacyclotetradecane) are synthesized and structurally characterized by a combination of elemental analysis, conductivity, IR and VIS spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The complexes crystallizes in the monoclinic space groups, $C2 _1$/a in I and $P2 _1$/n in II. Analysis of the crystal structure of complex I reveals that central chromium(III) ion has a distorted octahedral coordination environment and two hydrogensalicylato ligands are unidentate to the chromium(III) ion via the carboxyl groups in the cis-position. For monomeric complex I the hydrogensalicylato coordination geometry is as follows: Cr-O(average) = 1.984(3) $\AA$;Cr-N range = 2.105(3)-2.141(4) $\AA$;C(24)-O(4) = 1.286(5) $\AA$;N(2)-Cr-N(4) (equatorial position) = 96.97(15)${^{\circ}}$; N(1)-Cr-N(3) (axial position) = 168.27(15)${^{\circ}}$; O(1)-Cr-O(4) = 85.70(13)${^{\circ}}$. The crystal structure of II has indicated that chromium(III) ion is six-coordinated by four secondary amines of the macrocycle, hydroxide anion and nitrophenolate anion.

Cr(III)-Tetraaza Macrocyclic Complexes Containing Auxiliary Ligands (Part III); Synthesis and Characterization of Cr(III)-Isothiocyanato, -Azido and -Chloroacetato Macrocyclic Complexes

  • Byun, Jong-Chul;Han, Chung-Hun;Park, Yu-Chul
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.1044-1050
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    • 2005
  • The reaction of cis-[Cr([14]-decane)($OH_2)_2]^+$ ([14]-decane = rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-teraazacyclotetradecane) with auxiliary ligands {$L_a$ = isothiocyanate ($NCS^-$), azide ($N3^-$) or chloroacetate(caa)} leads to a new cis-[Cr([14]-decane)($NCS)_2]ClO_4{\cdot}H_2O$ (1), cis-[Cr([14]-decane)($N_3)_2]ClO_4$ (2) or cis-[Cr([14]-decane)($caa)_2]ClO_4$ (3). These complexes have been characterized by a combination of elemental analysis, conductivity, IR and Vis spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. Analysis of the crystal structure of cis-[Cr([14]-decane)($NCS)_2]ClO_4{\cdot}H_2O$ reveals that central chromium(III) has a distorted octahedral coordination environment and two $NCS^-$anions are bonded to the chromium(III) ion via the Ndonor atom in the cis positions. The angle $N_{axial}-Cr-N_{axial}$ deviates by 13$^{\circ}$ from the ideal value of 180$^{\circ}$ for a perfect octahedron. The bond angle N-Cr-N between the Cr(III) ion and the two nitrogen atoms of the isothiocyanate ligands is close to 90$^{\circ}$. The bond lengths of Cr-N between the chromium and $NCS^-$groups are 1.964(5) and 2.000(5) $\AA$. They are shorter than those between chromium and nitrogen atoms of the macrocycle. The IR spectra of 1, 2 and 3 display bands at 2073, 1344 and 1684 $cm^{-1}$ attributed to the $NCS^-$, ${N_3}^-$ and caa groups stretching vibrations, respectively.

Kinetic Studies of Chromium-Oxygen Complex (산소를 포함한 크롬화합물에 대한 속도론적 연구)

  • Won, Tae-Jin;Lee, Yong-Ill;Kim, Dong-Won
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.460-463
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    • 1999
  • The kinetics for the reaction of superoxo chromium(III), $CrO{_2}^{2+}$ and glutathione(GSH) have been studied spectrophotometically in aqueous solution. Because the reaction is slow under our experimental conditions the initial rate method is used. Also the reaction fit in second order kinetics. Glutathione is oxidized by chromium complex containing oxygen. The rates of reactions depend on the presence of alcohol(MeOH or 2-PrOH) and oxygen. From these observations it is suggested the real oxidant for glutathione is not superoxo chromium, $CrO{_2}^{2+}$ but chromyl, $CrO^{2+}$.

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Photoemission and Excitation Spectroscopy of cis-Difluoro(1,4,8,11-Tetraazacyclotetradecane) Chromium (III) Perchlorate

  • Park, Jong-Ha;Hong, Yong-Pyo;Park, Yu-Chul;Ryoo, Keon-Sang
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 2000
  • The photoemission and excitation spectra of cis-[Cr(cyclam)F$_2$]ClO$_4$ (cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacy-clotetradecane) taken at 77 K are reported. The 298 K mid- and far-infrared spectra are also measured. The vibrational intervals of the electronic ground state are extracted from the far-infrared and emission spectra. The ten electronic bands due to spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions are assigned. The zero-phonon line In the excitation spectrum splits into two components by 169 cm$^{1}$, and the large $^2$E$_{g}$ splitting can be reproduced by the ligand field theory. According to the ligand field analysis, we can confirm that nitrogen atoms of the cyclam ligand have a strong c-donor character, and fluoride ligand also has strong $\sigma$- and $\pi$-donor properties toward chromium(III) ion.n.

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Cr(III)-Tetraaza Macrocyclic Complexes Containing Auxiliary Ligands (Part IV); Synthesis and Characterization of Cr(III)-Acetylacetonato, -Malonato and -Oxalato Macrocyclic Complexes

  • Byun, Jong-Chul;Han, Chung-Hun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.1395-1402
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    • 2005
  • The reaction of cis-[Cr([14]-decane)$(OH)_2]^+$ ([14]-decane = rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-teraazacyclotetradecane) with auxiliary ligands {$L_a$ = acetylacetonate (acac), oxalate (ox) or malonate (mal)} leads to a new cis-[Cr([14]-decane)(acac)]$(ClO_4)_2{\cdot}(1/2)H_2O\;(1),\;cis-[Cr([14]-decane)(ox)]ClO_4{\cdot}(1/2)H_2O\;(2)\;or\;cis-[Cr([14]-decane)(mal)]ClO_4{\cdot}(1/4)H_2O\;(3)$. These complexes have been characterized by a combination of elemental analysis, conductivity, IR and Vis spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. Analysis of the crystal structure of cis-[Cr([14]-decane)(acac)]$(ClO_4)_2{\cdot}(1/2)H_2O$ reveals that central chromium(III) has a distorted octahedral coordination environment and two acetylacetonate-oxygen atoms are bonded to the chromium(III) ion in the cis positions. The angle $N_{axial}-Cr-N_{axial}$ deviates by $11^{\circ}$ from the ideal value of $180^{\circ}$ for a perfect octahedron. The bond angle O-Cr-O between the chromium(III) ion and the two acetylacetonate-oxygen atoms is close to $90^{\circ}$. The bond lengths of Cr-O between the chromium and the acetylacetonate-oxygen atoms are 1.950(3) and 1.954(2) $\AA$. They are shorter than those between chromium and nitrogen atoms of the macrocycle. The IR spectra of 1, 2 and 3 display bands at 1560 {ν (C=O)}, 1710 {${\nu}_{as}$(OCO)} and 1660 $cm^{-1}$ {${\nu}_{as}$(OCO)} attributed to the acac, ox and mal auxiliary ligands stretching vibrations, respectively.

Spectroscopic Properties and Ligand Field Analysis of cis-Dinitrato(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)chromium(III) Nitrate

  • 최종하
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.819-823
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    • 1997
  • The luminescence and photoexcitation spectra of cis-[Cr(cyclam)(NO3)2]NO3·½ H2O (cyclam=1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) taken at 77 K are reported. The infrared and visible spectra at room-temperature are also measured. The vibrational intervals of the electronic ground state are extracted from the far-infrared and emission spectra. The ten electronic bands due to spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions are assigned. With observed transitions, a ligand field analysis has been performed to determine the bonding property of nitrate group in the chromium(Ⅲ) complex. According to the results, it is found that nitrate ligand has weak σ- and π-donor properties toward chromium(Ⅲ).

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