• Title, Summary, Keyword: Coast Guard

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Current Issues between Korean & Japan : Dokdo and Historical Distortion in Japanese Textbooks (한·일 간의 현안 : 독도와 일본 교과서의 역사왜곡)

  • Kim, Joo-Sik
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.190-219
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    • 2013
  • Since Korea and Japan established diplomatic relationship, Relationship between Korea and Japan has not been easygoing. There are two most explosive, and noticeable ones among topics which have affected the relationship ; Dokdo and Historical Distortion. Without these issues, relationship between two countries will take a turn for the better. However, unfortunately, it seems that it is almost never going to happen. There is the Japanese conservative right-wing who has an influence on those two issues. The right-wing takes regard getting negative view or finding out dark past as an action from Self-torture view of history, and tries to dilute the Japanese sense of guilt on past invasions to neighbor countries. Moreover, to become a "normal country", they are trying to revise Constitution of the Japan so that Japan can possess the military and re-arm, dispatch troops abroad, and get the right to break the war. In other words, they expect Japan to become a powerful nation with great influence on Asia and world, as the period in which Japan conquered Korean peninsula, China, and South-Eastern nations. Japan still harbours secret romanticism for bygone days of imperialist glory. That is why neighbors want to never make the painful history happen again. In order to deal with this effort, most of all, it is required to assert better argument with a careful, thorough analysis on Japanese opinion about Dokdo. There might be a hidden card which can be accepted in the international society considering Japanese persistent effort to make Dokdo disputed area, and that is why we have to know that it is. In addition, it is needed to secure a high-quality professional manpower because the issues of Dokdo and Historical Distortion are primarily the matter of logic and references. The professional manpower should have open-minded to break down walls of their own majors. We have to introduce our achievements and stances to the international society vigorously. As a definite way to solve these problems, we have to develop national power. We have to possess naval forces and coast guard to protect our territory and Koreans overseas. There are not many options Korea can do to Japan, except protesting denunciation, and pressing a joint efforts. Most of the suggestions stated before are what have to be conducted domestically. It is a miserable condition, because two problems are Japanese domestic issues, but they become international issues and we have to seek a solution for ourselves.

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Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea(CUES): Its Limitation and Recommendations for Improvement (해상에서의 우발적 조우 시 신호 규칙(CUES)의 제한점과 개선을 위한 제언)

  • Oh, Dongkeon
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.323-351
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    • 2018
  • Adopted in Western Pacific Naval Symposium(WPNS) 2014, Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea(CUES) has been the most valuable output of WPNS history. Written and suggested by Australian Navy in 1999, the goal of CUES is to decrease the possibility of the naval conflict by establishing the code among international navies in the Western Pacific region. Facing many oppositions and requirement of People's Liberation Army Navy(PLAN) in WPNS 2012 and 2013, but it finally adopted in WPNS 2014, with many changes in detailed provisions. From then, navies in the Western Pacific region have followed CUES to prevent maritime conflicts in the region, CUES, however, sometimes does not work correctly. Contents of CUES is the mixture of the parts of Multinational Maritime Tactical Signal and Maneuvering Book(MTP) and International Regulations for Preventing Collision at Sea 1972(CORLEGs). There are means of radio communications such as frequency and signals, instructions for maneuvering and so on. Thus, it is not a new document for the U.S. Navy and its allies, but it requires training to implicate at sea for navies other than U.S. allies, like PLAN. Lots of provisions in CUES were changed because of the opposition of PLAN, and CUES has many shortcomings and practical limitations. First, since CUES is non-legally binding, and there are no methods to force the naval assets on the sea to follow. Second, CUES is only applied to naval assets; naval ships - warships, naval auxiliaries, and submarines - and naval aircraft. Third, the geographical scope in CUES is not clear. Fourth, there is no provision for submerged submarines. Finally, CUES has no time-based framework or roadmap for training. In this regard, there would be six recommendations for improvement. First, CUES should be reviewed by WPNS or other international institutions, while keeping non-binding status so that WPNS could send signals to the navies which do not answer CUES on the sea. Second, the participation of Maritime Law Enforcements(MLEs) such as coast guard is inevitable. Third, navies would use full text of MTP rather than current CUES, which extracts some parts of MTP. Fourth, CUES needs provisions with respect to submerged submarines, which recognizes as offensive weapons themselves. Fifth, the geographic scope of CUES should be clear. Since there are some countries in which claim that a rock with a concrete structure is their territory, CUES should be applied on every sea including EEZ and territorial seas. Finally, the detailed training plan is required to implicate CUES at sea. Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) is a good exercise to train CUES, because almost all WPNS member countries except six countries are participating in RIMPAC. CUES is a meaningful document not only for navies but also for nation-states in the region. To prevent escalation of conflict in the region, potentially caused by an unplanned collision at sea, CUES should be applied more strictly. CUES will continue to be in subsequent WPNS and therefore continue to improve in the effectiveness as both an operational and diplomatic agreement.

Future Development of Republic of Korea NCAGS (한국형 선박통제의 발전방향에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung Hae;Jung, Hyo Sup
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.352-376
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    • 2018
  • Through this research, the current state of naval coordination and guidance of shipping is reviewed whereupon which a suggestion is made for a novel role which satisfies the needs of the people and the country asked of the Navy. Taking into consideration the dynamic security environment, the developing relationship between the two nations on the Korean peninsula, and the influence that the Republic of Korea has on maritime security, it is made more urgent that the Navy takes a proactive course of action in terms of naval coordination and guidance of shipping. The current form of Korean naval coordination and guidance of shipping is adapted from the logical and flexible concepts of NCAPS and NCAGS and is one of many tasks that the Republic of Korea Navy must perform. However, when the Republic of Korea Navy develops blue-water capabilities with the ambitions of protecting its people and their way of life, naval coordination and guidance of shipping could potentially become one of the primary functions of the Republic of Korea Navy that the it must champion. Already, there are indications that foreign navies are, through many developments and commitment towards naval coordination and guidance of shipping, protecting its people and states' interests wherever is necessary. In the case of Chile, its Navy has taken the helm of naval coordination and guidance of shipping and has integrated various maritime organizations including the coast guard and the National Customs Service for the sake of maintaining regional maritime security, showing immediate force if necessary. Presently, as the Republic of Korea Navy looks to be a global naval power, it is important that a reprioritization of the Navy's mission is undertaken, all the while sustaining military readiness posture on the Northern Limit Line. It cannot be any more emphasized how crucial thorough military readiness posture is as a natural stance against the enemy. That being said, contributing towards international maritime security is consistent with the nation's standing. It is a fact that maritime security has been conceptualized and developed merely as a study within the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, the Republic of Korea Navy, and other governmental organizations, forces, and academia. Naval cooperation and guidance of shipping suggested by this research as a practical operational field is a concrete solution to what once was an abstract concept. To stand firm on its status as a maritime nation, the Republic of Korea must establish a Maritime Security Organization within its Navy and develop the appropriate doctrines. Attaining experts, developing doctrines, and cultivating the capability to deploy maritime forces will allow for the Republic of Korea to execute a primary role in keeping international maritime security and naval coordination and guidance of shipping. To fully achieve its latent potential necessitates the Republic of Korea Navy to expedite the introduction of naval coordination and guidance of shipping concepts and to establish the appropriate doctrines, operation plans, and organizations.

Establishment and Application of an Integrated Platform for Navigation Safety Information (항행안전정보 통합 플랫폼 구축 및 활용방안에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Do-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 2020
  • This study recognizes problems in the current system of providing navigation safety information (NSI), which is centered on merchant ships, to prevent maritime accidents of fishing boats and small vessels in coastal areas. The system proposed in this study is an effective method of providing NSI to support the safe navigation of small vessels such as fishing boats. First, the status and characteristics of recent maritime accidents were examined, and NSI service targets were identified. Second, the limitations of the current NSI system were determined, and measures were proposed to establish an NSI Integrated Platform (NSIP) that ensures the integration, accessibility, and usability of NSI for a substantial portion of the public. Third, to utilize the NSIP, various NSIs are applied as additional information for the electronic chart system used in the e-navigation ship terminals being developed in connection with the Korean e-navigation project. Functions that set the audiovisual alarm function to automatically operate when a ship enters a navigation risk zone is proposed. These functions are technically achieved by reviewing expert opinions of related organizations and professional producers. The results of this study suggest that NSI can be applied to small vessels such as fishing boats, through the Korean e-Navigation project, to prevent maritime accidents caused by the human error of navigators.

Supercargo and Temporary Passengers (화물관리인과 임시승선자)

  • Choi, Suk-Yoon;Hong, Sung-Hwa;Ha, Chang-Woo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.225-227
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    • 2018
  • This research paper examines the history and present of 'temporary passengers' prescribed in Paragraph 9 of Article 5 of the Ships Safety Act Enforcement Regulations and suggests improvement plans referring to the examples of legislation of other countries. In 2015, Ministry of Ocean and Fisheries made authoritative interpretation that Paragraph 9 of Article 5 of the Ships Safety Act Enforcement Regulations, which prescribes special cargo drivers such as agricultural, marine or livestock vehicles as temporary passengers, is applied only to passenger ships and not to cargo ships such including Ro-Ro cargo ships. As the authoritative interpretation of the Ministry does not agree with not only the traditional interpretational methodology but also the interpretational methodology that are commonly used today, it lacks logical basis and looks unpersuasive. Paragraph 9 of Article 5 of the Ships Safety Act Enforcement Regulations can be applied not only on passenger ships but also on cargo ships. Also in case of Ro-Ro cargo ships, it is logically contradictory and against fairness not to acknowledge special cargo vehicle drivers as temporary passengers when there is no problem with safe navigation and safety of passengers on board even when the sailor, the sailor's family and the ship owner may be acknowledged as temporary passengers. To avoid unnecessary disputes and lawsuits, improvement plans using theory of legislation through statutory reform is more desirable. Therefore, the P aragraph should be amended to "Supercargo who deals with cargo that requires special care due to the characteristics of the cargo, such as transportation vehicles for agricultural products, marine products, livestock, explosives or flammable materials (drivers can serve as supercargos)" to reflect the distinct characteristics of cargo and ship navigation in Korea including the current distribution system, while setting an objective standard based on common sense of ordinary people and not on arbitrary interpretation.

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Spatio-temporal Distributions of Organic Matter in Surface Sediment in the Central Part of the South Sea, Korea (남해 중부해역 표층퇴적물 유기물의 시.공간 분포특성)

  • Noh, Il-Hyeon;Yoon, Yang-Ho;Park, Jong-Sick;Soh, Ho-Young;Kim, Dae-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.203-215
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    • 2006
  • Field observations on the spatio-temporal distribution of organic matter of the surface sediment were carried out at 15 stations in the central parts of the South Sea of Korea from April 2002 to January 2003. The range of water temperature and salinity in bottom waters, mud content and water content of surface sediment were $8.06{\sim}23.35^{\circ}C,\;29.20{\sim}34.51\;psu,\;71.2{\sim}99.9%$ and $38.7{\sim}68.9%$, respectively. Measured parameters on the surface sediments of ignition loss (IL), chemical oxygen demand (CODs), phaeopigment, particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate organic nitrogen (PON) also ranged in $3.9{\sim}l2.5%,\;9.60{\sim}44.05\;mgO_2/g-dry,\;1.58{\sim}29.51\;{\mu}g/g-dry,\;3.12{\sim}13.01\;mgC/g-dry$ and $0.49{\sim}2.00\;mgN/g-dry$, respectively. The spatio-temporal distribution of organic matter demonstrated higher concentrations offshore than at lesions near the coastal line. Higher concentrations occurred in the summer and spring. The results indicated that the origin of organic matter in surface sediments in the central part of the South Sea was autochthonous rather than allocthonous because the organic matter had an average C/N ratio of 6.44 (${\pm}0.51$). However, the composition of autochthonous organic matter was mainly derived from detritus rather than living phytoplankton, which was Indicated by the results of the POC/phaeopigment ratio. A principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that 73.2% of the variability in the data was described by two factors: 1) an 'environmental factor concerning the accumulation of materials (57.3%)' and 2) 'origin of organic matter and the composition by primary production (15.9%)'. The sedimentary environment in the central part of the South Sea was divided into four regions from the factor score of the PCA by the concentrations of organic matter and the composition ratio of organic matters from phytoplankton in surface sediments.

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Growth Characteristics on the Water Temperature, Salinity and Irradiance of the harmful Algae Chattonella ovata Y. Hara et Chihara(Raphidophyceae) Isolated from South Sea, Korea (한국 남해에서 분리한 유해 침편모조류 Chattonella ovata Y. Hara et Chihara의 수온, 염분 및 광량에 대한 성장특성)

  • Noh, Il-Hyeon;Yoon, Yang-Ho;Kim, Dae-Il;Oh, Seok-Jin;Kim, Jong-Deok
    • The Sea
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.140-147
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the effects of water temperature, salinity and irradiance on the growth of the harmful algae Chattonella ovata isolated from South Sea, Korea. C. ovata grew under all combinations of water temperatures and salinity, except for all the salinity conditions at the water temperature of $10^{\circ}C$, with the salinity of 7.5 psu and 10 psu at $15^{\circ}C$, and 7.5 psu at $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$. The maximum specific growth rate was $0.62\;day^{-1}$ at the combination of $30^{\circ}C$ and 30 psu. The results of two-way ANOVA indicated that growth rate depended greatly on the water temperatures while not being affected by interactions with the salinity. This indicates that C. ovata is a stenothermal and euryhaline organism, preferring high water temperatures. C. ovata did not grow at irradiance ${\leq}30\;{\mu}mol$ photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$. Photoinhibition did not occur at $800\;{\mu}mol$ photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, which was the maximum irradiance used in this study. The irradiance-growth curve was described as $\mu$ = 0.74(I-16.0)/(I+43.9) at $30^{\circ}C$ and 30 psu. The half-saturation light intensity ($K_s$) was $75.9\;{\mu}mol$ photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$ and compensation photon flux density ($I_c$) was $16.0\;{\mu}mol$ photons $m^{-2}s^{-1}$, especially this value was comparatively lower than those of Skeletonema costatum and other flagellates previously reported. Therefore, our results indicate that C. ovata has advantageous physiological characteristics for interspecific competition at the embayment and coastal areas of Korea in summer.

Learning from the USA's Single Emergency Number 911: Policy Implications for Korea (미국 긴급번호 911 운영시스템에 관한 연구: 긴급번호 실질적 통합을 위한 정책 시사점 제시 중심으로)

  • Kim, Hak-Kyong;Lee, Sung-Yong
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.43
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    • pp.67-97
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    • 2015
  • In Korea, a single emergency number, such as 911 of the USA and 999 of the UK, does not exist. This issue became highly controversial, when the Sewol Ferry Sinking disaster occurred last year. So, the Korean government has planned to adopt a single emergency number, integrating 112 of the Police, 119 of the Fire and Ambulance, 122 of the Korean Coast Guard, and many other emergency numbers. However, the integration plan recently proposed by the Ministry of Public Safety Security seems to be, what is called, a "partial integration model" which repeals the 122 number, but still maintains 112, 119, and 110 respectively. In this context, the study looks into USA's (diverse) 911 operating system, and subsequently tries to draw general features or characteristics. Further, the research attempts to derive policy implication from the general features. If the proposed partial integration model reflects the policy implications, the model can virtually operate like the 911 system -i.e. a single emergency number system - creating inter-operability between responding agencies such as police, fire, and ambulance, even though it is not a perfect integration model. The features drawn are (1) integration of emergency call-taking, (2) functional separation of call-taking and dispatching, (3) integration of physical facilities for call-taking and dispatching, and (4) professional call-takers and dispatchers. Moreover, the policy implications derived from the characteristics are (1) a user-friendly system - fast but accurate responses, (2) integrated responses to accidents, (3) professional call-taking and dispatching & objective and comprehensive risk assessment, and finally (4) active organizational learning in emergency call centers. Considering the policy implications, the following suggestions need to be applied to the current proposed plan: 1. Emergency services' systems should be tightly linked and connected in a systemic way so that they can communicate and exchange intelligence with one another. 2. Public safety answering points (call centers) of each emergency service should share their education and training modules, manuals, etc. Common training and manuals are also needed for inter-operability. 3. Personal management to enable-long term service in public safety answering points (call centers) should be established as one of the ways to promote professionalism.

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Viability test and bulk harvest of natural zooplankton communities to verify the efficacy of a ship's ballast water treatment system based on USCG phase-II (USCG phase-II 선박평형수 처리장치 성능 평가를 위한 자연 해수의 동물플랑크톤 대량 확보 및 생사판별)

  • Jang, Min-Chul;Baek, Seung Ho;Shin, Kyoungsoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2016
  • We investigated >$50-{\mu}m$ marine planktonic organisms (mainly zooplankton) using a bongo net in Masan Bay and Jangmok Bay in order to harvest 75% of natural communities based on Phase-II approval regulations by the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The concentrated volume (in 1 ton) and abundance of zooplankton were $1.8{\times}10^7ind.ton^{-1}$ and $2.3{\times}10^7ind.ton^{-1}$, and their survival rates were 82.6% and 80.1%, respectively. The community structure in Jangmok Bay was similar to that in Masan Bay, and dominant species were adult and immature groups (stage IV) of genus Acartia. Harvested populations were inoculated in a 500-ton test tank. Although the population abundances were $6.0{\times}10^4ind.ton^{-1}$ for both bay samples, the mortality rates were higher in the Masan Bay population (32%) than the Jangmok Bay population (20%). We considered the reason to be that there were 30% more immature individuals of Acartia from Masan Bay than from Jangmok Bay. The younger population may have been greatly stressed by the moving process and netting gear. After applying a Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) using a sample form Jangmok Bay, the mortality rates in the treatment groups were found to be 100% after 0 days and 5 days, implying that the BWTS worked well. During the winter season, the zooplankton concentration method alone did not easily satisfy the approval standards of USCG Phase II (> $10{\times}10^4ind.ton^{-1}$ in the 500 ton tank). Increasing the netting frequency and additional fishing boats may be helpful in meeting the USCG Phase II biological criteria.

Efficiency of concentrating marine microplanktonic organisms using net sampler to verify the efficacy of a ship's ballast water treatment system (USCG phase-II 선박평형수 처리장치 성능 평가에 대비한 해양식물플랑크톤 네트 농축효율 비교)

  • Baek, Seung Ho;Lee, Min Ji;Shin, kyoungsoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.136-143
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    • 2016
  • To provide a type approval test for Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) of United States Coast Guard (USCG) Phase-II, this study examined the concentrating efficiency of nets for ${\geq}10{\mu}m$ and ${\leq}50{\mu}m$ sized phytoplanktonic organisms using different mesh sized nets ($5{\mu}m$ or $7{\mu}m$), different injection methods (hand breaker as semi-continuous assessment or pump as continuous assessment), and different filterability for the water volume. As a result of the t-test, the net concentrated efficiency between $5{\mu}m$ and $7{\mu}m$ mesh size was not significant (p > 0.05). The difference in the net concentrated efficiency for filtered natural water volume was not significant (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the Chl.a concentration in the continuous water injection method was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of semi-continuous water injection (t-test: t: -4.058). In the natural phytoplankton community, a total of 36 species were identified, including Bacillariophyta (17 species), Dinophyta (15 species), Euglenophyta (1 species), Dictyochophyta (2 species), and unidentified taxa (1 species). Among them, diatom Pseudo-nitzchia spp. was remarkably dominant. In particular, the net concentrated efficiency in all assessments was underestimated to be approximately 20-25%, which was caused by the small size Pseudo-nitzchia spp.. A width size of these genus might have passed through the $5{\mu}m$ or $7{\mu}m$ mesh size of the net. Therefore, net concentrated efficiency is dependent on the size of the observed species in natural water. This issue should be considered when determining the net volume for the type approval test of BWTS.