• Title, Summary, Keyword: Coast Guard

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Viability test and bulk harvest of natural zooplankton communities to verify the efficacy of a ship's ballast water treatment system based on USCG phase-II (USCG phase-II 선박평형수 처리장치 성능 평가를 위한 자연 해수의 동물플랑크톤 대량 확보 및 생사판별)

  • Jang, Min-Chul;Baek, Seung Ho;Shin, Kyoungsoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2016
  • We investigated >$50-{\mu}m$ marine planktonic organisms (mainly zooplankton) using a bongo net in Masan Bay and Jangmok Bay in order to harvest 75% of natural communities based on Phase-II approval regulations by the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The concentrated volume (in 1 ton) and abundance of zooplankton were $1.8{\times}10^7ind.ton^{-1}$ and $2.3{\times}10^7ind.ton^{-1}$, and their survival rates were 82.6% and 80.1%, respectively. The community structure in Jangmok Bay was similar to that in Masan Bay, and dominant species were adult and immature groups (stage IV) of genus Acartia. Harvested populations were inoculated in a 500-ton test tank. Although the population abundances were $6.0{\times}10^4ind.ton^{-1}$ for both bay samples, the mortality rates were higher in the Masan Bay population (32%) than the Jangmok Bay population (20%). We considered the reason to be that there were 30% more immature individuals of Acartia from Masan Bay than from Jangmok Bay. The younger population may have been greatly stressed by the moving process and netting gear. After applying a Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) using a sample form Jangmok Bay, the mortality rates in the treatment groups were found to be 100% after 0 days and 5 days, implying that the BWTS worked well. During the winter season, the zooplankton concentration method alone did not easily satisfy the approval standards of USCG Phase II (> $10{\times}10^4ind.ton^{-1}$ in the 500 ton tank). Increasing the netting frequency and additional fishing boats may be helpful in meeting the USCG Phase II biological criteria.

Efficiency of concentrating marine microplanktonic organisms using net sampler to verify the efficacy of a ship's ballast water treatment system (USCG phase-II 선박평형수 처리장치 성능 평가에 대비한 해양식물플랑크톤 네트 농축효율 비교)

  • Baek, Seung Ho;Lee, Min Ji;Shin, kyoungsoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.136-143
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    • 2016
  • To provide a type approval test for Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) of United States Coast Guard (USCG) Phase-II, this study examined the concentrating efficiency of nets for ${\geq}10{\mu}m$ and ${\leq}50{\mu}m$ sized phytoplanktonic organisms using different mesh sized nets ($5{\mu}m$ or $7{\mu}m$), different injection methods (hand breaker as semi-continuous assessment or pump as continuous assessment), and different filterability for the water volume. As a result of the t-test, the net concentrated efficiency between $5{\mu}m$ and $7{\mu}m$ mesh size was not significant (p > 0.05). The difference in the net concentrated efficiency for filtered natural water volume was not significant (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the Chl.a concentration in the continuous water injection method was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of semi-continuous water injection (t-test: t: -4.058). In the natural phytoplankton community, a total of 36 species were identified, including Bacillariophyta (17 species), Dinophyta (15 species), Euglenophyta (1 species), Dictyochophyta (2 species), and unidentified taxa (1 species). Among them, diatom Pseudo-nitzchia spp. was remarkably dominant. In particular, the net concentrated efficiency in all assessments was underestimated to be approximately 20-25%, which was caused by the small size Pseudo-nitzchia spp.. A width size of these genus might have passed through the $5{\mu}m$ or $7{\mu}m$ mesh size of the net. Therefore, net concentrated efficiency is dependent on the size of the observed species in natural water. This issue should be considered when determining the net volume for the type approval test of BWTS.

Short-term changes of phytoplankton communities after nutrient addition and establishment of stable mass culture condition to prepare the type approval test of USCG Phase-II in mesocosm enclosure (메소코즘에서 USCG phase-II 형식승인 대비 영양염 첨가에 따른 식물플랑크톤 대량 배양조건 확립 및 군집구조의 단주기변화)

  • Baek, Seung Ho;Lee, Min Ji;Shin, Kyoungsoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.34-42
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    • 2016
  • In order to prepare for the type approval test for the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Phase-II of Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS), a phytoplankton mass culture was conducted in a mesocosm enclosure. We evaluated the response of the phytoplankton community after nutrient addition (+N, +P, and +NP) and investigated the development of the species with increasing culture time. After nutrient dosing, the phytoplankton population significantly (p < 0.05) increased from day 1 to day 3, depending on the nutrient treatments In particular, the specific growth rate of the phytoplankton community in the case of +NP treatment and + N treatment were estimated to be $2.47d^{-1}$ and $1.98d^{-1}$, respectively. The phytoplankton population density in the case of + NP treatment was approximately 50 times higher than that of the control group, suggesting that these treatments could be useful for mass culturing phytoplankton (> 75% of natural community) for the approval regulation of USCG Phase-II. In the phytoplankton community of the mesocosm, Pseudo-nitzchia spp. dominated in the logarithmic growth phase. The cell density decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing time, coinciding with the nutrient limitation. At that time, the dominance of Pseudo-nitzchia spp. shifted to that of Cylindrotheca closterium. Therefore, the optimum nutrient concentration ($N:30{\mu}M$, $P:3{\mu}M$) and reasonable harvesting time (after 3 days in summer) found in this study for the mass culturing of phytoplankton may be helpful to meet the USCG Phase-II biological criteria to be used in BWTS.