• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cognitive Narrowing

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Consumers' Overconfidence Biases in Relation to Social Exclusion

  • HAN, Woong-Hee
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.7
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 2020
  • Unlike previous studies of overconfidence bias that have been looking for causes of overconfidence bias in human cognitive error or in the desire to view oneself positively, this study presents the cognitive narrowing resulting from the social exclusion experience as the condition of overconfidence bias and investigates the mechanism of cognitive narrowing to overcome the negative emotions from social exclusion, and how overconfidence bias occur due to cognitive narrowing. Current study was performed with 94 undergraduate students. Participants were randomly assigned to social exclusion experience group or non-experience group. We analyzed how the degree of bias of overconfidence differs according to the social exclusion experience. The degree of overconfidence bias of the social exclusion experience group was higher than that of the non-experience group, and the difference was statistically significant. This study extends the concepts of escaping theory and cognitive narrowing to human cognitive bias and confirmed that social exclusion experience increased cognitive narrowing and overconfidence bias. Implications of this research and future research directions were discussed.

Does Social Exclusion Influence Consumers' Pseudodiagnosticity Biases towards Distribution Brands?

  • HAN, Woong-Hee
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study explores how cognitive impairment caused by social exclusion experience can be explained through cognitive narrowing and how it influences consumer's judgment and reasoning and results pseudodiagnosticity bias towards distribution brands. This study examines the characteristics of cognitive narrowing, which is one of the strategies for overcoming the negative emotions resulting from social exclusion, and how cognitive errors called pseudodiagnosticity bias occur due to cognitive narrowing in the evaluation of distribution brands. Research design, data and methodology: Present study was performed with 77 college students in Seoul. Participants were randomly assigned to the group who experienced social exclusion and the group who did not experience social exclusion. The analysis has been made of how the degree of bias of pseudodiagnosticity differs according to the experience of social exclusion by t-test. Results: The group who experienced social exclusion had a higher level of pseudodiagnosticity bias towards distribution brands than the group who did not experience social exclusion. Conclusions: This study confirmed what characteristics of cognitive narrowing, which is one of the strategies for overcoming the negative emotions resulting from social exclusion, and how cognitive errors called pseudodiagnosticity bias occur due to cognitive narrowing. Implications and future research directions were discussed and suggested.

Escape Theory Approach to Consumers' Belief Biases (소비자의 신념편향에 대한 도피이론적 접근)

  • Han, Woong-Hee
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.411-421
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the effect of cognitive narrowing on the consumers' belief biases in the light of the escape theory. Current study researched the relationship between the cognitive narrowing and the consumers' belief biases. The result of this study is as below. The degree of the consumers' belief biases is higher when the degree of the cognitive narrowing is higher than lower. On the basis of this result, theoretical and practical implications were suggested and the limitations and future research were discussed.

Consumers' Abductive Inference Error as Cognitive Impairment

  • HAN, Woong-Hee
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.7
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    • pp.261-267
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    • 2020
  • This study examines cognitive impairment, which is one of the results from social exclusion and leads to various cognitive deficits such as logical reasoning disorders. This study also investigates how cognitive errors called abductive inference error occur due to cognitive impairment. This study was performed with 81 college students. Participants were randomly assigned to a group who experienced social exclusion and a group who did not experience social exclusion. We analyzed how the degree of error of abductive inference differs according to the experience of social exclusion by t-test. The group who experienced social exclusion had a higher level of abductive inference error than the group who did not experience it. The abductive condition inference value of the group who experienced social exclusion was higher in the group with the deduction condition inference value of 90% than in the group with the deduction condition inference value of 10%, and the difference was also significant. This study extended the concepts of cognitive impairments, escape theory, and cognitive narrowing, which are used to explain addiction behavior to human cognitive bias. Also this study confirmed that social exclusion experience increased cognitive impairment and abductive inference error. Implications and future research directions are discussed and suggested.

The Difference of Cognitive Styles between Research & Management Staff on R & D Management (연구개발관리에 관한 연구직과 행정직의 인지차이 연구)

  • 민웅기
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.83-108
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    • 1995
  • The two groups of research and management staff working in the government-supported research institutes are shown different in their cognitive styles on R&D management. Identifying the differences and understanding the reasons why such differences exist are th prerequisites for working out an effective R&D management. The investigation was made with emphasis on the cognitive styles regarding the core elements of R&D managements such as R&D process, manpower, budget and information required for R&D activities. The cognitive styles on R&D management shown distinct between the two groups suggest in turn that narrowing down the diference could provide the way to more effective R&D management.

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Morphologic Assessment of Corpus Callosum in the Patient of Alzheimer Disease using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  • Seoung, Youl-Hun;Choe, Bo-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetic Resonance Society
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.84-95
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the measurement of corpus callosum (CC) size in the Alzheimer patient by using magnetic resonance (MR) midsagittal image. We performed MR scanning in 20 normal high age group, and in 20 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group, and in 20 Alzheimer disease (AD) group. The following parameters were employed in AD group: TRITE/FA 6650ms/66ms/$90^{\circ}$, NEX 2, Thickness/Gap 2/0, FOV 220mm. The magnetic field strength was used at 3.0 Tesla. We selected midsagittal image of the brain by using view forum program, measured CC size, which were anteroposterior length, diameter of genu, body, narrowing portion, and splenium. The present study demonstrates that CC size of Alzheimer disease can be useful for clinical assessment concerning the diameter of genu, body, and splenium.

A Concept Analysis of Cultural Nursing Competence (문화간호역량 개념 분석)

  • Jeong, Geum Hee;Park, Hye-Sook;Kim, Kyung Won;Kim, Young Hee;Lee, Sun Hee;Kim, Hyun-Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.86-95
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to conduct a concept analysis of cultural nursing competence. Methods: Cultural nursing competence was analyzed using Rodgers' evolutionary concept development method. A literature search using the keywords "cultural nursing competence", "intercultural nursing competence", "cultural nursing", "cultural health nursing", and "cultural competence" was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, and RISS on material published before 2015. Database and bibliographic searches yielded 35 records. Results: Cultural nursing competence comprised cognitive, affective, and behavioral domains. The critical attributes of the concept were sensitivity, equality, and activity. The analysis identified the following dimensions: awareness, openness, and coherence. The consequences of cultural nursing competence were personal satisfaction and social justice. The definition contained competence on both an individual and social level. Conclusion: Cultural competency enhances quality of care by narrowing health disparities and increasing client satisfaction. The concept analysis of cultural nursing competence may offer an acceptable framework which can be used to develop psychometric tools of this concept and provide guidelines in nursing practice.

Gender Differences in Geometry of the TIMSS 8th Grade Mathematics Based on a Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling Approach (인지진단모형을 적용한 TIMSS 8학년 수학 기하 영역의 성차 분석)

  • Yi, Hyun Sook;Ko, Ho Kyoung
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.387-407
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    • 2014
  • Gender differences have been given major attention in mathematics education in the context of pursuing gender equity in instructional and learning environment. It had been traditional belief that male students would outperform female students in mathematics, especially in the areas as geometry. This belief has been given doubts by cumulated empirical evidences that gender differences are gradually diminishing or even reversing its direction as time goes on. In this study, gender differences in geometry were explored using TIMSS 8th grade mathematics data administered in TIMSS 2003, 2007, and 2011, based on a cognitive diagnostic modeling(CDM) approach. Among various CDM models, the Fusion model was employed. The Fusion model has advantages over other CDM models in that it provides more detailed information about gender differences at the attribute level as well as item level and more mathematically tractable. The findings of this study show that Attribute 3(Three-dimensional Geometric Shapes) revealed statistically significant gender differences favoring male students in TIMSS 2003 and 2007, but did not show significant differences in TIMSS 2011, which provides an additional empirical evidence supporting the recent observation that gender gap is narrowing. In addition to the general trends in gender differences in geometry, this study also provided affluent information such as gender differences in attribute mastery profiles and gender differences in relative contributions of each attribute in solving a particular item. Based on the findings of the CDM approach exploring gender differences, instructional implications in geometry education are discussed.

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Analysis of Question Patterns Appearing in Teaching Demonstrations Which Applied Science Teachings Model Prepared by a Pre-service Biology Teacher (생물 예비교사의 과학수업모형을 적용한 수업 시연에 나타난 질문 유형 분석)

  • Jo, In Hee;Son, Yeon-A;Kim, Dong Ryeul
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.167-185
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    • 2012
  • This study aimed at finding points of improvement in teaching expertise by analyzing the question patterns that appeared during teaching demonstrations which applied science teaching models prepared by a pre-service biology teacher. The question analysis frame for analyzing question types were categorized largely into the question types of Category 1 (questions in cognitive domain, questions with research function, questions in affective domain), Category 2 (repeated questions, questions for narrowing the range, practice questions), and Category 3 (questions on student activity progress, memory questions, and thinking questions). The results of analyzing question patterns from five different science teaching models revealed a high frequency of questions in the fields of cognition and memory. For the circular learning model, questions from the cognitive field appeared the most often, while, student activity progressive questions in particular were used mostly in the 'preliminary concept introduction stage' of the circular learning model and the 'secondary exploratory stage', in which experiments were conducted, and displayed the characteristics of these stages. The discovery learning model combined the courses of observation, measurement, classification and generalization, but, during teaching demonstrations, memory questions turned up the most, while the portion of inquisitive function questions was low. There were many questions from the inquisitive learning model, and, compared to other learning models, many exploratory function questions turned up during the 'experiment planning stage' and 'experiment stage'. Definitional questions and thought questions for the STS learning model turned up more than other learning models. During the change of concept learning model, the five concepts of students were stimulated and the modification of scientific concepts was very much aided by using many memory questions.

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Consumers' Mindfulness and Compulsive Buying (소비자의 유념성과 강박구매)

  • Han, Woong-Hee
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.12 no.12
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2014
  • Purpose - This study investigated the effect of the negative affect on compulsive buying and the interaction effect of the negative affect depending on the level of mindfulness. Compulsive buying is defined as chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes an overlearned and automatic way to cope with negative feelings, and compulsive buyers may be particularly susceptible to cognitive narrowing when shopping. Mindfulness may be defined as a coordinative regulatory process to increase the level of attention by recognizing the present experiences non-judgmentally. Hence, mindfulness can be related with negative psychological results such as general mental distress, especially compulsive buying. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between compulsive buying and mindfulness. In another words, this study investigated the effect of the internal regulatory mechanism (that is, mindfulness) on the mental disorder resulting from negative affect in the area of consumption (that is, compulsive buying). Research design, data, and methodology - One hundred and twenty-five college students were recruited for this study. The subjects were classified into two groups according to the degree of the negative affect (High Negative Affect Group vs. Low Negative Affect Group) by the mean value of negative affect (=2.47). The subjects were classified into two other groups according to the degree of mindfulness (High Mindfulness Group vs. Low Mindfulness Group) by the mean value of mindfulness (= 3.47). To analyze the effect of negative affect on compulsive buying, the degree of compulsive buying of the High and Low Negative Affect Groups were compared. To examine the moderating effect of mindfulness by using factorial design, the interaction effect of the negative affect (High vs. Low) and the mindfulness (High vs. Low) were analyzed. Results - The degree of the compulsive buying was higher when the degree of the negative affect was higher than lower (3.06High Negative Affect Group vs. 2.87Low Negative Affect Group, p=.014). The difference in the degree of the compulsive buying was larger when the degree of the mindfulness was lower than higher. In other words, the interaction effect of the negative affect and the mindfulness on the compulsive buying could be found (F(1,124)=10.098, p<.01). Conclusions - The results of the current study showed that the compulsive buying is influenced by the negative affect and that the effect of the negative affect on the compulsive buying varies depending on the level of the mindfulness. These results can be interpreted to imply that consumers who are in a state of high mindfulness pay attention to every minute of experience and activate the coordinatory function and that, eventually, habitual and reflective responses such as compulsive buying are restricted. It is concluded that consumers' mindfulness can facilitate the self-regulatory responses and alleviate the influence of negative affect on compulsive buying. Based on these results, the theoretical and practical implications of this research were discussed and the limitations and future research areas were suggested.