• Title, Summary, Keyword: Collective responsibility

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A Multilevel Study of Collective Responsibility: Its Effect on Student's Mathematics Achievement (학생의 수학 성취도와 학교의 연대 책임: 다수준 분석 방법의 적용)

  • Kim, Yeon
    • East Asian mathematical journal
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.333-351
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    • 2017
  • Schools are expected to ultimately moderate the difference of inequality issues among social groups and reduce the achievement gaps. This study investigates this expectation, in particular, how students' mathematics achievements are influenced by their parents' education at the individual level and by collective responsibility for teaching at the school level as well as the interaction of the two. Using a two-level hierarchical linear model, this study indicates that a school collective responsibility has a larger positive effect on students' mathematics achievement when their parents' education level is high. This means that school's collective responsibility accelerates inequity in students' mathematics achievement. Knowing that collective responsibility has less of an effect on students whose parents' education is not high, researchers, schools, and school districts should continue to search for school effects that have more of a positive impact on the relationship between mathematics achievement for students whose parents' education is not high in order to have more equitable results for all students.

Analysis on mind mechanism of coastal VTS service (관제 행위의 심리 기제 분석)

  • Byung Sun, Kim;Hyung Jun, Kim;Ok, Kim
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.204-205
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    • 2013
  • VTS service results from VTS watchman's mind as all other human conducts. Psychological motivations are divided into 4 factors ; collective unconscious, fear, responsibility, humanity. These motivations are beginning of VTS. Motivations awaken watchman and effect all other steps of service. Out of these motivations, higher factors ; responsibility and humanity act very positively and can be best solution for safety of vessel traffic ; the purpose of coastal VTS. Therefore, VTS officers should be educated to build up these virtues in their mind.

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The Liability on the Damage of Soil Pollution (토양오염의 피해에 대한 책임)

  • Cho, Eun-Rae
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2005
  • Soil is polluted by an agricultural chemicals, the effluence of a crystal and sewage sludge, illegal discharging of waste water or waste matter and so on. Soil pollution that accompanies a groundwater and the crops contamination has a large effect on people's living. By polluters pay principle, when a soil was polluted, polluters take the responsibility of clean-up and compensation for damages. The character of the responsibility is a strict liability. When joint polluters exist in a soil pollution, they bear collective responsibility. But they are exempted from obligation in case of a natural calamity and war. The polluters who are poor contribution of pollution take a partition responsibility but it is not easy to prove that. The concerned parties of purification liability in a soil pollution are polluter, an owner or occupant of a contaminated site, and a grantee. But when we do not appoint the polluter or he cannot do a cleanup, municipal must put in effect the purification. In such a case, another parties who are related to the contamination should take upon themselves a liability. The province of responsible parties, therefore, is required to extend to an owner or operator of a facility, a carrier and lender.

A Study on the Methods to Remedy Consumer Damages Occurring from Transactions through Mail Order Sales Mediating Sites (통신판매중개사이트 거래에서의 소비자피해 구제 방법에 대한 고찰)

  • Yoon, Chang-SuI
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2007
  • As the transaction using mail order sales mediating sites such as Auction rapidly increase, consumer damages are also increasing. Therefore, in this study, the methods to remedy consumer damages occurring from transactions through mail order sales mediating sites such as the Payment Deposit System, the systems to resolve disputes without any litigation and the systems in relation to the Consumer Basic Act have been examined and measures to improve the systems have been groped. For the transactions using mail order sales intermediating sites, it is necessary to impose more responsibility on mail order sales mediators although the responsibility may not be required to be at the level of mail order sellers such as internet shopping malls. Therefore, institutional supports are necessary to effectively protect consumers in the transactions using mail order sales mediating sites and to induce damaged consumers to actively file claims for compensations. In relation to this, the Collective Dispute Mediation System and the Consumer Group Litigation System under the Consumer Basic Act may become good examples. The consumers who have been subject to the same or similar damages in the transactions using mail order sales mediating sites should also be allowed to participate in the Collective Dispute Mediation under the Consumer Basic Act or actively utilize the Consumer Group Litigation System. Also, it is desirable to reflect these systems on 'the Act on Consumer Protection in E-Commerce etc' so that these systems can also be directly applied to the transactions using mail order sales mediating sites.

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Revitalization Plan for Communication Structure Among Users of Online Virtual Space (온라인 가상공간의 커뮤니케이선 활성화방안 -MMORPG(대규모 다중 사용자 온라인 롤플레잉 게임) 중심으로-)

  • Lim, Jang-Hoon
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.7 no.10
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    • pp.115-125
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    • 2007
  • This study analyzed the importance of user activity, communication between users and identity establishment by growth and change of player's character through users' communication structure and then it classified such an importance into activity by group, dealings, information sharing, duel and strategy performance. It also looked into the plans to revitalize smooth social relationship and suggested for users to behave with responsibility in virtual society. In the virtual space where thousands of people connect and interact with each other every day, users find out their identities through human relationship with others proceeding solo story. What is more important is that users consider virtual space as a society and feel collective responsibility on words and behavior against others.

Individual and collective responsibility to enhance regulatory compliance of the Three Rs

  • Choe, Byung In;Lee, Gwi Hyang
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.179-183
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    • 2014
  • Investigators planning to use animals in their research and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members who review the research protocols must take personal responsibility for ensuring that they have the skills and knowledge to perform their duties, applying the Three Rs principles of Russell and Burch. The two Korean laws introduced in 2008 and 2009 regulating animal use for scientific purposes in line with the Three Rs principles have been revised a total of 11 times over the last 6 years. Both regulatory agencies, e.g., the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency and the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, provide regular training based on the legal requirements. Based on the amended Animal Welfare Act, the IACUC appointment framework has been upgraded: appointments are now for two-year terms and require a qualified training certificate issued by the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency since 2012. The authors reviewed the current curricular programs and types of training conducted by the two governing agencies through Internet searches. Our Internet survey results suggest that: a) diversity should be provided in training curricula, based on the roles, backgrounds and needs of the individual trainees; b) proper and continued educational programs should be provided, based on trainees' experiences; and c) active encouragement by government authorities can improve the quality of training curricula.

A Study on Seaman's Criminal Responsibility of Marine Accidents (해양사고에 따른 해원(海員)의 과실책임에 대한 형사실무적 고찰)

  • Song Yong-Seop;Suh Geo-Suk;Park Yong-Uk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2005
  • In general, the criminal responsibility of seaman should always be directly assumed by the seamen, according to the principle of self-incrimination. Therefore, the only possible countermeasures for the criminal responsibility of seamen may be to reduce the responsibility by using criminal procedures (ex. the warrant substance examination system, the review system of legality for confinement as much as possible. Another possibility is to reduce the penalty through the revision of the law. In detail, concerning the problem of fine, the maximum fine for oil spill accidents by criminal negligence is KRW 30,000,000 under the current Ocean Pollution Prevention Act, and when an oil spill occurs, the maximum fine tends to be levied regardless of the amount of the spilled oil; thus, it is judged that grading the fine according to the amount of spilled oil may be worth considering. Regarding P & I's payment of fine, contrary to general belief, it is only possible to make up the loss when P & I takes up the legal responsibility or acknowledges its payment. In order to solve the problem, it is possible to consider the option of introducing new collective insurance program or mutual aid system. Also, as seamen are not specialists in legal issues, the ship owners' association or the marine afficers' association need to develop some program through which they can receive systematic assistance from legal specialists including lawyers when they encounter any legal problems (ex. free legal aid programs for farmers and fishermen). Finally, it may be possible to establish enact new laws or revise the existing Act on Special cases Concerning the Settlement of Traffic Accidents to insert a new section on marine accidents.

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Dynamic Causal Relationship between CSR Activities of Fashion Companies and Consumption of Environmentally Friendly Fashion Products through Systems Thinking (시스템 사고를 통한 친환경 CSR 활동과 친환경 패션제품 소비 간 인과관계 분석)

  • Chung, Kyunghwa;Lee, Yuri
    • Korean System Dynamics Review
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.103-128
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated dynamic causal relationship between CSR implementation and consumption of environmentally friendly fashion products through systems thinking. Based on literature review and empirical research, we drew causal loop diagram for CSR implementation in environmentally friendly fashion product industry. By analyzing feedback loops, we found that companies and consumers interact in the process of CSR activities. In the process of CSR implementation, companies and consumers are closely related and affect each other as stimuli and prior condition. This study suggests that companies adopt push strategy to actively create demand by developing and promoting environmentally friendly fashion products and that companies communicate with consumers in order to be recognized and rewarded by consumers for their CSR activities. In addition, this study suggests that consumers not only support companies of CSR activities but also actively boycott anti-environmental companies by collective action.

The 9th Global Conference for Health Promotion and Shanghai Declaration (제9차 건강증진 국제회의와 상하이 선언)

  • Park, Yoon Hyung
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.243-245
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    • 2016
  • The 9th Global Conference for Health Promotion has been held in Shanghai after 30 years of the first Global Conference for Health Promotion in Ottawa, Canada. In the conference, the delegated members of the countries declared 'Shanghai Declaration on promoting health in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.' In the declaration, the delegated members of country had agreed that health is one of the 'most effective markers' of any city's successful sustainable development and contributes to make cities inclusive, safe, and resilient for the whole population and 'health literacy' empowers individual citizens and enables their engagement in collective health promotion action. And in a parallel session 'Mayors Forum,' they had consensus for health city and they adopted 'Shanghai Consensus on Healthy Cities.' They recognized their political responsibility to create the conditions for every resident of every city to lead more healthy, safe, and fulfilling lives and to support the full realization of human potential and capabilities at all ages in the city environment.