• Title, Summary, Keyword: Colostrum

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Effective Components of Bovine Colostrum and Its Applications (소 초유의 유효성분과 산업적 활용)

  • Seo, Sang-Ah;Seo, Hye-Ryoung;Heo, Young-Tae
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.159-168
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    • 2018
  • Bovine colostrum is necessary for newborn calves to survive, grow and receive immunity from their mother. Cows in Korea produce about 35kg of colostrum, 4Kg of which is fed to the calf, and the rest is discarded. The bovine colostrum causes the harmful side effects to human, such as allergies and digestive problems; so, it is prohibited by law to consume colostrum itself as a food. However, many scientific research data have suggested that components in the colostrum can improve human health and has the ability to help treat diseases. In line with the trend of food and pharmacy industries using natural product materials, which attract positive attention, recently, some ingredients in colostrum have been used in the production of food supplements, and it has been used in its raw form in some cosmetics. This review introduces the active ingredients and physiologically active substances contained in bovine colostrum, summarizes the efficacy of physiological enhancement of the colostrum, which has been proven by scientific methods to date, and also suggests the possibility of industrial applications of colostrum as an animal-derived natural material.

Protease Inhibitors in Porcine Colostrum: Potency Assessment and Initial Characterization

  • Zhou, Q.;He, R.G.;Li, X.;Liao, S.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1822-1829
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    • 2003
  • Porcine colostrum and milk were separated into the acid-soluble and casein fractions by acidification followed by centrifuge. The acid-soluble fraction of porcine colostrum was further separated by liquid chromatography and anisotropic membrane filtration. Trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory capacity in porcine colostrum, milk and their components was determined by incubating bovine trypsin or chymotrypsin in a medium containing their corresponding substrates with or without addition of various amounts of porcine colostrum, porcine milk or their components. The inhibition of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) degradation in pig small intestinal contents by porcine colostrum was measured by incubating iodinated IGF-I or EGF with the intestinal contents with or without addition of porcine colostrum. Degradation of labeled IGF-I or EGF was determined by monitoring the generation of radioactivity soluble in 30% trichloroacetic acid (TCA). The results showed that porcine colostrum had high levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity and increased the stability of IGF-I and EGF in pig intestinal contents. The inhibitory activity declined rapidly during lactation. It was also found that trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity and the inhibition on IGF-I and EGF degradation in the acid-soluble fraction were higher than that in the casein fraction. Heat-resistance study indicated that trypsin inhibitors in porcine colostrum survived heat treatments of $100^{\circ}C$ water bath for up to 10 min, but exposure to boiling water bath for 30 min significantly decreased the inhibitory activity. Compared with the trypsin inhibitors, the chymotrypsin inhibitors were more heatsensitive. Separation of the acid-soluble fraction of porcine colostrum by liquid chromatography and anisotropic membrane filtration revealed that the trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory capacity was mainly due to a group of small proteins with molecular weight of 10,000-50,000. In conclusion, the present study confirmed the existence of high levels of protease inhibitors in porcine colostrum, and the inhibition of porcine colostrum on degradation of milk-borne growth factors in the pig small intestinal tract was demonstrated for the first time.

Studies on Situation and Utilization of Domestic Colostrum (국내산 초유의 현황과 이용에 관한 연구)

  • Bae, Hyung-Churl;Renchinthand, Gereltuya;Na, Seuk-Han;Choi, Seong-Hyun;Nam, Myoung-Soo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.517-521
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    • 2007
  • Questionnaire on utilization of colostrum was carried out in 33 farms. Highest milking cow numbers were 20-40 heads in 45.5% of the farms. Calf numbers were 20-40 heads in 39.4% of the dairy farms and 40-60 heads in 42.4% of the farms. The amount of colostrum production per day was 20-30 kg in 30.3% of the farms and 30-40 kg in 30.3% of the farms. Colostrum intake per calf per day was 4 kg in 45.5% farms. Surplus colostrum after intake by calf was farms (85%) was wasted in 67% of the farms. More than 90% of dairy farms recognize an necessity to use surplus colostrum. Selling price of surplus colostrum was below 1,000 won per kg at 15 dairy farms and 1,000-2,000 won per kg at 4 dairy farms. Colostrum collection and use should be done by the dairy farms of antibiotics free. Quality control of colostrum should be done by testing antibiotics, microbacterium, chemical composition, somatic cells and etc. The colostrum is subjected to cool down below $4^{\circ}C$ just after milking and process for the colostrum products.

Dietary Bovine Colostrum Increases Villus Height and Decreases Small Intestine Weight in Early-weaned Pigs

  • King, M.R.;Morel, P.C.H.;Revell, D.K.;Pluske, J.R.;Birtles, M.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.567-573
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    • 2008
  • This experiment examined the effect of dietary spray-dried bovine colostrum on intestinal histology and organ weights in early-weaned pigs. In a randomised complete block design, twelve 14-day-old weaner pigs were offered a diet containing either 5% spray-dried bovine colostrum or no colostrum (control). Diets were formulated to contain 14.8 MJ/kg DE, 1.26% available lysine and to meet or exceed requirements for other nutrients. Piglets were offered the diets for a period of 14 days. No effect of diet on growth rate or feed intake was observed (p>0.10). Small intestine weight was reduced by 12% in piglets consuming dietary bovine colostrum (p< 0.05). Villous height and crypt depth were increased and decreased, respectively, in the proximal jejunum, mid jejunum and distal ileum of pigs consuming dietary bovine colostrum (p<0.05). Mid-jejunal lamina propria $CD4^+$ and $CD8^+$ T lymphocyte density was increased by 28 and 37%, respectively, in piglets consuming dietary bovine colostrum (p<0.05). Diet did not affect thickness of tunica muscularis externa or tunica submucosa (p>0.10). Collectively, these results suggest a positive effect of dietary bovine colostrum on intestinal morphology and immune status in early-weaned pigs.

Plasma Protein Profile of Neonatal Buffalo Calves in Relation to the Protein Profile of Colostrum/Milk during First Week Following Parturition

  • Lone, Abdul Gani;Singh, Charanbir;Singha, S.P.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.348-352
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    • 2003
  • An investigation was made into the protein profile of colostrum/milk of ten Murrah buffaloes and of their ten buffalo calves during their first week of neonatal life to study the materno-neonatal transfer of immunoglobulins (Ig). Calves were pail fed 3.5 liter of colostrum and/or milk per calf/day exclusively from their dam. First blood sample from newborn calves was collected before colostrum feeding on the day of birth (day zero) and the sampling continued daily for seven days after colostrum/milk feeding. Colostrum/milk Ig and IgG values were $4.82{\pm}2.60$, $2.19{\pm}1.90$, $1.12{\pm}0.82$, $0.69{\pm}0.44$, $0.59{\pm}0.31$, $0.47{\pm}0.20$, $0.40{\pm}0.22$, $0.40{\pm}0.25$ and $3.58{\pm}1.90$, $1.08{\pm}0.92$, $0.52{\pm}0.40$, $0.31{\pm}0.20$, $0.27{\pm}0.14$, $0.22{\pm}0.08$, $0.18{\pm}0.09$, $0.14{\pm}0.08$ respectively during 0-7 days post partum. The concentration of total colostrum/milk proteins, Ig, IgG and albumin were highest within 12 h post-partum. Thereafter, the concentrations followed a declining trend which may be attributed to the reduced transfer of proteins from the maternal blood, declining synthesis by the mammary glands and/or depletion of stored proteins. The concentrations of plasma Ig and IgG before colostrum feeding on day zero were $0.42{\pm}0.09$ and $0.08{\pm}0.03$ respectively. The levels of plasma Ig were $1.90{\pm}0.37$, $1.80{\pm}0.31$, $1.80{\pm}0.26$, $1.81{\pm}0.28$, $1.78{\pm}0.31$, $1.79{\pm}0.21$, $1.80{\pm}0.32$ and of IgG were $1.57{\pm}0.41$, $1.30{\pm}0.29$, $1.31{\pm}0.21$, $1.27{\pm}0.18$, $1.23{\pm}0.21$, $1.23{\pm}0.16$, $1.26{\pm}0.21$ on days 1-7 after birth after colostrum/milk feeding. The concentrations of total plasma proteins, Ig, IgG were lowest before colostrum feeding and increased significantly (p<0.05) after colostrum feeding in buffalo neonates. The results suggest that the highest amounts of colostral Ig and IgG were available on the day of parturition and thus the calves should receive colostrum as early after birth as possible. Colostrum Ig and IgG concentrations were not correlated to plasma Ig and IgG concentrations in the post-suckle buffalo calves and therefore, colostrum Ig and IgG concentrations were probably not the principle determinants of calf post-suckle plasma Ig and IgG concentrations.

Kinetics and Biological Function of Transforming Growth Factor-$\beta$ Isoforms in Bovine and Human Colostrum

  • CHUN, SUNG-KI;NAM, MYOUNG-SOO;GOH, JUHN-SU;KIM, WAN-SUP;HAN, YOUNG-HWAN;KIM, PYEUNG-HYEUN
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.1267-1274
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    • 2004
  • Colostrum contains various kinds of cytokines including TGF-$\beta$ that has potent regulatory effects on cells of the immune system. We compared the levels of TGF-$\beta$1 and TGF-$\beta$2 in bovine and human colostrum. Based on the isoform-specific ELISA, bovine colostrum collected on day 1 post-delivery retained $53.71{\pm}29.55\;ng/ml$ of TGF-$\beta$1 and $40.41{\pm}21.78\;{\mu}g/ml$ of TGF-$\beta$2 (n=4), while in human, $381.45{\pm}158.24\;ng/ml$ of TGF-$\beta$1 and $41.47{\pm}9.63\;ng/ml$ of TGF-$\beta$2 (n=5). Thus, dominant TGF-$\beta$ isoforms were completely opposite between human and bovine colostrum samples. The concentrations of both isoforms declined as lactation proceeded. Biological activities of the colostrum samples were determined using an MV1LU cell line. Consistent with the result from the immunoassay, TGF-$\beta$1 in human and TGF-$\beta$2 in bovine colostrum were responsible for the anti proliferative activity against MV1LU cells. Furthermore, bovine colostrum increased IgA secretion by LPS-stimulated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, and this effect was abrogated by either anti­TGF-$\beta$2 antibody or combined anti-TGF-$\beta$1/$\beta$2 antibody, but not by anti- TGF-$\beta$1 antibody alone. Similarly, TGF-$\beta$2 in bovine colostrum enhanced the Ig germ line (GL) promoter activity, which is the earliest event toward IgA isotype switching. Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-$\beta$ isoforms, differentially expressed in human and bovine colostrum, may promote IgA isotype production in the neonatal intestine.

The Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment on the Preservability and the Immunological Activity of Bovine Colostrum

  • Masuda, T.;Rehinarudo, H.Y.;Suzuki, K.;Sakai, T.;Morichi, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1323-1328
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    • 2000
  • Bovine colostrum, which contains a large quantity of immunoglobulins, is indispensable for newborn animals. The establishment of a new procedure for preserving colostrum without losing the immunological activity is significant. We examined the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment (100~500 MPa) on the preservability and the immunochemical activity of bovine colostrum. When high hydrostatic pressure treatment was 300 MPa or more, the increase of the total viable count, coliforms and psychrotrophic gram-negative bacteria was suppressed effectively. In particular, the number of coliforms in colostrum treated at 300 MPa or more hardly increased for 35 days at $4{^{\circ}C}$. At 400 MPa or more, both gelling of the colostrum and denaturation of immunoglobulins were observed. However, if the pressure was 300 MPa, immunoglobulins were scarcely influenced and the neutralizing titers against the bovine coronavirus did not decrease. Therefore, it was suggested that 300 MPa was the best pressure for good preservability of colostrum without reducing the immunochemical response.

Growth Factors and Their Function in Colostrum: A Review (초유에 함유된 성장인자와 기능: 총설)

  • Renchinkhand, Gereltuya;Son, Ji Yoon;Nam, Myoung Soo
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2016
  • Colostrum, a nutrient-rich fluid produced by female mammals after giving birth, is the specific initial diet of mammalian neonates. Colostrum is important for the nutrition, growth, and development of newborn infants and contributes to the immunologic defense of neonates. It contains immunoglobulins, antimicrobial peptides, such as lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase, and other bioactive molecules, including growth factors, such as IGF (insulin-like growth factor), EGF (epithermal growth factor), $TGF-{\beta}$ (transforming growth factor), and FGF (fibroblast growth factor). Bovine colostrum is a rich source of growth factors, which play a central role in wound healing. The biological activities of colostrum emphasize the relevance of the synergistic activity of growth factors to stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and migration, which are essential for tissue repair. Colostrum increases the expression of early differentiation markers, such as keratin 1 and 10 and involucrin, and late differentiation markers, including loricrin and filaggrin. Additionally, colostrum increases granulation tissue volume in the dermis, suggesting that it has a beneficial effect on wound healing. The therapeutic use of colostrum or individual peptides present in colostrum has a positive and curative influence on various gastrointestinal diseases.

Assessment of Immune Quality and Pathogen Contamination of Colostrums Collected from Colostrum Banks in Korea (초유은행에서 수거한 초유의 병원체 오염과 면역수준의 평가)

  • Kim, Won-Il;Park, Sang-Yul;Kim, Sang-Jin;Cho, Yong-Il;Hur, Tai-Young;Kim, Nam-Soo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2013
  • Because colostrum is considered to be the sole source of passively acquired maternal antibodies for calves, newborn calves must consume colostrum to gain disease resistance during their early years of life. Storage of surplus colostrum from dairy cows right after calving and feeding newborn calves in deficiency of colostrum to assure adequate uptake of IgG for protection of the calf has been a common practice in the bovine production. In the current study, 35 colostrums were randomly collected from 3 colostrum banks located in different regions of Korea and monitored for general bacterial contamination and major bovine pathogens. Immunoglobulin concentrations and BVDV-specific antibodies were also determined to evaluate the immune quality of the colostrums. Moderate to severe bacterial contamination (up to 72,000,000 CFU/ml) was observed in most of the colostrums collected from colostrum banks. General immune quality of the colostrums was under the satisfactory level since most of the colostrums contained less than 50 g/L of IgG, which is the minimum concentration for good quality colostrums. Therefore, colostrum for colostrum bank should be collected at the first 2-3 post-partum milkings according to proper harvesting and handling procedures to guarantee the safety and quality of colostrum. In addition, it was recommended that colostrum should be heat-treated before frozen and stored in the bank because pasteurization at $63^{\circ}C$ for 30 min was very effective reducing the risk of disease transmission without causing significant degradation of immunoglobulins.

Effects of Feeding Bovine Colostrum on Growth and Feed Intake of Mouse (젖소초유 급여가 마우스의 성장과 사료섭취에 미치는 효과)

  • Nam, Myoung-Soo;Bae, Hyoung-Churl
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.179-184
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    • 2009
  • This studies were carried out to assess the effects of feeding bovine colostrum on growth and feed intake of mouse. A total of 30 mice were divided into three groups(10 mice for each groups), and treatments(colostrum, city milk, or no milk as the control) were randomly assigned. Average daily intake of solid feed during the experimental period were 4.73, 3.95 and 3.41g for control, normal milk, and colostrum, respectively. Average daily intake of milk were 0, 9.93, and 10.17g for control, normal milk, and colostrum, respectively. Average daily water intake were 6.28, 4.743, and 4.67g for control, normal milk, and colostrum, respectively. The growth rate of the colostrum group was 16.7% higher compared to the control group (P<0.05). There were differences in the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-13 associated with allergy in mouse blood at colostrum and city milk feeding as compared with control.

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