• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Combined Loading

검색결과 526건 처리시간 0.04초

An algorithm to simulate the nonlinear behavior of RC 1D structural members under monotonic or cyclic combined loading

  • Nouban, Fatemeh;Sadeghi, Kabir
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.66 no.3
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    • pp.305-315
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    • 2018
  • Interaction of lateral loading, combined with axial force needs to be determined with care in reinforced concrete (RC) one-dimensional structural members (1D SMs) such as beam-columns (BCs) and columns. RC 1D SMs under heavy axial loading are known to fail by brittle mode and small lateral displacements. In this paper, a macro element-based algorithm is proposed to analyze the RC 1D SMs under monotonic or cyclic combined loading. The 1D SMs are discretized into macro-elements (MEs) located between the critical sections and the inflection points. The critical sections are discretized into fixed rectangular finite elements (FRFE). The nonlinear behavior of confined and unconfined concretes and steel elements are considered in the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm has been validated by the results of experimental tests carried out on full-scale RC structural members. The evolution of ultimate strain at extreme compression fiber of a rectangular RC section for different orientations of lateral loading shows that the ultimate strain decreases with increasing the axial force. In the examined cases, this ultimate strain ranges from 0.0024 to 0.0038. Therefore, the 0.003 value given by ACI-318 code for ultimate strain, is not conservative and valid for the combined load cases with significant values of axial force (i.e. for the axial forces heavier than 70% of the ultimate axial force).

Fiber reinforced concrete L-beams under combined loading

  • Ibraheem, Omer Farouk;Abu Bakar, B.H.;Johari, I.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2014
  • The addition of steel fibers in concrete mixture is recognized as a non-conventional mass reinforcement scheme that improves the torsional, flexural, and shear behavior of structural members. However, the analysis of fiber reinforced concrete beams under combined torsion, bending, and shear is limited because of the complicated nature of the problem. Therefore, nonlinear 3D finite element analysis was conducted using the "ANSYS CivilFEM" program to investigate the behavior of fiber reinforced concrete L-beams. These beams were tested at different reinforcement schemes and loading conditions. The reinforcement case parameters were set as follows: reinforced with longitudinal reinforcement only and reinforced with steel bars and stirrups. All beams were tested under two different combined loading conditions, namely, torsion-to-shear ratio (T/V) = 545 mm (high eccentricity) and T/V = 145 mm (low eccentricity). Eight intermediate L-beams were constructed and tested in a laboratory under combined torsion, bending, and shear to validate the finite element model. Comparisons with the experimental data reveal that the program can accurately predict the behavior of L-beams under different reinforcement cases and combined loading ratios. The ANSYS model accurately predicted the loads and deformations for various types of reinforcements in L-beams and captured the concrete strains of these beams.

Finite element analysis of reinforced concrete spandrel beams under combined loading

  • Ibraheem, O.F.;Bakar, B.H. Abu;Johari, I.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.291-308
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    • 2014
  • A nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted on six intermediate L-shaped spandrel beams using the "ANSYS Civil FEM" program. The beams were constructed and tested in the laboratory under eccentric concentrated load at mid-span to obtain a combined loading case: torsion, bending, and shear. The reinforcement case parameters were as follows: without reinforcement, with longitudinal reinforcement only, and reinforced with steel bars and stirrups. All beams were tested under two different combined loading conditions: T/V = 545 mm (high eccentricity) and T/V = 145 mm (low eccentricity). The failure of the plain beams was brittle, and the addition of longitudinal steel bars increased beam strength, particularly under low eccentricity. Transverse reinforcement significantly affected the strength at high eccentricities, that is, at high torque. A program can predict accurately the behavior of these beams under different reinforcement cases, as well as under different ratios of combined loadings. The ANSYS model accurately predicted the loads and deflections for various types of reinforcements in spandrel beams, and captured the critical crack regions of these beams.

Study on stability and design guidelines for the combined system of scaffolds and shores

  • Peng, Jui-Lin;Wang, Chung-Sheng;Wang, Shu-Hong;Chan, Siu-Lai
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.385-404
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    • 2020
  • Since the scaffold is composed of modular members, the total height of multi-story scaffolds does not often meet with the headroom of construction buildings. At this time, other supporting members need to be set up on the top of scaffolds. However, the mechanical behaviors of the combined system of scaffolds and other supporting members have seldom been discussed. This study explores the stability of the combined system of scaffolds and shores. The loading tests conducted in the laboratory show that the critical load of the combined system of two-story scaffolds and wooden shores is about half that of the three-story scaffold system with the same height. In the failure of both the "scaffold system" and the "combined system of scaffolds and shores' after loading, the deformation mainly occurs in the in-plane direction of the scaffold. The outdoor loading test shows that no failure occurs on any members when the combined system fails. Instead, the whole system buckles and then collapses. In addition, the top formwork of the combined system can achieve the effect of lateral support reinforcement with small lateral support forces in the outdoor loading test. This study proposes the preliminary design guidelines for the scaffolding structural design.

A monitoring system for wind turbines subjected to combined seismic and turbulent aerodynamic loads

  • Fitzgerald, Breiffni;Basu, Biswajit
    • Structural Monitoring and Maintenance
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.175-194
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    • 2017
  • Research to date has mainly focused on structural analysis and design of wind turbines considering turbulent aerodynamic loading. The combined effects of wind and seismic loading have not been studied by many researchers. With the recent expansion of wind turbines into seismically active regions research is now needed into the implications of seismic loading coupled with turbulent aerodynamic loading. This paper proposes a monitoring procedure for onshore horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) subjected to this combined loading regime. The paper examines the impact of seismic loading on the 5-MW baseline HAWT developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). A modified version of FAST, an open-source program developed by NREL, is used to perform the dynamic analysis.

Experimental study of rockburst under true-triaxial gradient loading conditions

  • Liu, Xiqi;Xia, Yuanyou;Lin, Manqing;Benzerzour, Mahfoud
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.481-492
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    • 2019
  • Due to the underground openings, the tangentially concentrated stress of the tunnel remains larger at excavation boundary and decreases toward the interior of the surrounding rock with a certain gradient. In order to study the effect of different gradient stress on rockburst, the true-triaxial gradient and hydraulic-pneumatic combined test apparatus were carried out to simulate the rockburst processes. Under the different gradient stress conditions, the rock-like specimen (gypsum) was tested independently through three principal stress directions loading--fast unloading of single surface--top gradient and hydraulic-pneumatic combined loading, which systematically analyzed the macro-mesoscopic damage phenomena, force characteristics and acoustic emission (AE) signals of the specimen during rockburst. The experimental results indicated that the rockburst test under the gradient and hydraulic-pneumatic combined loading conditions could perfectly reflect the rockburst processes and their stress characteristics; Relatively high stress loading could cause specimen failure, but could not determine its mode. The rockburst under the action of gradient stress suggested that the failure mode of specimen mainly depended on the stress gradient. When the stress gradient was lower, progressive and static spalling failure occured and the rockburst grades were relatively slight. On the other hand, shear fractures occurred in rockbursts accounted for increasingly large proportion as the stress gradient increased and the rockburst occurred more intensely and suddenly, the progressive failure process became unconspicuous, and the rockburst grades were moderate or even stronger.

Analysis of a Conducting Crack in an Electrostrictive Ceramic Under Combined Electric and Mechanical Loading

  • Beom, Hyeon-Gyu;Jeong, Kyoung-Moon;Jeong, Eun-Do
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1117-1126
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    • 2002
  • A conducting crack in an electrostrictive ceramic under combined electric and mechanical loading is investigated. Analysis based on linear dielectric model predicts that the surfaces of the crack are not open completely but they are contact near the crack tip. The complete solution for the crack with a contact zone in a linear electrostrictive ceramic under combined electric and mechanical loading is obtained by using the complex variable formula. The asymptotic problems for a semi-infinite crack with a partial opening zone as well as for a fully open semi-infinite crack in a nonlinear electrostrictive ceramic are analyzed in order to investigate the effect of the electrical nonlinearity on the stress intensity factor under small scale nonlinear conditions. Particular attention is devoted to a finite crack in the nonlinear electrostrictive ceramic subjected to combined electric and mechanical loading. The stress intensity factor for the finite crack under small scale nonlinear conditions is obtained from the asymptotic analysis.

조합하중이 작용하는 복합적층 패널의 최소중량화설계 (Minimum Weight Design of Laminated Composite Panel under Combined Loading)

  • 이종선
    • 한국공작기계학회논문집
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2006
  • Minimum weight design of laminated composite panel under combined loading was studied using linear and nonlinear deformation theories and by closed-form analysis and finite difference energy methods. Various buckling load factors are obatined for laminated composite panels with rectangular type longitudinal stiffeners and various longitudinal length to radius ratios, which are made from Carbon/Epoxy USNl25 prepreg and are simply-supported on four edges under combined loading, and then for them, minimum weight design analyses are carried out by the nonlinear search optimizer, ADS. This minimum weight design analyses are constructed with various process such as the simple design process, test simulation process and sensitivity analysis. Subseguently, the buckling mode shapes are obtained by buckling and minimum weight analyses.

합류식 하수관거내 우오수분리벽 설치에 따른 부유물질 제어효과 (Effect of separation walls on reduction of suspended solids loading in a combined sewer system)

  • 권충진;임봉수
    • 상하수도학회지
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.787-796
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate CSOs(combined sewer overflows) control in the combined sewer with/without separation wall. There is the high correlation between sewage velocity and suspended solid(SS) loading in the sewer without it. The SS/BOD ratio was about 3 times in the area with it, while it was about 5 times in the area without it. Therefore, the accumulated deposit within the sewer has influenced high SS loading in the sewer without it. This study showed that the separation wall installed acquired an acceptable efficiency in controlling the accumulated deposit in the combined sewer. According to this study, the BOD control effect was about 38 % in the sewer with the separation wall, whereas it showed about 24 % in the sewer without it. In this case, it was anticipated that the high pollutant control effect would be expected if the separation wall was installed in the combined sewer.

Effect of spiral reinforcement on flexural-shear-torsional seismic behavior of reinforced concrete circular bridge columns

  • Belarbi, Abdeldjelil;Prakash, Suriya;You, Young-Min
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.137-158
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    • 2009
  • This paper investigates the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) circular columns under combined loading including torsion. The main variables considered in this study are the ratio of torsional moment to bending moment (T/M) and the level of detailing for moderate and high seismicity (low and high transverse reinforcement/spiral ratio). This paper presents the results of tests on seven columns subjected to cyclic bending and shear, cyclic torsion, and various levels of combined cyclic bending, shear, and torsion. Columns under combined loading were tested at T/M ratios of 0.2 and 0.4. These columns were reinforced with two spiral reinforcement ratios of 0.73% and 1.32%. Similarly, the columns subjected to pure torsion were tested with two spiral reinforcement ratios of 0.73% and 1.32%. This study examined the significance of proper detailing, and spiral reinforcement ratio and its effect on the torsional resistance under combined loading. The test results demonstrate that both the flexural and torsional capacities are decreased due to the effect of combined loading. Furthermore, they show a significant change in the failure mode and deformation characteristics depending on the spiral reinforcement ratio. The increase in spiral reinforcement ratio also led to significant improvement in strength and ductility.