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Optimum Configuration Method and Livestock Wastewater Loding for Treating Livestock Wastewater in Constructed Wetlands by Natural Purification Method (자연정화공법에 의한 인공습지 축산폐수처리 시스템의 최적 조합방법 및 부하량)

  • Park, Jong-Hwan;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Kim, Ah-Reum;Kim, Sung-Hun;Lee, Seong-Tae;Jeong, Tae-Uk;Choi, Jeong-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Ook;Cho, Ju-Sik;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.278-284
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    • 2011
  • To obtain optimum configuration method and livestock wastewater loading in small-scale livestock wastewater apparatus by natural purification method for treating livestock wastewater, the small-scale livestock wastewater apparatuses were constructed with 9 kinds of combined systems such as aerobic bed (ae)-anaerobic bed (an), ae-ae, ae-anoxic bed (ox), an-an, an-ae, an-ox, ox-ae, ox-an and ox-ox livestock wastewater treatment apparatuses. Under different configuration methods, the removal rate of COD in Ae-Ae and Ae-An livestock wastewater treatment apparatus was higher than that in other configuration methods. The removal rate of T-N in Ae-An livestock wastewater treatment apparatus was higher than that in other configuration methods. Removal rates of SS and T-P were not different regardless of configureation methods in small-scale livestock wastewater treatment apparatus. Under different livestock wastewater loading, the removal rates of pollutants were higher in the order of $50L\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}{\fallingdotseq}100L\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}\;>\;200L\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}$. Therefore, optimum configuration method was Ae-An livestock wastewater treatment apparatus, and optimum livestock wastewater loding was $100L\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}$ in small-scale livestock wastewater treatment apparatus.

Performance Evaluation of Hydrocyclone Filter for Treatment of Micro Particles in Storm Runoff (Hydrocyclone Filter 장치를 이용한 강우유출수내 미세입자 제거특성 분석)

  • Lee, Jun-Ho;Bang, Ki-Woong;Hong, Sung-Chul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1007-1018
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    • 2009
  • Hydrocyclone is widely used in industry, because of its simplicity in design, high capacity, low maintenance and operational cost. The separation action of a hydrocyclone treating particulate slurry is a consequence of the swirling flow that produces a centrifugal force on the fluid and suspended particles. In spite of hydrocyclone have many advantage, the application for treatment of urban stormwater case study were rare. We conducted a laboratory scale study on treatable potential of micro particles using hydrocyclone filter (HCF) that was a combined modified hydrocyclone with perlite filter cartridge. Since it was not easy to use actual storm water in the scaled-down hydraulic model investigations, it was necessary to reproduce ranges of particles sizes with synthetic materials. The synthesized storm runoff was made with water and addition of particles; ion exchange resin, road sediment, commercial area manhole sediment, and silica gel particles. Experimental studies have been carried out about the particle separation performance of HCF-open system and HCF-closed system. The principal structural differences of these HCFs are underflow zone structure and vortex finder. HCF was made of acryl resin with 120 mm of diameter hydrocyclone and 250 mm of diameter filter chamber and overall height of 800 mm. To determine the removal efficiency for various influent concentrations of suspended solids (SS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), tests were performed with different operational conditions. The operated maximum of surface loading rate was about 700 $m^3/m^2$/day for HCF-open system, and 1,200 $m^3/m^2$/day for HCF-closed system. It was found that particle removal efficiency for the HCF-closed system is better than the HCF-open system under same surface loading rate. Results showed that SS removal efficiency with the HCF-closed system improved by about 8~20% compared with HCF-open system. The average removal efficiency difference for HCF-closed system between measurement and CFD particle tracking simulation was about 4%.

Innovative Technology of Landfill Stabilization Combining Leachate Recirculation with Shortcut Biological Nitrogen Removal Technology (침출수 재순환과 생물학적 단축질소제거공정을 병합한 매립지 조기안정화 기술 연구)

  • Shin, Eon-Bin;Chung, Jin-Wook;Bae, Woo-Keun;Kim, Seung-Jin;Baek, Seung-Cheon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1035-1043
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    • 2007
  • A leachate containing an elevated concentration of organic and inorganic compounds has the potential to contaminate adjacent soils and groundwater as well as downgradient areas of the watershed. Moreover high-strength ammonium concentrations in leachate can be toxic to aquatic ecological systems as well as consuming dissolved oxygen, due to ammonium oxidation, and thereby causing eutrophication of the watershed. In response to these concerns landfill stabilization and leachate treatment are required to reduce contaminant loading sand minimize effects on the environment. Compared with other treatment technologies, leachate recirculation technology is most effective for the pre-treatment of leachate and the acceleration of waste stabilization processes in a landfill. However, leachate recirculation that accelerates the decomposition of readily degradable organic matter might also be generating high-strength ammonium in the leachate. Since most landfill leachate having high concentrations of nitrogen also contain insufficient quantities of the organic carbon required for complete denitrification, we combined a shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) technology in order to solve the problem associated with the inability to denitrify the oxidized ammonium due to the lack of carbon sources. The accumulation of nitrite was successfully achieved at a 0.8 ratio of $NO_2^{-}-N/NO_x-N$ in an on-site reactor of the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) type that had operated for six hours in an aeration phase. The $NO_x$-N ratio in leachate produced following SBR treatment was reduced in the landfill and the denitrification mechanism is implied sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification and/or heterotrophic denitrification. The combined leachate recirculation with SBNR proved an effective technology for landfill stabilization and nitrogen removal in leachate.

Assessment of Carsington Dam Failure by Slope Stability and Dam Behavior Analyses (사면안정 해석과 댐 거동분석을 통한 Carsington Dam 파괴의 고찰)

  • 송정락;김성인
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.87-102
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    • 1991
  • It has been reported that the failure of Carsington Dam in Eng1and occured due to the existence of a thin yellow clay layer which was not identified during the design work, and due to pre-existing shears of the clay layer. The slope stability analyses during the design work, which utilized traditional circular arc type failure method and neglected the existence of the clay layer, showed a safety factor of 1.4. However, the post-failure analyses which utilized translational failure mode considering the clay layer and the pre-existing shear deformation revealed the reduction of safety factor to unity. The post-failure analysis assumed 10。 inclination of the horizontal forces onto each slice based on the results of finite element analyses. In this paper, Bishop's simplified method, Janbu method, and Morgenstern-Price method were used for the comparison of both circular and translational failure analysis methods. The effects of the pre-existing shears and subsquent movement were also considered by varying the soil strength parameters and the pore pressure ratio according to the given soi1 parameters. The results showed factor of safefy 1.387 by Bishop's simplified method(STABL) which assumed circular arc failure surface and disregarding yellow clay layer and pre-failure material properties. Also the results showed factor of safety 1.093 by Janbu method(STABL) and 0.969 by Morgenstern-Price method(MALE) which assumed wedge failure surface and considerd yellow clay layer using post failure material properties. In addition, dam behavior was simulated by Cam-Clay model FEM program. The effects of pore pressure changes with loading and consolidation, and strength reduction near or at failure were also considered based on properly assumed stress-strain relationship and pore pressure characteristics. The results showed that the failure was initiated at the yellow clay layer and propagated through other zones by showing that stress and displacement were concentrated at the yel1ow clay layer.

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AN EXPERIMENT ON THE HEARING OF RAINBOW TROUT IN THE INDOOR AQUARIUM IN BUSAN (부산지방에서 실내수조를 이용한 무지개송어의 사육실험)

  • KIM In-Bae;JO Jae Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.267-273
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    • 1977
  • Rainbow trout were reared in a small indoor aquarium which was equipped with a simple recirculating biofilter combined with a small amount of inflowing water for 199 days from April 25 to November 10, 1977 in Busan where very hot summer air temperature is encountered, and results obtained were promissing as following; 1. The aquarium has dimensions of $1m\;\times\;1m\;\times\;67cm(depth)$, and a bottom center sedimentation chamber of conical type through which out-flowing water is pushing fecal matter and other detritus outward. The conical sedimentation chamber measures 20 cm depth and 20 cm diameter at its upper mouth and tapers to the bottom end which is connected to 4 cm diameter draining pipe. The draining pipe goes through under the tank and then is elevated on the side. The water depth was maintained at about 40 cm depth by adjusting the heigh of draining pipe. The filter bed contained 16 l of $3\~5\;mm$ zeolite gravels, and water circulation rate was about 1030 l/hr. 2. Continuous inflowing water resulted in a good elimination of waste materials through its outflowing water thus reducing waste loading in the filter. 3. Mean temperature of water in the rearing aquarium containing about 400 l water volume was maintained at around 20 to $22^{\circ}C$ by 0.59 l/min of the inflowing well water which usually maintained the temperature of $17^{\circ}C$ during the hot summer season from the first of July to the first of October when the 10-days-mean air temperature ranged from $20^{\circ}\;to\;27.3^{\circ}C$ $(total\;mean\;24.6^{\circ}C) $ and under this condition the fish continued normal growth. 4. The production per 1 l/min of inflowing water with this simple biofilteration reached 30 hg. 5. The total cost including all feed and power during this experimental rearing period fell well within the economic establishment and if the feed and filteration system are improved the benefit-cost ratio will be much increased.

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Conceptual Design of the Three Unit Fixed Partial Denture with Glass Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites (Glass fiber 강화 복합레진을 사용한 3본 고정성 국소의치의 개념 설계 연구)

  • Na, Kyoung-Hee;Lee, Kyu-Bok;Jo, Kwang-Hun
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.145-155
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    • 2002
  • The results of the present feasibility study are summarized as follows, 1. The three unit bridge of knitted material and UD fibre reinforcement has both the rigidity and the strength against a vertical occlusal load of 75N. 2. Stress concentration at the junctional area between the bridge and the abutments, i.e. between the pontic and the knitted caps was observed. In the case of the bridge with reinforcement straps, it was partly shown that the concentration problem could be improved by simply increasing the fillet size at the area. Further refining in the surface of the junctional area will be needed to ensure a further improvement in the stress distribution. This will require some trade off in the level of the stress and the available space. A parametric study will help to decide the appropriate size of the fillet. 3. Design refinement is a must to improve the stress distribution and realize the most favourable shape in terms of fabrication. The current straight bar with a constant cross section area can be redesigned to a tapered shape. The curve from the dental arch should also be placed on the pontic design. In accordance with design refinement, the resistance of the bridge frame to other load cases should be evaluated. 4. Although not included in the present feasibility study, it is estimated that bridges of the anterior teeth can be made strong enough with the knitted material without further reinforcement using unidirectional materials. In this regard, a feasibility study on design concepts and stress analysis for 3, 4, 5 unit bridge is suggested. 5. Two types of bridge were analysed in terms of fatigue. The safe life design concept, i.e. fatigue design concept, looks reasonable for the bridge where if cracks should form and propagate there is virtually nothing a dentist to do. The bridge must be designed so that no crack will be initiated during the life span. In the case of crowns, however, if constructed with composite resin with knitted materials, it might be possible to repair them, which in general is impossible for crowns of PFM or of metal. Therefore for composite resin crowns, a damage tolerance design concept can be applied and reasonably higher operational stresses can be allowed. In this case, of course, a periodic inspection program should be established in parallel. 6. Parts of future works in terms of structural viewpoint which need to be addressed are summarized as the following: 1) To develop processing technology to accommodate design concepts; 2) More realistic modelling of the bridge and analysis-geometry and loading condition. Thickness variation in the knitted material, taper in the pontic, design for anterior tooth bridge, the effect of combined loads, etc, will need to be included; 3) To develop appropriate design concepts and design goals for the fibre composite FPD aiming at taking the best advantage of knitted materials, including the damage tolerance design concept; 4) To develop testing method and perform test such as static ultimate load test, fatigue test, repair test, etc, as necessary.

A Study on the Behaviour of Prebored and Precast Steel Pipe Piles from Full-Scale Field Tests and Class-A and C1 Type Numerical Analyses (현장시험과 Class-A 및 C1 type 수치해석을 통한 강관매입말뚝의 거동에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Hee;Jung, Gyoung-Ja;Jeong, Sang-Seom;Jeon, Young-Jin;Kim, Jeong-Sub;Lee, Cheol-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 2017
  • In this study, a series of full-scale field tests on prebored and precast steel pipe piles and the corresponding numerical analysis have been conducted in order to study the characteristics of pile load-settlement relations and shear stress transfer at the pile-soil interface. Dynamic pile load tests (EOID and restrike) have been performed on the piles and the estimated design pile loads from EOID and restrike tests were analysed. Class-A type numerical analyses conducted prior to the pile loading tests were 56~105%, 65~121% and 38~142% respectively of those obtained from static load tests. In addition, design loads estimated from the restrike tests indicate increases of 12~60% compared to those estimated in the EOID tests. The EOID tests show large end bearing capacity while the restrike tests demonstrate increased skin friction. When impact energy is insufficient during the restrike tests, the end bearing capacity may be underestimated. It has been found that total pile capacity would be reasonably estimated if skin friction from the restrike tests and end bearing capacity from the EOID are combined. The load-settlement relation measured from the static pile load tests and estimated from the numerical modelling is in general agreement until yielding occurs, after which results from the numerical analyses substantially deviated away from those obtained from the static load tests. The measured pile behaviour from the static load tests shows somewhat similar behaviour of perfectly-elastic plastic materials after yielding with a small increase in the pile load, while the numerical analyses demonstrates a gradual increase in the pile load associated with strain hardening approaching ultimate pile load. It has been discussed that the load-settlement relation mainly depends upon the stiffness of the ground, whilst the shear transfer mechanism depends on shear strength parameters.

Design and Full Size Flexural Test of Spliced I-type Prestressed Concrete Bridge Girders Having Holes in the Web (분절형 복부 중공 프리스트레스트 콘크리트 교량 거더의 설계 및 실물크기 휨 실험 분석)

  • Han, Man Yop;Choi, Sokhwan;Jeon, Yong-Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.31 no.3A
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    • pp.235-249
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    • 2011
  • A new form of I-type PSC bridge girder, which has hole in the web, is proposed in this paper. Three different concepts were combined and implemented in the design. First of all, a girder was precast at a manufacturing plant as divided pieces and assembled at the construction site using post-tensioning method, and the construction period at the site will be reduced dramatically. In this way, the quality of concrete can be assured at the manufacturing factory and concrete curing can be well controlled, and the spliced girder segments can be moved to the construction site without a transportation problem. Secondly, a numerous number of holes was made in the web of the girder. This reduces the self-weight of the girder. But more important thing related to the holes is that about half of the total anchorages can be moved from the girder ends into individual holes. The magnitude of negative moment developed at girder ends will be reduced. Also, since the longitudinal compressive stresses are reduced at ends, thick end diaphragm is not necessary. Thirdly, Prestressing force was introduced into the member through multiple stages. This concept of multi-stage prestressing method overcomes the prestressing force limit restrained by the allowable stresses at each loading stage, and maximizes the magnitude of applicable prestressing force. It makes the girder longer and shallower. Two 50 meter long full scale girders were fabricated and tested. One of them was non-spliced, or monolithic girder, made as one piece from the beginning, and the other one was assembled using post-tensioning method from five pieces of segments. It was found from the result that monolithic and spliced girder show similar load-deflection relationships and crack patterns. Girders satisfied specific girder design specification in flexural strength, deflection, and live load deflection control limit. Both spliced and monolithic holed web post-tensioned girders can be used to achieve span lengths of more than 50m with the girder height of 2 m.

A Study on the Consumer's Service Quality Perception Based on the Types of Life-style (소비자의 라이프스타일에 따른 서비스품질 지각 차이에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Yoon-Seo;Lee, Seung-In;Choi, In
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.53-67
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    • 2009
  • For the last decades, service quality has been studied as one of the most important tools for a service company to compete with the other companies. Based on these past researches, it has been agreed that the service quality is a basic and powerful tool to create the competitive advantage. Due to similar reason, many service marketing practitioners have been also focused on the service quality to retain the existing consumers and collect the new consumers. However, service quality is subjectively perceived by individual consumers. Consumer evaluation of service quality can be different from each other. Especially consumers with one life-style may evaluate the service quality differently from the consumers with the other life-styles. Therefore we need to know whether there are differences in service quality perception on the categories of life-style. Life-style refers to a distinctive mode of living in its aggregate and broadest sense. It embodies the patterns that were developed and emerged from the dynamics of living in a society. Since the concept of life-style and its relationship to marketing was introduced in 1963 by William Lazer, methods of measuring the life-style and their application have been developed. Life-style has been usually used to segment the marketplace because it offers marketers a unique and important view of the market. When Life-style is combined with clustering methods, life-style segmentation can generate identifiable whole persons rather than isolated fragment. Life-style segmentation begins with people instead of products and classifies them into different life-style types, each characterized by a unique style of living based on a wide range of activities, interests, and opinions(Plummer, 1974). In this study we applies the life-style segmentation based on the AIO(Activities, Interests, and Opinions) to the consumers of the large discount stores. In Korea, the large discount store market has entered into maturity stage so that the market differentiation strategy is becoming a more critical issue to the marketing practitioners. One of the most important tools to differentiate from the competitors in large discount store market is continuously to provide service of better quality than competitors. This study tries to find answers about the following questions: 1) How can we categorize the consumer life-styles in the large discount store? 2) What are the characteristics of the categorized groups? 3) Are there any differences in service quality perception among the consumers with different life-styles 4) Are there any differences in consumer behavior among them in the large discount store? For the purpose, we collected survey data from consumers and analyzed the data with the SPSS package where we had $X^2$-test, factor analysis, ANOVA, MANOVA, and cluster analysis. The survey was made during one month in the April of 2008. Among the collected 306 copies of questionnaires, 281 copies were chosen as the effective samples for empirical analysis except 25 copies with wrong responses. To identify the life-style patterns, we used the measures employed by Kim and Kwon(1999), where 44 items on a seven-point scale were used to measure factors of the life-style patterns. The Principal Component Method was used for factor extraction, and the VARIMAX orthogonal factor rotation was employed. The 7 items showing low factor loading were eliminated. The results of the factor analysis suggested that nine factors of the life-style patterns were identified as follows: 1) the equality-of-sexes and pursuit-of-independence tendency 2) self-management tendency 3) sociable tendency 4) self-display tendency 5) degree of a dilettante life 6) pursuit-of-information tendency 7) bargain hunter tendency 8) TV preference tendency 9) pursuit-of-leisure tendency. Next, after the K-means cluster analysis was performed with nine factors of the life-style patterns, the life-styles of the respondents were classified into four groups which are named as the 'progressive practicality-oriented group', 'positive success-oriented group', 'sociable ostentation-oriented group', 'stable conservation-oriented group'. The analysis results for usage behavior between the market segments showed statistically significant differences in the frequency of usage, duration time in the store, consumer satisfaction, and loyalty. Also, we tried to investigate whether the large discount store consumers differently perceive the quality of service based upon the types of life-style. To measure the service quality of large discount store, we adapted several measurement models measuring the service quality such as SERVPERF, BCP, R-SERVPERF, R-BCP. MANOVA and One-Way ANOVA were performed to confirm the difference in service quality perception based on the market segments. The results have also shown significant differences between life-style types in service quality perception. These findings show that the large discount store marketers should consider consumer life-style as one of the most important market segments for marketing and understand the difference in service quality perception between life-style types. Our findings give important implications to marketers of large discount stores as well as life-style researchers. First, this study showed there were significant differences in consumer's service quality perception and usage behavior between the types of life-style. It provides evidence that the life-style approach can be a important basis in segmenting the large discount store market and will make consumers perceive the service quality high. Second, most previous researches on service quality have been in aggregate level. However, our results imply that the future research on service quality have to focus on segment level.

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Rock Slope Stability Investigations Conducted on the Road Cut in Samrangjin-Miryang Area (삼량진-밀양 지역에 위치한 도로 절취사면에 대한 사면안정 연구)

  • Um Jeong-Gi;Kang Taeseung;Hwang Jin Yeon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.305-317
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    • 2005
  • This study addresses the preliminary results of rock slope stability analyses including hazard assessments for slope failure conducted on the selected sections of rural road cut slope which are about 4 km long. The study area is located in the Mt. Chuntae northeast of Busan and mainly composed of Cretaceous rhyolitic ash-flow tuff', fallout tuff, rhyolitc and andesite. The volcanic rock mass in the area has a number of discontinuities that produce a potentially unstable slope, as the present cut slope is more than 70 degrees in most of the slope sections. Discontinuity geometry data were collected at selected 8 scanline sections and analyzed to estimate important discontinuity geometry parameters to perform rock slope kinematic and block theory analyses. Kinematic analysis for plane sliding has resulted in maximum safe slope angles greater than $65^{\circ}$ for most of the discontinuities. For most of the wedges, maximum safe cut slope angles greater than $45^{\circ}$ were obtained. Maximum safe slope angles greater than 80" were obtained fur most of the discontinuities in the toppling case. The block theory analysis resulted in the identification of potential key blocks (type II) in the SL4, SL5, SL6 and SL8 sections. The chance of sliding taking place through a type ll block under a combined gravitational and external loading is quite high in the investigated area. The results support in-field observations of a potentially unstable slope that could become hazardous under external forces. The results obtained through limit equilibrium slope stability analyses show how a stable slope can become an unstable slope as the water pressure acting on joints increases and how a stable slope under Barton's shear strength criterion can fail as the worst case scenario of using Mohr-Coulomb criterion.